Making the Grid Smarter


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Presentation given at Green Technology Organization of Greater Chicago Meetup group on 21 September, 2010

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Making the Grid Smarter

  1. 1. Making! the Grid! Smarter! Mike Coop!!
  2. 2. Topics! –  The Smart Grid—What Is It? Why Is It?! –  Regulatory and Standards Landscape! –  Home Energy Management Systems! –  Further Background!
  3. 3. Obligatory Smart Grid Slide!
  4. 4. Where We’ll Focus Tonight!
  5. 5. Are We Fighting! For Freedom?!
  6. 6. Are We Fighting! For Freedom?! Actually, We Are!
  7. 7. Freedom From Foreign Oil! •  The goal of 2007’s Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007) is “to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security, to increase the production of clean renewable fuels, to protect consumers, to increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles, to promote research on and deploy greenhouse gas capture and storage options, and to improve the energy performance of the Federal Government, and for other purposes”!
  8. 8. EISA 2007! •  Main goal is to eliminate dependence on foreign oil! •  Provides significant incentives for plug-in and hybrid electric vehicles! •  Increases Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards—35 mpg fleet-wide by 2020! •  Requires 25% better efficiency for light bulbs by 2012 (effectively eliminating incandescent bulbs) and 200% better efficiency by 2020! •  And pork…gotta have pork! •  All of which means SMART GRID!!
  9. 9. What the Smart Grid is NOT! •  NOT a smart meter! –  NOT Automated Meter Reading (AMR)! –  NOT Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)! •  NOT the Home Area Network! –  NOT ZigBee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi, 900 MHz, Bluetooth, or WiMAX! –  NOT Ethernet, HomePlug, HomeGrid, MoCA, or HomePNA! •  NOT a bunch of other technologies and capabilities, all of which are are components of the Smart Grid! •  Tonight, we’ll talk about the Smart Grid from inside the meter!
  10. 10. What the Smart Grid IS! •  Provides quality power meeting 21st century needs! •  Accommodates all generation and storage options! •  Enables new products, services, and markets! •  Provides operational resilience against physical and cyber attacks! •  Optimizes asset utilization and operating efficiency! •  Enables active participation by consumers in demand response! A digitized and intelligent version of the current power grid! Adapted from IEEE P2030!
  11. 11. Key Smart Grid Drivers! •  Utilities want more information from customers to better forecast how generation will meet actual demand! •  Consumers need real-time, appliance-level pricing and demand response information, from utilities and from third parties, in order to alter behavior, save money, and go green! •  Governments want to encourage realization of environmental benefits by reducing noxious emissions (and votes…definitely votes)! •  One key capability—Demand Response (DR)!
  12. 12. Demand Response! •  “Reduction in the consumption of electric energy by customers from their expected consumption in response to an increase in the price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric energy”! •  Dispatchable! –  Customer alters consumption due to direction from someone else! –  Includes rebates, compensation, and direct load control of appliances! •  Non-dispatchable! –  Customer alters consumption based on retail rate design that changes over time! –  Includes time-of-use (TOU) pricing! From FERC Order 719!
  13. 13. How Will We Get There?! •  Government and regulatory! –  NIST, FERC, NARUC, DoE, States, ETSI, CEN,! •  Standards Development Organizations! –  IEEE, ITU, ISO, IEC! •  Industry! –  OpenSG, SAE, AHAM, SEP! •  Many, many other standards, regulatory, policy, and grass roots efforts—including the Green Technology Organization of Greater Chicago and Citizens Utility Board!
  14. 14. Government & Regulatory! •  National Institute of Standards & Technology! •  Federal Energy Regulatory Commission! •  National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners! •  Department of Energy! •  Individual States!
  15. 15. NIST! •  According to EISA 2007, NIST has "primary responsibility to coordinate development of a framework that includes protocols and model standards for information management to achieve interoperability of smart grid devices and systems…”! •  Smart Grid Interoperability Panel & Governing Board (SGIP/GB)! –  620 Member Organizations! –  25 member governance committee ! •  Domain Expert Working Groups (DEWGs)! –  Provide analysis in particular application domains; longer-term horizon! –  Identify gaps and overlaps! –  Develop use cases and white papers! •  Priority Action Plans (PAPs)! –  Address gaps where standards (or extensions) are needed; shorter-term horizon (think tiger team)! –  Try to disambiguate when multiple standards overlap!
