Phonology

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by : Mr Ketut Wardana

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Phonology

  1. 1. ENGLISH PHONOLOGYENGLISH PHONOLOGY English Department Faculty of Teaching Training and Education Denpasar Mahasaraswati University Semester: IV By I Ketut Wardana, S.pd., M.Hum
  2. 2. Course out lineCourse out line Introduction The Production of Speech Sound 1. Articulators (place of articulators) 2. English vowels and consonants short and long vowels 3. English Diphthongs and Trip thongs. 4. Manners of articulation 5. The Phoneme (segment, allophones, Phonological pattern) 6. Symbols and transcription 7. Middle test  
  3. 3. 1. Phonemic and phonetic transcription 2. Phonological rules 3. The structure of English syllable. 4. Stress in simple words (the nature of stress, Level of stress) 5. Weak forms 6. Intonation 7. Final Test
  4. 4. Phonetics deals with description of the sound either by analyzing their acoustical property or by studying the precise way
  5. 5. LINGUISTICSLINGUISTICS Major components of language: FORM FUNCTION MEANING LINGUISTIC FIELD OF STUDY 1.Phonetics is concerned with the sounds of languages, 2.phonology with the way sounds are used in individual languages, 3.morphology with the structure of words, 4.syntax with the structure of phrases and sentences, 5.semantics with the study of meaning
  6. 6. PHONETICSPHONETICS Phonetics is the field of language study concerned with the physical properties of sounds, Three subfields. 1.Articulatory phonetics explores how the human vocal apparatus produces sounds. 2 Acoustic phonetics studies the sound waves produced by the human vocal apparatus. 3 Auditory phonetics examines how speech sounds are perceived by the human ear.
  7. 7. Phonetics deals with the description of sound either by analyzing their acoustical properties or by studying the precise of production Phonology, in contrast, is concerned not with the physical properties of sounds, but rather with how they function in a particular language.
  8. 8. ArticulatorArticulator
  9. 9.  Human speech is the process of passing air through the mouth to produce specific sounds. Here is a half-face diagram of the basic speech organs.
  10. 10. The typical process of producingThe typical process of producing speechspeech 1. Forcing out of the lungs through the glottis (the opening in the vocal cords) 2. Shaping the jaw bone, mouth and lips to conduct the air flow. 3. Positioning the tongue to alter the air flow. 4. The final step is a sound pressure wave leaving the lips.
  11. 11. 2 Stationary Stationary parts include the teeth, the alveolar arch behind them, the hard palate, and the softer velum behind it. Sounds made by touching two articulators —for example, the bilabial p, which requires both lips—
  12. 12. those made by an articulator and a stationary part of the vocal apparatus are named from the organs that make the juncture, which is called the point of articulation.
  13. 13. PLACE OF ARTICULATIONPLACE OF ARTICULATION
  14. 14. Broad categories a oh human speechBroad categories a oh human speech Vowels are the sounds in production of which the airstream is allowed to go through the speech organ without meeting any obstacle Consonant The sound produced by the creation of an obstacle that impedes the progress of the air stream through the speech tract
  15. 15. PHONOLOGICAL RULESPHONOLOGICAL RULES Formal notation is required to note the phonological rules. This notation must be adequate to express types of process that is occurred in any language and generalization.  Phonological process takes place if: 1. There is one or more segment influenced 2. The affected segments will undergo a formation (alteration) 3. The alteration generally occurs in certain environment
  16. 16. NotationNotation Formal notation for the phonological process of a segment 1. The affected segment appears on the left side of the arrow 2. The alteration appears on right side of the arrow 3. The environment is presented by a slash Example: [+ nasal] [+syllabic] / -# Listen /lI∫n/
  17. 17. Phonological ProcessPhonological Process Phonological Process occurs  when morphemes are gathered to form words,  the segment s of the morphemes which are nearby become in line and occurs alteration. The alteration can be predicted based on some conditions  1. the position in a word  2. Phonological quality  3. prosodic features, stressed or unstressed vowel
  18. 18. Categories of Phonological ProcessCategories of Phonological Process 1. Assimilation 2. Syllable structure 3. Weakening and strengthening 4. Neutralization
