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PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
IS ABOUT
FEEDBACK,
ACCOUNTABILITY,
AND GROWTH.
PERFORMANCE REVIEWS 101
Why should you care about
performance reviews?
Performance Reviews Matter
They drive your strategy.
The performance evaluation tool is your mechanism to communicate, resource, and
evaluate performance of the organization, processes, and people.
If you want a company to be successful you have to execute on strategy.
You need your people to do that.
They need to know what they’re doing.
Without a strategy how do you know what you’re supposed to do?
The other reason is to take care of your people.
It helps people feel engaged.
How can you hold people accountable if they don’t know what they’re supposed to do?
No One Likes Performance Reviews
No one likes
performance reviews.
They tend to look
backward, they’re
corrective in focus, tend
to use demotivating
goals and they’re not
valued by managers.
But getting rid of them is not the
answer. It would be like getting rid of
road signs, the very infrastructure
employees need to travel to success.
The ultimate purpose of a performance
management system is to achieve
organizational objectives.
If you’re going to have effective
performance evaluations, you have to
reach organizational objectives,
realize individual growth, reinforce
company values and retain critical
skills to remain competitive
Why?
Trade Performance Ratings for Guidance
Ratings are Ineffective Instead
For example, if an employee
sets as a goal “to attend an
HR seminar,” ask “Why?”
They might answer to “learn
more about HR practices.”
“Why”? They might say “to
know more about
compensation.” “Why?” “To
update the employee
handbook.” “Why?” “To
reduce turnover.” And finally
“Why?” To which they may
respond “To improve my
ability to attract and retain
talent.”
It sounds corny, but it works.
These types of goals make
people think through what
kind of professional discipline
they are trying to develop
and are not just a series of
tasks.
Why?
Why have performance reviews?
Organizations rely on their human resources/employees to build value
• Making performance management at the individual employee level essential
Research studies consistently show that:
• Employers with performance-enhancing cultures significantly outperform those who don’t
focus on setting performance goals and holding employees accountable for meeting those
objectives
Yes, can by time-consuming, BUT, there is a return on that investment:
•Increased performance
•Increased productivity
•Increased employee morale and quality of work
•Reduction in both turnover and employee relations problems
Why?
Everyone benefits
Organizations can prevent or remedy the majority of performance
problems by ensuring that two-way conversations occur between
managers and employees resulting in a complete understanding of:
◦ what is required
◦ when it is required
◦ how everyone's contribution measures up.
Everyone benefits:
◦ The employee knows exactly where he or she stands in relation to achieving goals
and reaching performance milestones that contribute to career development,
promotions and more.
◦ The manager gains insights into the motivations of the people working for him or
her through the required conversations.
◦ The organization retains motivated employees who understand their role and the
roles of others in contributing to the overall success of the organization.
Why?
Identifying business challenges that
performance management helps to address
Why?
Performance Management
Objectives
Why?
Performance Management Benefits
Why?
Best practices
Set Benchmarks
Early
Job description establishes benchmarks for evaluation and should outline the position's responsibilities and may
also detail the competencies (includes skills, knowledge, and behavior) needed or how tasks are to be completed.
Be specific. If the goal, say, is being a strong leader, "define what competencies a leader needs to have -- perhaps
transferring skills, mentoring, and then demonstrating that the mentee has learned those new skills. If the goal is
unrealistic, or the employee can't directly impact the outcome, then the process will fail
Develop the
process
A performance review must not be an isolated event but should cap a year of regular meetings. There should be no
surprises when you sit down with employees at review time. It's an opportunity to discuss what's working, what
needs to be improved, and what needs to be changed.
The system ultimately has to reflect your culture. For example, if an organization has an informal structure and
hires employees who embody that philosophy, a formal and complicated appraisal process is less likely to be taken
seriously.
Hold an
Effective
Meeting
Usually requires 40 minutes to one hour. Give the employee your full attention – no interruptions. Be positive. Be
honest, but tactful. Focus on specific behaviors. Avoid criticizing employee – instead recommend alternative ways
to handle the situations involved. Close with setting goals and expectations for the year ahead. Employee should
leave feeling energized, appreciated for their strengths, valued for their contributions, and that their boss sees
their potential.
Common
mistakes for
reviewers
Contrast effect: Comparing one employee with another, rather than against performance benchmarks or other criteria
Halo (or horn) effect: Allowing performance in one or two areas to color the overall review unfairly
Similar-to-me effect: Being more generous to those with similar backgrounds or beliefs
Central tendency: Giving everyone an average score regardless of performance
Leniency/desire to please: Granting a better review than warranted in order to avoid confrontation
Recency effect: Giving excessive weight to the most recent part of the evaluation period
First-impression bias: Allowing your initial judgments to color all subsequent information
Rater bias: Allowing personal biases to infect the evaluation
How?