  16. 16. SGIP Governing Board! Category   Member   Affilia1on   Category  1   Brian  Markwalter   Consumer  Electronics  Associa8on   Category  2   Tariq  Samad   Honeywell   Category  3   Todd  RyAng   Panasonic  Electric  Works  Laboratory  of  America   Category  4   Rich  Scholer   Ford  Motor  Company   Category  5   George  Bjelovuk   American  Electric  Power   Category  6   Stephen  Muchlinski   Tacoma  Public  U8li8es   Category  7   Bob  Saint   Na8onal  Rural  Electric  Coopera8ve  Associa8on  (NRECA)   Category  8   Chuck  Shih   Edge  Holdings  LLC   Category  9   Kenneth  Van  Meter   Lockheed  Mar8n’s  Energy  Solu8ons   Category  10   Ma[hew  Theall   HomeGrid  Forum   Category  11   Vint  Cerf   Google,  Inc.   Category  12   Le  Tang   ABB  Inc.   Category  13   Wayne  Longcore   Consumers  Energy   Category  14   Mladen  Kezunovic   Texas  A&M  University   Category  15   Perry  Pederson   U.S.  Nuclear  Regulatory  Commission  (NRC)   Category  16   John  Nunneley   SunSpec  Alliance   Category  17   Brent  Hodges   Reliant  Energy   Category  18   John  Caskey   Na8onal  Electrical  Manufacturers  Assoc.  (NEMA)   Category  19   Paul  Centolella   Public  U8lity  Commission  of  Ohio   Category  20   Rik  Drummond   Drummond  Group  Inc.   Category  21   Jamshid  Afnan   ISO  New  England,  Inc.   Category  22   Sco[  Ungerer   EnerTech  Capital   Category  23   John  McDonald   GE  Energy   Category  23   Paul  De  Mar8ni   Cisco  Systems,  Inc.   Category  23   Mark  McGranaghan   Electric  Power  Research  Ins8tute  
  17. 17. NIST DEWGs! •  Transmission & distribution (TnD)! •  Home-to-grid (H2G)! •  Building-to-grid (B2G)! •  Industry-to-grid (I2G)! •  Vehicle-to-grid (V2G)! •  Business & policy (BnP)!
  18. 18. NIST PAPs! 0 "Meter Upgradeability Standard! 9 "Standard DR and DER Signals! 1 "Role of IP in the Smart Grid! 10 "Standard Energy Usage Information! 2 "Wireless Communications for the 11 "Common Object Models for Electric Smart Grid! Transportation! 3 "Common Price Communication 12 "IEC 61850 Objects/DNP3 Mapping! Model! 13 "Time Synchronization, IEC 61850 4 "Common Scheduling Mechanism! Objects/IEEE C37.118 5 "Standard Meter Data Profiles! Harmonization! 6 "Common Semantic Model for Meter 14 "Transmission and Distribution Data Tables! Power Systems Model Mapping! 7 "Electric Storage Interconnection 15 "Harmonize Power Line Carrier Guidelines! Standards for Appliance 8  CIM for Distribution Grid Communications in the Home! Management! 16  Wind Plant Communications! 17  Facility Smart Grid Information!
  19. 19. Other Government & Regulatory! •  Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)! –  Creates laws based on NIST’s guidelines! –  Wrote the National Action Plan on Demand Response! •  National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC)! –  Regulates telecom, energy, and water! –  Consists of representatives from all states, D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands! •  DOE! –  Governs Energy Star, promote Energy Savers, will be involved in Home Star! –  Has stood up ARPA-E to motivate and fund U.S. energy research! •  States! –  Individual states have taken a wide range of steps in Smart Grid, with Texas and California leading the way! –  TX has decoupled T&D from retail; CA has just closed a round of comments on proceeding R0812009! –  IL isn’t necessarily behind, but isn’t making the type of progress! some other states are making!
  20. 20. Standards Development Organizations and Industry Alliances! SDOs! Industry Efforts! •  IEEE! •  OpenSG! •  ITU! •  SAE! •  ISO! •  AHAM! •  IEC! •  SEP! MANY other efforts underway around the world!
  21. 21. Home Energy Management Systems! (HEMS)! •  In the beginning, there was home automation, and it was good…kind of! •  Expensive, proprietary systems were the domain of the high-end! •  Inexpensive, reasonably interoperable systems were the domain of the hobbyist! •  Two keys to success! –  Plug and play (not plug and pray)! –  Cost/payback equation must work!
  22. 22. Home Energy Management Systems! (HEMS)! •  Designed to enable better consumer control of energy use! •  Typically includes! –  In-home display (IHD) or smart phone app! –  “Black box” that looks very similar to your existing broadband router or residential gateway! –  Method to measure and control plug load! (e.g., smart power strips)! –  Mechanism to store, visualize, and analyze data! –  May have a demand response component!
  23. 23. What Does a HEMS Look Like?! Graphic Courtesy of BusinessWeek!
  24. 24. Other Discussion Topics! •  How do we reconcile the need to reduce carbon with the way IOUs earn revenue and reward shareholders?! •  You and your neighbor both charging your PEVs at dinnertime may cause sparks… literally! •  EPA/Energy Star has begun a new Climate Controls initiative, replacing their earlier programmable thermostat work !
  25. 25. Empower Yourself! •  NIST! –! –! –  Join SGIP! –  Find a PAP! •  Smart Grid Knowledge! –  Search on “DoE Smart Grid” to find DoE’s “The Smart Grid: An Introduction”! –  Hit to demystify the world of acronyms! –  Hit to see what a deregulated future may look like here in Illinois!
  26. 26. GTO’s Vision and Mission! •  VISION! –  GTO will be the leading organization of Green Technology awareness and initiatives bringing the required knowledge and capabilities to the community and businesses.! •  MISSION! –  Being Green is no longer a nice-to-have or a future-think; it is a mandate for the here and now, and as such individuals, businesses, schools, government bodies and all establishments need a better understanding of what being Green is and how and what to implement to achieve a more eco-friendly life/business.! –  To meet these needs of the Greater Chicago area the Green Technology Organization (GTO) of Greater Chicago has been formed as a not-for-profit organization focused on advancing the knowledge of members, businesses and the general public through networking, education and improving the visibility of green technology businesses within the region.!
  27. 27. Thank You!! Mike Coop!!