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Optimizing Hay And Feeding Storage (Martinson)

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Optimizing Hay And Feeding Storage (Martinson)

  1. 1. My Horse University and eXtension’sHorseQuestwelcome you to this live Webcast.<br />Optimizing YourHay Supply<br />Krishona Martinson, PhD<br />Equine Extension Specialist<br />University of Minnesota<br />
  2. 2. Meet our presenter:<br />Questions facilitated by:<br />Dr. Bridgett McIntosh<br />Equine Extension Specialist<br />University of Tennessee<br />Krishona Martinson<br />Equine Extension Specialist<br />University of Minnesota<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />Buy quality hay<br />Feeding examples<br />Hay testing<br />Reducing feedingand storage waste<br />Research Update<br />
  4. 4. Forage is the Foundation<br />Horses are non-ruminant herbivores designed to utilize forages as the primary component of their diet.<br />Horses required 2 to 3% of their body weight in feed each day.<br />At least half of their daily feed intake should be in the form of roughage.<br />
  5. 5. When Buying Hay…<br />Look for:<br />What’s in the hay (species)<br />How mature is the hay<br />Touch<br />Smell<br />Color<br />Presence of mold and weeds<br />
  6. 6. Buy Quality Hay<br />Content/Species<br />Percent of grass and legumes in the hay.<br />Legumes have a higher protein content than grasses.<br />Fiber from grasses is more digestible than that of alfalfa at the same stage of maturity.<br />
  7. 7. Content/Species<br />Grass?<br />Alfalfa?<br />Mixture?<br />
  8. 8. Content/Species<br />Grass?<br />Alfalfa?<br />Mixture?<br />
  9. 9. Content/Species<br />Grass?<br />Alfalfa?<br />Mixture?<br />
  10. 10. Buy Quality Hay<br />Maturity<br />Plants have more fiber and less protein as they mature.<br />Indicators of maturity are flowers for legumes, and seed heads for grasses.<br />Leaves have more protein and digestible energy and less fiber than stems.<br />
  11. 11. Maturity<br />Mature hay?<br />Young hay?<br />Note: This is still very good hay forcertain groups of horses.<br />
  12. 12. Maturity<br />Mature hay?<br />Young hay?<br />
  13. 13. Buy Quality Hay<br />Touch<br />A horse’s mouth, lips and tongue are very sensitive.<br />Softer hay will usually be consumed more readily.<br />If the hay feels rough to you, it will feel rough to your horse.<br />
  14. 14. Buy Quality Hay<br />Smell<br />A sweet smell is attractive to horses.<br />A sweet smell is usuallya good indication ofhaving readily availableenergy.<br />
  15. 15. Buy Quality Hay<br />Color<br />Do not get hung up on color!<br />Green is very appealing and a good indicator of quality.<br />Bleached color indicates exposure to sunlight or rain.<br />Bleached hay can still contain many other essential nutrients and can be fed to horses.<br />If in doubt, have the hay tested.<br />
  16. 16. Green Does Not Mean Good!<br />
  17. 17. Color<br />Don’t let a bleachedappearance scare you off…Investigate!<br />
  18. 18. Buy Quality Hay<br />You Should Know the Moisture<br />Hay baled between 10 and 17% moisture is optimum.<br />Hay reserved for long term storage should be less than 17% moisture.<br />Hay over 18% poses the threat of molding.<br />Hay baled above 25% poses the threat of severe heat damage and serves as a potential fire hazard.<br />Pennsylvania State Extension<br />
  19. 19. Hay Characteristics<br />Mold is a direct result of hay baled too wet (or storage issues)<br />Mold is detrimental if the horse inhales it, and has the potential to be toxic and/or upset the digestive system.<br />If they hay has been stored inside and is not moldy, then the risk of it getting mold is very low.<br />Do not buy hay that is moldy, as it will only get worse.<br />
  20. 20. Buy Quality Hay<br />Moldy hay is bad…<br />