Three Basic Elements
•Establishes objectives to be
achieved over a period of time
•Becomes performance criteria an
employee will be evaluated against
•Aligned with organizational goals
(ideally)
Goal Setting
•Process of assessing an employee’s
progress toward goals
•Strengths and weaknesses of all
employees are recorded regularly so
that organization can make
informed and accurate decisions
regarding employees
Performance
Review •Ideal for employees who are new to
a role, or who are unclear on
performance expectation, or for
employees who are regularly not
meeting performance expectations
•Document helps facilitate
performance discussions, records
areas of concern and ways to
correct them, and serves as legal
and decision making documentation
Performance
Improvement
Process
How?
Goal Setting Explained
Job description goals.
Goals may be based on the achievement of a pre-established set of job duties from the description. These goals are expected to be
accomplished continuously until the job description changes. Examples might be financial, customer oriented, or process- or
system-oriented goals.
Project goals.
Goals may be based on achievement of a project objective. These goals may be set for a single year and changed as projects are
completed. Job description and project goals are "what" needs to be accomplished.
Behavioral goals.
Goals may be based on certain behaviors. These goals are expected to be accomplished continuously. Behavioral goals are "how"
things need to be accomplished.
Stretch goals.
Goals that are especially challenging to reach are sometimes referred to as stretch goals. Stretch goals are usually used to expand
the knowledge, skills and abilities of high-potential employees.
Goals should be:
SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound)
Participative (developed by both manager and individual)
Documented and accessible
How?
Manager reviews Direct Reports
Rate
performance on
goals and
demonstration
of competencies
Give employee
feedback on
their
performance
Establish goals
for the
employee – align
them with the
organization’s
goals
Create a
development
plan for the year
Discuss
performance
expectations
Discuss the
employee’s
career
aspirations
Help the
employee
develop and
progress
How?
Employee Self-Appraisals
Employee
assesses their
own
performance
Drafts goals and
identifies
desired learning
activities
Shares with
manager before
manager writes
their review
Helps to engage
employee in
their
performance and
development
How?
Self-Appraisal Guidance
You may be under the impression that it’s
your manager who needs to remember all
the great accomplishments and successes
you had throughout the year (and the times
you may have messed up, too). However,
you're also accountable for reporting on
your successes (and failures).
Here’s why: Managers aren’t superheroes
who can see and remember every little
thing you did in the year.
Remind your manager of your
accomplishments, development and
challenges. Identify where there may be
discrepancies between your and your
manager’s view of your performance. Not
only does it allow your manager to view
performance from your perspective, it also
helps your manager understand what you
see as your strengths and weaknesses.
Share your successes. Look at
projects you’ve completed,
initiatives you’ve launched,
feedback you’ve received
through the year.
Share what you’ve learned.
How have you enhanced your
skills – describe the things
you’ve mastered and how
you’ve applied these new
skills to your job and how they
support the organization.
Share your challenges. Be
candid about your challenges,
how you’ve overcome them,
or the steps you plan to take
in the year ahead to address
them.
Be honest. Take time to do it
well. Give yourself enough
time to reflect.
How?
360 / Multi-rater assessments
• Feedback comes from peers, direct reports, other managers, and customers
(internal and external)360
• Helps the employee and manager get a broader, fairer assessment of an employee’s
performance and development needsBroad & Fair Assessment
• Reflect multiple perspectives and interactions, providing a holistic view of
performanceHolistic View
• Helpful when manager and employee are not co-located, work different shifts, or
don’t have a tight working relationship because of work logistics or personality
Remedies lack of ongoing knowledge of
employee’s performance
• Feedback from assessors remains anonymous
Anonymous
• Both employee and supervisor can choose assessors
Assessors chosen and selected
• Commonly used to deliver upward performance feedback to senior executives who
don’t have a manager providing their reviewHelpful for senior leaders
How?
Process
Self-Appraisal
Time for employee to reflect on
performance
Fill out review sheet
Return to manager
Manager Review
Manager or Supervisor reflects on
employee’s performance
Fills out review sheet
Check-In Meeting
Two-way conversation
How are you doing?
Where do you want to go?
How can we help you get there?
Agree on goals for year ahead.
How?
Ideally,
performance
management is a
process that
happens year-
round.
When?
When?

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Performance reviews 101

  • 2. Why should you care about performance reviews? Performance Reviews Matter They drive your strategy. The performance evaluation tool is your mechanism to communicate, resource, and evaluate performance of the organization, processes, and people. If you want a company to be successful you have to execute on strategy. You need your people to do that. They need to know what they’re doing. Without a strategy how do you know what you’re supposed to do? The other reason is to take care of your people. It helps people feel engaged. How can you hold people accountable if they don’t know what they’re supposed to do?
  • 3. No One Likes Performance Reviews No one likes performance reviews. They tend to look backward, they’re corrective in focus, tend to use demotivating goals and they’re not valued by managers. But getting rid of them is not the answer. It would be like getting rid of road signs, the very infrastructure employees need to travel to success. The ultimate purpose of a performance management system is to achieve organizational objectives. If you’re going to have effective performance evaluations, you have to reach organizational objectives, realize individual growth, reinforce company values and retain critical skills to remain competitive Why?
