Objectives:1. To learn how analogies are used to develop a paragraph2. To read essays and be able to understand how analogies were applied in the paragraphs
Example # 1 How to Read a Book A book is like a single house. It is a mansion of manyrooms on different levels, of different sizes andshapes, with different outlooks, rooms with differentfunctions to perform. These rooms are independent, inpart. Each has its own structure and interior decoration.But they are not absolutely independent and separate.They are connected by doors and arches, by corridors andstairways. Because they are connected, the partial functionwhich each performs contributes its share to the usefulness ofthe whole house. Otherwise the house would not be
What are Analogies?An expression of similarity between two unlikethings. They are most commonly used to explainsomething unknown in terms of somethingknownAn analogy is also a comparison which showsthat if two things are alike in one way, they canbe alike in others.
Writing Paragraphs withAnalogies When explaining difficult concepts, usesomething with which the reader is likely to befamiliar and compare it to the concept inquestion. Be sure you know enough about both to be ableto carry the comparison out. There must be some similarity between the tworelationships. Do not try to stretch an analogy too far.
Example # 2: The Immunological Defenders and How They Work The immune response of billions of cellular defenders iscarried out by different kinds of white bloodcells, all of whichare continuously being produced in the bone marrow.Neutrophils, one type ofwhite blood cell, travel in the bloodstream to areas of invasion, attacking and ingestingpathogens. Macrophages, or "big eaters," take up stations intissues and act as scavengers, devouring pathogens and worn-
Example # 3 Students are often confounded by theprospect of writing an essay for the first time. I tellthem that the process of writing an essay is notmuch different than the process of building a fencearound a yard. Both the fence and the essay arestructures, systems composed of interrelated partsthat function as a whole. First one determines theneed for the structure, gauging whether it will helpto solve some problem one has identified or makematters worse. Next will come some kind of roughplan and a determination of necessary parts andequipment. At about this stage, the writer orbuilder generally stops to ponder whether theproject will be worth what it costs.
If he’s still game, he’ll draft more specificplans, and start gathering the materials and thetools. Depending on what he’s building, he’llprobably have to discover if parts have to gotogether in any certain order or if certainrelationships have to be consistent throughout. The careful craftsman measures twice andcuts once, which means, as the thing goestogether, lots of re-examination of how parts fittogether and how they are joined. The basicfoundation parts go up first, and then substantialidentifying parts of the structure are added, andfinally the whole is finished, polished up, as itwere, to give the casual observer the impressionthat it is a single, unified, coherent whole.