  19. 19. AssimilationAssimilation  This process takes places if: 1. Segments become identical 2. A segment obtains specific features from the neighboring 3. A segment adapts other segment baki             gapi       (→ Ind. loyang) but           dup     (→ↄ ↄ Ind. raksasa) guci             juki        (→ Ind. guci) buku           gupu      (→ Ind. buku) b p / # -          ………………………………………….(a)→ g k / # -           ………………………………………….(b)→ k g / – #          ………………………………………… (c)→ t d / – #          ………………………………………… (d)→ c j / – #           ………………………………………… (e)→
  20. 20. Syllable structureSyllable structure 1. influence the distribution of consonants and vowel in a word relatively 2. A segment can be omitted [ ]φ pants /pans/ /t/ [ ] /c- cφ know /nәu/ /k/ [ ] / - [n]φ 3 A segment can be interfered [ ]φ impossible /impos ә bl/ [ ] [m] / -[p]φ
  21. 21. 4. Two segments can be united into a segment 5. Mutated t o p p o t [+ kons]1 [+ sil]1+ [+kons]2   → 3  2  1  l i v e e v i l [+ kons]1 [+ sil]1+ [+kons]2 + [+ sil]2  → 3  2  1  4 6. Changing from the tense to lax vowel
  22. 22. [aI] [I][aI] [I] divine divinity derive derivative reside residual child children revise revision decide decision  drive driven Provide provision Define definition
  23. 23. [i] [[i] [ėė]] Serene serenity Supreme supremacy Redeem redemption Meter metric Discreet discretion Intervene intervention Convene convention Penal penalty Obscene obscenity
  24. 24. [e[eII]] [[ae]ae]  Sane sanity  Insane insanity  Explain explanatory  Mania maniac  Urbane urbanity  Humane humanity  Angel angelic  Fable fabulous  State static  [au] [A]  Profound profundity  Abound abundance  South southern
  25. 25. Strong and weak formStrong and weak form Citation form The form in which a word is pronounced in isolation Different forms of pronunciation Strong form It occurs when the word is stressed Weak form It occurs when the word is in unstressed position
  26. 26. Strong and weak Some common English wordsStrong and weak Some common English words  Word strong form weak form example of week form  a ei ә a cup [ә ‘kΛp]  and ænd әnd, nd, әn you and me [ju әn mi]  as aez әz as good as [zs gud әz]  at aet әt at home [әt h әum]  can kæn k әn I can go [ai k әn g әu]  H  as hæz hәz, әz z he’s left [hiz left]  must mΛst mәst, mәz ms I must sell [ai ms sel]  she ∫I ∫Ι did she go [did ∫Ι gәu]  to tu tә to be or not to be  Would wud wәd, әd it would do [it әd du]
  27. 27. intonationintonation Pitch is changing continuously Intonation of sentence is the pattern of pitch changes that occurs A tone group the part of sentence over which a particular pattern extends The father gave money to her father Tonic syllable A single syllable that stands out ; it carries the major pitch changes
  28. 28. It may occur earlier if some words requires emphasisIt may occur earlier if some words requires emphasis 2 He wanted to go to Germany on Monday There are two or more tone groups within a sentence 3. She sat by the ‘ window reading a ‘letter 4 Split sentence into three separate tone group The girl gave the money to her father
  29. 29. 5. The topic sentence is less likely to receive the tonic accent than the comment  Water is a liquid  Water is liquid 6. Tonic syllable is rising in a question requiring the answer yes or no . Do you want some ‘cofee?
  30. 30. 7. [+ falling] and [+rising] can occur earlier Do you take cream in your coffee? 8. [+falling] in final stressed syllable ..question that begins with wh…… Where did you put the paper? 9[+ rising] often occurs in the middle of a sentence The man who took the coffee was my father
  31. 31.  10. a list of items is often given a similar way I want some apples, oranges, and peaches 11. Do you want some coffee or not 12.Conveying doubt His name is peter? 13 Polite Question His name is peter?
  32. 32.  Expressing doubt  I ‘think ‘so Yes Falling = the answer is yes Yes high = did you say ‘yes? Yes low = please go on I’m listening Yes falling –rising = I’m doubtful Yes rising- falling = I’m certain
  33. 33. Function of IntonationFunction of Intonation  To express emotions and attitudes (attitudinal function of intonation)  To produce the effect of prominence on syllables to be perceived as stressed (The accentual function of intonation)  To recognize the grammar and syntactic structure of what is being said by using the information (grammatical function of intonation)  To be taken as new information (discourse function of intonation
  34. 34. STRESSSTRESS A stressed syllable is produced by pushing more air out of the lungs in one syllable relative to others. A stressed syllable has greater respiratory energy then neighboring unstressed syllables Stress can always be defined is terms of something a speaker does in one part of an utterance relative to another
  35. 35.  Syntactic relationship between parts of words noun - Verb relation an ‘insult to in’sult ‘overflow to over ‘flow an ‘increase to in ‘crease compound noun Phrases a ‘walkout to ‘walk ’out a ‘puton to ‘put ‘on a ‘pushover to ‘push ‘over a ‘hot dog a ‘hot ‘dog
  36. 36. Grammatical structure of words

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