  • 4. Trade Performance Ratings for Guidance Ratings are Ineffective Instead For example, if an employee sets as a goal “to attend an HR seminar,” ask “Why?” They might answer to “learn more about HR practices.” “Why”? They might say “to know more about compensation.” “Why?” “To update the employee handbook.” “Why?” “To reduce turnover.” And finally “Why?” To which they may respond “To improve my ability to attract and retain talent.” It sounds corny, but it works. These types of goals make people think through what kind of professional discipline they are trying to develop and are not just a series of tasks. Why?
  • 5. Why have performance reviews? Organizations rely on their human resources/employees to build value • Making performance management at the individual employee level essential Research studies consistently show that: • Employers with performance-enhancing cultures significantly outperform those who don’t focus on setting performance goals and holding employees accountable for meeting those objectives Yes, can by time-consuming, BUT, there is a return on that investment: •Increased performance •Increased productivity •Increased employee morale and quality of work •Reduction in both turnover and employee relations problems Why?
  • 6. Everyone benefits Organizations can prevent or remedy the majority of performance problems by ensuring that two-way conversations occur between managers and employees resulting in a complete understanding of: ◦ what is required ◦ when it is required ◦ how everyone's contribution measures up. Everyone benefits: ◦ The employee knows exactly where he or she stands in relation to achieving goals and reaching performance milestones that contribute to career development, promotions and more. ◦ The manager gains insights into the motivations of the people working for him or her through the required conversations. ◦ The organization retains motivated employees who understand their role and the roles of others in contributing to the overall success of the organization. Why?
  • 7. Identifying business challenges that performance management helps to address Why?
  • 10. Best practices Set Benchmarks Early Job description establishes benchmarks for evaluation and should outline the position's responsibilities and may also detail the competencies (includes skills, knowledge, and behavior) needed or how tasks are to be completed. Be specific. If the goal, say, is being a strong leader, "define what competencies a leader needs to have -- perhaps transferring skills, mentoring, and then demonstrating that the mentee has learned those new skills. If the goal is unrealistic, or the employee can't directly impact the outcome, then the process will fail Develop the process A performance review must not be an isolated event but should cap a year of regular meetings. There should be no surprises when you sit down with employees at review time. It's an opportunity to discuss what's working, what needs to be improved, and what needs to be changed. The system ultimately has to reflect your culture. For example, if an organization has an informal structure and hires employees who embody that philosophy, a formal and complicated appraisal process is less likely to be taken seriously. Hold an Effective Meeting Usually requires 40 minutes to one hour. Give the employee your full attention – no interruptions. Be positive. Be honest, but tactful. Focus on specific behaviors. Avoid criticizing employee – instead recommend alternative ways to handle the situations involved. Close with setting goals and expectations for the year ahead. Employee should leave feeling energized, appreciated for their strengths, valued for their contributions, and that their boss sees their potential. Common mistakes for reviewers Contrast effect: Comparing one employee with another, rather than against performance benchmarks or other criteria Halo (or horn) effect: Allowing performance in one or two areas to color the overall review unfairly Similar-to-me effect: Being more generous to those with similar backgrounds or beliefs Central tendency: Giving everyone an average score regardless of performance Leniency/desire to please: Granting a better review than warranted in order to avoid confrontation Recency effect: Giving excessive weight to the most recent part of the evaluation period First-impression bias: Allowing your initial judgments to color all subsequent information Rater bias: Allowing personal biases to infect the evaluation How?
  • 11. Three Basic Elements •Establishes objectives to be achieved over a period of time •Becomes performance criteria an employee will be evaluated against •Aligned with organizational goals (ideally) Goal Setting •Process of assessing an employee’s progress toward goals •Strengths and weaknesses of all employees are recorded regularly so that organization can make informed and accurate decisions regarding employees Performance Review •Ideal for employees who are new to a role, or who are unclear on performance expectation, or for employees who are regularly not meeting performance expectations •Document helps facilitate performance discussions, records areas of concern and ways to correct them, and serves as legal and decision making documentation Performance Improvement Process How?
  • 12. Goal Setting Explained Job description goals. Goals may be based on the achievement of a pre-established set of job duties from the description. These goals are expected to be accomplished continuously until the job description changes. Examples might be financial, customer oriented, or process- or system-oriented goals. Project goals. Goals may be based on achievement of a project objective. These goals may be set for a single year and changed as projects are completed. Job description and project goals are "what" needs to be accomplished. Behavioral goals. Goals may be based on certain behaviors. These goals are expected to be accomplished continuously. Behavioral goals are "how" things need to be accomplished. Stretch goals. Goals that are especially challenging to reach are sometimes referred to as stretch goals. Stretch goals are usually used to expand the knowledge, skills and abilities of high-potential employees. Goals should be: SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound) Participative (developed by both manager and individual) Documented and accessible How?
  • 13. Manager reviews Direct Reports Rate performance on goals and demonstration of competencies Give employee feedback on their performance Establish goals for the employee – align them with the organization’s goals Create a development plan for the year Discuss performance expectations Discuss the employee’s career aspirations Help the employee develop and progress How?
  • 14. Employee Self-Appraisals Employee assesses their own performance Drafts goals and identifies desired learning activities Shares with manager before manager writes their review Helps to engage employee in their performance and development How?