  21. 21. Buy Quality Hay<br />…but, fire is worse!<br />
  22. 22. Hay Characteristics<br />How do you determine moisture?<br />Hay analysis<br />Trusting relationship with hay supplier<br />Buy hay that has been stored (2-4 weeks)<br />Investigate bales – bales should neverbe hot to the touch.<br />
  23. 23. When Buying Hay…Recap<br />You should know…<br />What’s in the hay (species)<br />How mature is the hay<br />Touch<br />Smell<br />Color (bleached color OK)<br />Presence of mold and weeds<br />
  24. 24. Feeding Hay<br />Feed the right hay for your horse.<br />Feeding too good of hay canresult in weight gain andexcessive spending ($$$)<br />Feeding too poor of hay canresult in weight loss and otherhealth problems.<br />
  25. 25. Feeding Hay<br />Example 1: Adult Idle Horse<br />Horse Weight: 1,000 lbs<br />Required Daily Feed Intake: 2% body weight<br />Total intake per day: 20 lbs<br />Percentage of Hay in Daily Ration: 100%<br />Percentage of Concentrate in Daily Ration: 0%<br />Amount of Hay Required in Daily Ration: 20 lbs<br />Amount of Concentrate Required in Daily Ration: 0 lb<br />Provided by Dr. Bridgett McIntosh, University of Tennessee<br />
  26. 26. Feeding Hay<br />Example 1: Adult Idle Horse What hay type is best?<br />
  27. 27. Feeding Hay<br />Example 1: Adult Idle Horse<br />The nutrient requirements of adult idlehorses can be met by good quality grass hayalone.<br />Hay should be analyzed for nutrient contentto identify any deficiencies.<br />A vitamin and mineral mix should be offered.<br />Why buy a better quality hay (usually more$$$ and results in weight gain) if not needed?<br />
  28. 28. Feeding Hay<br />Example 2: Working Horse – Moderate Exercise (3-5 hours/week)<br />Horse Weight: 1,000 lbs<br />Required Daily Feed Intake: 2% body weight<br />Total intake per day: 20 lbs<br />Percentage of Hay in Daily Ration: 75%<br />Percentage of Concentrate in Daily Ration: 25%<br />Amount of Hay Required in Daily Ration: 15 lbs<br />Amount of Concentrate Required in Daily Ration: 5 lb<br />Provided by Dr. Bridgett McIntosh, University of Tennessee<br />
  29. 29. Feeding Hay<br />Example 2: Working Horse – Moderate ExerciseWhat hay type is best?<br />
  30. 30. Feeding Hay<br />Example 2: Working Horse – Moderate Exercise <br />Grass hay alone may not be sufficient to meet the needs of working horses.<br />Alfalfa hay is typically higherin digestible energy andnutrients and may be sufficientin meeting the needs ofworking horses.<br />A good quality hay is needed.<br />
  31. 31. Feeding Hay<br />Example 3: Growing Horses (12 months of age)<br />Horse Weight: 700 lbs – Average Daily Gain: 1 lb<br />Required Daily Feed Intake: 2% body weight<br />Total intake per day: 14 lbs<br />Percentage of Hay in Daily Ration: 75%<br />Percentage of Concentrate in Daily Ration: 25%<br />Amount of Hay Required in Daily Ration: 10.5 lbs<br />Amount of Concentrate Required in Daily Ration: 3.5 lb<br />Provided by Dr. Bridgett McIntosh, University of Tennessee<br />
  32. 32. Feeding Hay<br />Example 3: Growing Horses (12 months of age) What hay type is best?<br />
  33. 33. Feeding Hay<br />Example 3: Growing Horses (12 months of age)<br />Good quality grass hay, or grass/alfalfa mixed hays can be used in feeding programs for young, growing horses.<br />Young horses with increased nutrientrequirements will require an increasedpercentage of concentrates in their diet.<br />Forage or hay should makeup at least50% of their daily ration.<br />Must watch Ca:P ratio.<br />
  34. 34. Feeding Hay<br />Example 3: Growing Horses (12 months of age)<br />Good quality grass hay, or grass/alfalfa mixed hays can be used in feeding programs for young, growing horses.<br />Young horses with increased nutrientrequirements will require an increasedpercentage of concentrates in their diet.<br />Forage or hay should makeup at least50% of their daily ration.<br />Must watch Ca:P ratio.<br />