  • 15. Self-Appraisal Guidance You may be under the impression that it’s your manager who needs to remember all the great accomplishments and successes you had throughout the year (and the times you may have messed up, too). However, you're also accountable for reporting on your successes (and failures). Here’s why: Managers aren’t superheroes who can see and remember every little thing you did in the year. Remind your manager of your accomplishments, development and challenges. Identify where there may be discrepancies between your and your manager’s view of your performance. Not only does it allow your manager to view performance from your perspective, it also helps your manager understand what you see as your strengths and weaknesses. Share your successes. Look at projects you’ve completed, initiatives you’ve launched, feedback you’ve received through the year. Share what you’ve learned. How have you enhanced your skills – describe the things you’ve mastered and how you’ve applied these new skills to your job and how they support the organization. Share your challenges. Be candid about your challenges, how you’ve overcome them, or the steps you plan to take in the year ahead to address them. Be honest. Take time to do it well. Give yourself enough time to reflect. How?
  • 16. 360 / Multi-rater assessments • Feedback comes from peers, direct reports, other managers, and customers (internal and external)360 • Helps the employee and manager get a broader, fairer assessment of an employee’s performance and development needsBroad & Fair Assessment • Reflect multiple perspectives and interactions, providing a holistic view of performanceHolistic View • Helpful when manager and employee are not co-located, work different shifts, or don’t have a tight working relationship because of work logistics or personality Remedies lack of ongoing knowledge of employee’s performance • Feedback from assessors remains anonymous Anonymous • Both employee and supervisor can choose assessors Assessors chosen and selected • Commonly used to deliver upward performance feedback to senior executives who don’t have a manager providing their reviewHelpful for senior leaders How?
  • 17. Process Self-Appraisal Time for employee to reflect on performance Fill out review sheet Return to manager Manager Review Manager or Supervisor reflects on employee’s performance Fills out review sheet Check-In Meeting Two-way conversation How are you doing? Where do you want to go? How can we help you get there? Agree on goals for year ahead. How?
  • 18. Ideally, performance management is a process that happens year- round. When? When?

Editor's Notes

  1. https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/talent-acquisition/Pages/Moulton-Sparks-2015-Talent-Management-Conference.aspx “Saying you didn’t meet expectations doesn’t help to change your performance to actually get there. What you need is something to show where you are now and where you want to go and the guidance in between.” That concept—Now Plus Next—is what he said his company uses in reviews. Moulton explained that HR can create two boxes, one for “Now” and one for “Next,” under each performance area being measured, such as job performance, teamwork or supervisory skills. Rather than use ratings, the Now box, or demonstrated competencies, would define what the employee did in relation to a certain behavior, for example: “Pat demonstrated an ability for improving customer service by traveling to their offices to support new product installation, which resulted in the customer expressing appreciation,” Sparks said. The Next box, or competencies for development, would show how Pat can improve her ability to service customers by documenting customer service guidance during the installation process, and the result could be shared with colleagues to improve collective service. This method moves from ratings to describing and guiding, Sparks said. “Guidance is much more meaningful than receiving a 3.5,” he added. “Now Plus Next reinforces desired behaviors, addresses obstacles and lets people build on their talents.” You’re no longer comparing people to other people, Moulton said. “You’re comparing someone to an internal standard, which takes away that competitive behavior which can work against an organization.” Now Plus Next also gets away from trying to correct people. “Because how often is that successful?” Moulton asked. Set Discipline Goals There are a lot of bad goals out there. “Attend a training on human resources,” “update the employee handbook” and “improve employee turnover” are all poor goals, Moulton said. She explained that effective goals must be discipline goals. These goals focus on the ends, not the means, connect to a deeper purpose and guide professional development. When an employee comes up with a goal, ask “Why?” five times, said Sparks. For example, if an employee sets as a goal “to attend an HR seminar,” ask “Why?” They might answer to “learn more about HR practices.” “Why”? They might say “to know more about compensation.” “Why?” “To update the employee handbook.” “Why?” “To reduce turnover.” And finally “Why?” To which they may respond “To improve my ability to attract and retain talent.” “It sounds corny, but it works,” Sparks said. These types of goals make people think through what kind of professional discipline they are trying to develop and are not just a series of tasks, he said. “Discipline goals will emerge out of the Now Plus Next boxes,” Moulton added. She recommended only developing two or three goals per employee per year. “If you have six or more goals for someone, it’s more than likely that they are not goals, but tasks,” she said. Link Goals to Business Strategy Ultimately, the individual’s goals must be linked to department plans and organizational strategy. “You have to make sure that you have alignment with the individual’s professional growth, which in turn helps the department achieve its objectives, which in turn helps the organization be successful,” Moulton said. You must first have a clearly articulated organizational strategy map in order for employees to be able to relate their goals to the larger mission of the company, said Sparks. “Linked goals connect every employee to the mission, make strategic planning real and not just a document to look at once a year, and support the collective progress of all employees at an organization,” said Moulton.
  2. https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/talent-acquisition/Pages/Moulton-Sparks-2015-Talent-Management-Conference.aspx “Saying you didn’t meet expectations doesn’t help to change your performance to actually get there. What you need is something to show where you are now and where you want to go and the guidance in between.” That concept—Now Plus Next—is what he said his company uses in reviews. Moulton explained that HR can create two boxes, one for “Now” and one for “Next,” under each performance area being measured, such as job performance, teamwork or supervisory skills. Rather than use ratings, the Now box, or demonstrated competencies, would define what the employee did in relation to a certain behavior, for example: “Pat demonstrated an ability for improving customer service by traveling to their offices to support new product installation, which resulted in the customer expressing appreciation,” Sparks said. The Next box, or competencies for development, would show how Pat can improve her ability to service customers by documenting customer service guidance during the installation process, and the result could be shared with colleagues to improve collective service. This method moves from ratings to describing and guiding, Sparks said. “Guidance is much more meaningful than receiving a 3.5,” he added. “Now Plus Next reinforces desired behaviors, addresses obstacles and lets people build on their talents.” You’re no longer comparing people to other people, Moulton said. “You’re comparing someone to an internal standard, which takes away that competitive behavior which can work against an organization.” Now Plus Next also gets away from trying to correct people. “Because how often is that successful?” Moulton asked. Set Discipline Goals There are a lot of bad goals out there. “Attend a training on human resources,” “update the employee handbook” and “improve employee turnover” are all poor goals, Moulton said. She explained that effective goals must be discipline goals. These goals focus on the ends, not the means, connect to a deeper purpose and guide professional development. When an employee comes up with a goal, ask “Why?” five times, said Sparks. For example, if an employee sets as a goal “to attend an HR seminar,” ask “Why?” They might answer to “learn more about HR practices.” “Why”? They might say “to know more about compensation.” “Why?” “To update the employee handbook.” “Why?” “To reduce turnover.” And finally “Why?” To which they may respond “To improve my ability to attract and retain talent.” “It sounds corny, but it works,” Sparks said. These types of goals make people think through what kind of professional discipline they are trying to develop and are not just a series of tasks, he said. “Discipline goals will emerge out of the Now Plus Next boxes,” Moulton added. She recommended only developing two or three goals per employee per year. “If you have six or more goals for someone, it’s more than likely that they are not goals, but tasks,” she said. Link Goals to Business Strategy Ultimately, the individual’s goals must be linked to department plans and organizational strategy. “You have to make sure that you have alignment with the individual’s professional growth, which in turn helps the department achieve its objectives, which in turn helps the organization be successful,” Moulton said. You must first have a clearly articulated organizational strategy map in order for employees to be able to relate their goals to the larger mission of the company, said Sparks. “Linked goals connect every employee to the mission, make strategic planning real and not just a document to look at once a year, and support the collective progress of all employees at an organization,” said Moulton.
  3. Business Case for Performance Management Organizations rely heavily on their human resources to build value. Consequently, performance management at the individual employee level is essential. Research studies have consistently shown that employers with performance-enhancing cultures significantly outperformed those that did not focus on setting performance goals and holding employees accountable for meeting those objectives. See Building a High-Performance Culture. The performance management process is often criticized as overly time-consuming, but the payoff—in terms of increased performance, productivity, employee morale and quality of work, plus a reduction in both turnover and employee relations problems—is well worth the investment. See Prediction: Redesign of Performance Management. HR's Role The HR department is key to efficient administration of the performance management system. Having an educated HR team that is well prepared to train the organization's managers and to assist them when issues arise is critical. Organizations can prevent or remedy the majority of performance problems by ensuring that two-way conversations occur between managers and employees, resulting in a complete understanding of what is required, when it is required and how everyone's contribution measures up. Everyone benefits: The employee knows exactly where he or she stands in relation to achieving goals and reaching performance milestones that contribute to career development, promotions and more. The manager gains insights into the motivations of the people working for him or her through the required conversations. The organization retains motivated employees who understand their role and the roles of others in contributing to the overall success of the organization.
  4. Business Case for Performance Management Organizations rely heavily on their human resources to build value. Consequently, performance management at the individual employee level is essential. Research studies have consistently shown that employers with performance-enhancing cultures significantly outperformed those that did not focus on setting performance goals and holding employees accountable for meeting those objectives. See Building a High-Performance Culture. The performance management process is often criticized as overly time-consuming, but the payoff—in terms of increased performance, productivity, employee morale and quality of work, plus a reduction in both turnover and employee relations problems—is well worth the investment. See Prediction: Redesign of Performance Management. HR's Role The HR department is key to efficient administration of the performance management system. Having an educated HR team that is well prepared to train the organization's managers and to assist them when issues arise is critical. Organizations can prevent or remedy the majority of performance problems by ensuring that two-way conversations occur between managers and employees, resulting in a complete understanding of what is required, when it is required and how everyone's contribution measures up. Everyone benefits: The employee knows exactly where he or she stands in relation to achieving goals and reaching performance milestones that contribute to career development, promotions and more. The manager gains insights into the motivations of the people working for him or her through the required conversations. The organization retains motivated employees who understand their role and the roles of others in contributing to the overall success of the organization.