  35. 35. Feeding Hay…Recap<br />You should know…<br />Know your hay (buying hay)!<br />Feed the right hay for your horse.<br />Feeding the right hay will save$$$ and result in healthier horses.<br />Work with your hay supplier, anequine nutritionist, and/or yourveterinarian.<br />
  36. 36. Hay Testing<br />Determines nutritional value of hay.<br />Will help nutritionist balance ration for your horse.<br />Use hay probe (grab sample).<br />Probe 10-20 bales.<br />Take sub-sample.<br />Collect and bag, send toforage lab.<br />
  37. 37. Hay Testing<br />Requires Equine Analysis<br />Approximately $20 for each basic sample<br />Equi-analytical: 877-819-411*<br />For example, in Minnesota:<br />DHIA Labs: 800-369-2697*<br />Dairyland Labs: 320-240-1737*<br />Zumbrota Forage Labs: 507-732-4441*<br />*These labs are not endorsed by the University of Minnesota and may not be a complete list of available labs in MN.<br />
  38. 38. Reducing Feeding & Storage Waste<br />Reduce Feeding Waste<br />Know how much to feed(2% of body weight)<br />Do not overfeed(waste of $$$).<br />Use hay feeders.<br />Remove uneaten hay.<br />
  39. 39. Reducing Feeding & Storage Waste<br />Reducing Feeding Waste<br />Make sure the roof is water tight.<br />Animal proof the area.<br />Stack hay on pallets.<br />Use older hay first.<br />Tarp/cover bales shoredoutside.<br />
  40. 40. Reducing Feeding & Storage Waste<br />Reducing Feeding Waste<br />University of Kentucky<br />
  41. 41. Reducing Feeding & Storage Waste<br />Research conducted at Texas Tech evaluated waste associate with feeding round bales.<br />The alfalfa round bales fed with feeder had a 9% loss, compared to a 31% loss without a feeder.<br />The grass round bales fedwith a feeder had a 2%loss, compared to a 38%loss without a feeder.<br />
  42. 42. Research Update<br />Preliminary Data from the Univ of Minn<br />Three commercially available, equine round bale feeders were evaluated for hay waste.<br />Tombstone Feeder<br />Cone Feeder<br />Curtain Feeder<br />
  43. 43. Research Update<br />Tombstone Feeder<br />Cone Feeder<br />
  44. 44. Research Update<br />Curtain Feeder<br />
  45. 45. Research Update<br />Preliminary Data from the Univ of Minn<br />Curtain Feeder – Use Caution<br />
  46. 46. Research Update<br />Preliminary Data from the Univ of Minn<br />Tombstone Feeder Waste = 15%<br />Cone Feeder Waste = 8%<br />Curtain Feeder Waste = 9%<br />Additional round bale feeder research planned for 2010.<br />
  47. 47. Conclusions<br />How to optimize your hay supply…<br />Buy quality hay<br />Know what is in your hay<br />Feeding hay<br />Feed the right type of hay for your horse<br />In some cases, only hay is needed<br />Hay testing<br />Determine the nutritional value of your hay<br />Reducing feeding and storage waste<br />Feed the correct amount<br />Use feeders<br />Proper storage<br />
  48. 48. Additional Information<br />www.extension.umn.edu/horse<br />www.extension.org/horses<br />www.myhorseuniversity.com<br />
  49. 49. Questions?<br />
  50. 50. Give us your feedback!<br />You will receive an email with a link to an online survey. Please take a few minutes to answer give us your feedback on tonight’s webcast. It will help us to better serve you!<br />
  51. 51. Upcoming Webcasts<br />Applications for Equine GeneticsOctober 21, 2009 | 1:00 pm ET<br />On the Trail Ride: Best PracticesOctober 21, 2009 | 7:00 pm ET<br />Why Won’t My Mare Get Pregnant?November 24, 2009 | 7:00 pm ET<br />
  52. 52. Thank you!<br />Thank you for attending this live Web presentation!<br />For more information about<br />My Horse University, please visit us at:<br />www.myhorseuniversity.com<br />info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123<br />

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