  5. Employees may not be focused on organizational priorities; wasting effort No way to verify the organization has the competencies it needs to succeed No way to identify employee performance issues and verify that managers are dealing with them Managers are failing to deal with employee performance issues, hurting productivity and engagement No way to identify individual and organizational learning needs High employee turnover, especially among top performers No way to identify top performers Low employee satisfaction Low employee engagement Lack of formal performance documentation required for accreditation (e.g. The Joint Commission, ISO 9001) Lack of formal performance documentation creating risks for litigation and wrongful dismissals The organization lacks the information it needs to do effective workforce planning HR and managers are spending too much tome on the administration of performance management paperwork No effective way to track process adoption or performance review completion No effective way to aggregate and analyze the data gathered during the performance review process Performance management is treated as a one-time event (review), not a year-round activity
  6. Set Benchmarks Early Job description establishes benchmarks for evaluation and should outline the position's responsibilities and may also detail the competencies (includes skills, knowledge, and behavior) needed or how tasks are to be completed. Be specific. If the goal, say, is being a strong leader, "define what competencies a leader needs to have -- perhaps transferring skills, mentoring, and then demonstrating that the mentee has learned those new skills. If the goal is unrealistic, or the employee can't directly impact the outcome, then the process will fail Make it personal. The most thoughtful companies tweak some of the goals so that they also further the employee's personal development. People have different ambitions: Some want to move into management; others want to hone a particular skill; still others see themselves as entrepreneurs, willing to take risks as they develop new ideas. "For someone who wants to be a manager, we're going to set goals that include taking on more responsibility," Cohen says. For a specialist, "we'll ask, 'What are you doing to learn more about your field? How are you developing your depth of knowledge?' " Performance Pay Experts and CEOs alike love the concept of pay for performance, but making the most of such a system requires some finesse. If you have established a robust process for reviewing your employees, you have already tackled the hardest part of performance-based raises and bonuses. But here are some additional tips: Don't surprise anyone. If your employees' raises or bonuses depend on hitting certain performance benchmarks, communicate that well in advance. It creates an environment of fairness, and you will be more likely to get the performance you want. And, of course, if you tell them you are going to tie pay to performance, be sure to follow through. Start with raises. Rick Galbreath recommends mastering the performance-review process and merit raises before moving on to incentive bonuses, which are harder to calibrate with any precision. Be a little extreme. The greater the disparity between what top performers and underperformers get, the more effective the system. More companies are withholding merit raises, bonuses, and even cost-of-living increases to those who score poorly. But that rebuke should come with a carrot: a remedial period followed by reevaluation. If the employee improves, he or she gets a raise after all.   Rise or fall together. Rewarding individual efforts is essential, but it's also worth tying a portion of the bonus pool to the overall profitability of the company. That puts everyone on the same team; prevents workers from focusing on their own tasks at the expense of the bigger picture; and inspires people to contribute good ideas, even outside the scope of their jobs. Rater Wrongs HR pros speak a language all their own. Here's how they describe some common mistakes you can make while reviewing the troops: Contrast effect: Comparing one employee with another, rather than against performance benchmarks or other criteria Halo (or horn) effect: Allowing performance in one or two areas to color the overall review unfairly Similar-to-me effect: Being more generous to those with similar backgrounds or beliefs Central tendency: Giving everyone an average score regardless of performance Leniency/desire to please: Granting a better review than warranted in order to avoid confrontation Recency effect: Giving excessive weight to the most recent part of the evaluation period First-impression bias: Allowing your initial judgments to color all subsequent information Rater bias: Allowing personal biases to infect the evaluation
  7. Types of Goals: Job description goals.  Goals may be based on the achievement of a pre-established set of job duties from the description. These goals are expected to be accomplished continuously until the job description changes. Examples might be financial, customer oriented, or process- or system-oriented goals. Project goals. Goals may be based on achievement of a project objective. These goals may be set for a single year and changed as projects are completed. Job description and project goals are "what" needs to be accomplished.  Behavioral goals. Goals may be based on certain behaviors. These goals are expected to be accomplished continuously. Behavioral goals are "how" things need to be accomplished. Stretch goals. Goals that are especially challenging to reach are sometimes referred to as stretch goals. Stretch goals are usually used to expand the knowledge, skills and abilities of high-potential employees.  In addition to focusing only on a few major goals during a single year, the goals should be SMART: Specific, clear and understandable. Measurable, verifiable and result-oriented. Attainable, yet sufficiently challenging. Relevant to the mission of the department or organization. Time-bound with a schedule and specific milestones. Finally, effective goals should be participative. Both manager and individual should be involved in the development of goals to ensure understanding and commitment. Goals should be documented. Whether documented in electronic or hard copy format, goals need to be stored accurately, be available for review, and be managed on a continuous basis and acknowledged. Goals should be flexible enough to account for changing conditions. See Employee-Crafted Goals Pay Off. Examples of effective goals include statements such as these: Increase revenue by 10 percent during the first quarter. Reduce office expenses by 25 percent as compared with the prior year's actual costs. Decrease employee absences from three days to one day per quarter.  Element two: performance review  Performance review is the process of assessing an employee's progress toward goals. Strengths and weaknesses of all employees are recorded regularly so that the organization can make informed and accurate decisions regarding an employee's contribution, career development, training needs, promotional opportunities, pay increases and other topics. Performance review and evaluation involve the objective and subjective consideration of how to measure and evaluate employee performance results.  Elements of the review process are applicable across industry sectors and organizations. However, the structure and tools used by each specific organization may vary. The performance review process focuses on how each review is implemented.  Minimum standards for an effective performance review process include:  A feedback process that is continuous and timely throughout the review period so that employees know how they are doing and what is expected.  A dialogue that includes performance feedback measured against clear and specific goals and expectations established at the outset of the performance management cycle.  A process for acknowledging the outcomes of the performance review process that is documented between the manager and the employee.  A two-way individual conversation between the manager and the employee (preferably face-to-face) at least once a year.  Regardless of the type or format of the selected method to review an employee's behavioral and work expectations, clear definitions of each level of performance must be provided. Raters should be provided with examples of behaviors, skills, measurements and other performance factors to assist them in making a decision.  Performance Management: Which performance rating scale is best, and what should an employer consider in adopting a performance rating scale?  'Weighty' Performance Appraisal Dilemmas  To Rate or Not to Rate? That Isn't the (Right) Question  Trade Performance Ratings for Guidance; Link Goals to Strategy  Element three: performance improvement plan standard The uses of a performance improvement plan (PIP) may range from employees who may be new to a role or who are unclear on performance expectations to employees who are regularly not meeting performance expectations and whose performance may necessitate the beginning of a progressive discipline process regarding the performance level.  The document used to guide the process is a critical tool as it helps facilitate performance discussions, records areas of concern and ways to correct them, and serves as legal and decision-making documentation. The format of the PIP will vary by employer and should include the following components: Employee information. Relevant dates. Description of performance discrepancy/gap. Description of expected performance. Description of actual performance. Description of consequences. Plan of action. Signatures of the manager and the employee. Evaluation of plan of action and overall performance improvement plan.  Two dates must be included on the PIP: the date on which the PIP is initiated and the duration of the PIP. The plan should also note the dates or frequency of progress reviews during the duration of the plan—such as once a day or once a week.  The PIP should identify the specific facts about performance results or behavioral issues that describe and demonstrate the performance discrepancy. The information should be specific and factual (i.e., not hearsay, opinions, generalized or vague references).  A statement regarding expectations for sustained or consistent performance should be included to ensure that true performance improvement has been attained. This documentation may also prove helpful in protecting the employer should performance fail to meet expectations and further disciplinary action needs to be taken. If the PIP is part of a progressive discipline process that may eventually lead to termination of employment, language in the document should specify that termination is a possible consequence of failure to meet expectations and that it may occur with or without the employee's signature on the PIP. The employee should clearly understand the consequences of not meeting the goals outlined in the PIP. See How to Establish a Performance Improvement Plan. 
  8. Types of Goals: Job description goals.  Goals may be based on the achievement of a pre-established set of job duties from the description. These goals are expected to be accomplished continuously until the job description changes. Examples might be financial, customer oriented, or process- or system-oriented goals. Project goals. Goals may be based on achievement of a project objective. These goals may be set for a single year and changed as projects are completed. Job description and project goals are "what" needs to be accomplished.  Behavioral goals. Goals may be based on certain behaviors. These goals are expected to be accomplished continuously. Behavioral goals are "how" things need to be accomplished. Stretch goals. Goals that are especially challenging to reach are sometimes referred to as stretch goals. Stretch goals are usually used to expand the knowledge, skills and abilities of high-potential employees.  In addition to focusing only on a few major goals during a single year, the goals should be SMART: Specific, clear and understandable. Measurable, verifiable and result-oriented. Attainable, yet sufficiently challenging. Relevant to the mission of the department or organization. Time-bound with a schedule and specific milestones. Finally, effective goals should be participative. Both manager and individual should be involved in the development of goals to ensure understanding and commitment. Goals should be documented. Whether documented in electronic or hard copy format, goals need to be stored accurately, be available for review, and be managed on a continuous basis and acknowledged. Goals should be flexible enough to account for changing conditions. See Employee-Crafted Goals Pay Off. Examples of effective goals include statements such as these: Increase revenue by 10 percent during the first quarter. Reduce office expenses by 25 percent as compared with the prior year's actual costs. Decrease employee absences from three days to one day per quarter.  Element two: performance review  Performance review is the process of assessing an employee's progress toward goals. Strengths and weaknesses of all employees are recorded regularly so that the organization can make informed and accurate decisions regarding an employee's contribution, career development, training needs, promotional opportunities, pay increases and other topics. Performance review and evaluation involve the objective and subjective consideration of how to measure and evaluate employee performance results.  Elements of the review process are applicable across industry sectors and organizations. However, the structure and tools used by each specific organization may vary. The performance review process focuses on how each review is implemented.  Minimum standards for an effective performance review process include:  A feedback process that is continuous and timely throughout the review period so that employees know how they are doing and what is expected.  A dialogue that includes performance feedback measured against clear and specific goals and expectations established at the outset of the performance management cycle.  A process for acknowledging the outcomes of the performance review process that is documented between the manager and the employee.  A two-way individual conversation between the manager and the employee (preferably face-to-face) at least once a year.  Regardless of the type or format of the selected method to review an employee's behavioral and work expectations, clear definitions of each level of performance must be provided. Raters should be provided with examples of behaviors, skills, measurements and other performance factors to assist them in making a decision.  Performance Management: Which performance rating scale is best, and what should an employer consider in adopting a performance rating scale?  'Weighty' Performance Appraisal Dilemmas  To Rate or Not to Rate? That Isn't the (Right) Question  Trade Performance Ratings for Guidance; Link Goals to Strategy  Element three: performance improvement plan standard The uses of a performance improvement plan (PIP) may range from employees who may be new to a role or who are unclear on performance expectations to employees who are regularly not meeting performance expectations and whose performance may necessitate the beginning of a progressive discipline process regarding the performance level.  The document used to guide the process is a critical tool as it helps facilitate performance discussions, records areas of concern and ways to correct them, and serves as legal and decision-making documentation. The format of the PIP will vary by employer and should include the following components: Employee information. Relevant dates. Description of performance discrepancy/gap. Description of expected performance. Description of actual performance. Description of consequences. Plan of action. Signatures of the manager and the employee. Evaluation of plan of action and overall performance improvement plan.  Two dates must be included on the PIP: the date on which the PIP is initiated and the duration of the PIP. The plan should also note the dates or frequency of progress reviews during the duration of the plan—such as once a day or once a week.  The PIP should identify the specific facts about performance results or behavioral issues that describe and demonstrate the performance discrepancy. The information should be specific and factual (i.e., not hearsay, opinions, generalized or vague references).  A statement regarding expectations for sustained or consistent performance should be included to ensure that true performance improvement has been attained. This documentation may also prove helpful in protecting the employer should performance fail to meet expectations and further disciplinary action needs to be taken. If the PIP is part of a progressive discipline process that may eventually lead to termination of employment, language in the document should specify that termination is a possible consequence of failure to meet expectations and that it may occur with or without the employee's signature on the PIP. The employee should clearly understand the consequences of not meeting the goals outlined in the PIP. See How to Establish a Performance Improvement Plan. 
  9. The manager could use this opportunity to discuss the employee’s career aspirations. This kind of discussion can have an impact on goals and development plans to help the employee develop and progress. The interval or frequency of manager reviews can vary – quarterly, semi-annually, annually. However, you should conduct them at least once per year. Choose what works best for your organization and its business environment. For new employees, you might consider having managers conduct reviews after 30, 60, and 90 days to help onboard the employee and set them up for success.
  10. You may be under the impression that it’s your manager who needs to remember all the great accomplishments and successes you had throughout the year (and the times you may have messed up, too). However, you're also accountable for reporting on your successes (and failures). Here’s why: Managers aren’t superheroes who can see and remember every little thing you did in the year. For this reason the self-appraisal is important because it can help accomplish two things: Remind your manager of your accomplishments, development and challenges Identify where there may be discrepancies between your and your manager’s view of your performance Not only does it allow your manager to view performance from your perspective, it also helps your manager understand what you see as your strengths and weaknesses. Six steps to completing a great self-appraisal 1. Share your brilliant successes. Look at previous feedback received, projects you’ve completed and initiatives you’ve launched — all excellent fodder. If you haven’t done so in the past, start keeping a performance journal. It will make your next self-appraisal that much easier to complete. 2. Share what you’ve learned. What have you learned in the past year? Look to identify the ways in which you’ve been able to enhance your skills; describe the new skills you’ve mastered and how they've helped you in your career development. Describe how you've applied these new skills to your job and how they support the goals of your department and organization. 3. Share your challenges. This isn’t an annual opportunity for shameless self- promotion. It’s an opportunity for some humility. Be candid about your challenges in the year. Describe how you overcame them or the steps you will take in the year ahead to address them. 4. Be honest. Don’t embellish your accomplishments. Think hard about how you choose your ratings for yourself. Your manager will likely want you to support your ratings so be prepared to provide examples of your successes (why you deserve that high rating) and examples of your not-so-great performance (why you may deserve a weaker rating). 5. Take time to do it well. Your manager can tell if you rushed your self-appraisal. So take the time needed to do it justice (schedule time for it in your calendar!). After all, your self-appraisal is all about you, and you’re worth it! Use all the space/features provided in the form to tell your story. 6. Don’t attempt to complete it in one go. Treat your self-appraisal like a work of art that builds over time. You’ll be much happier with the end result if you give yourself time to reflect and carefully support your self-assessment. As I mention above, use examples to support your assertions, and please, please make sure that you spell- and grammar-check your documents. These are all signs of how seriously you take the process and its importance to you.