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My Horse University and eXtension’sHorseQuestwelcome you to this live Webcast.<br />Introduction to Environmentally Friend...
Meet our presenter:<br />Dr. Jenifer Nadeau<br />University of Connecticut<br />Dr. Christine Skelly<br />Michigan State U...
Objectives<br />Define best management practices.<br />Describe some objectives of best management practices.<br />Describ...
Objectives<br />Describe some best management practices for controlling runoff.<br />Describe some best management practic...
What is a “Best Management Practice?”<br />A proactive way for horse owners to protect the environment <br />Used alone or...
Objectives of Best Management Practices<br />Decrease soil erosion<br />Protect water quality of ground and surface water<...
Types of Best Management Practices<br />Pasture Management<br />Manure Management<br />Water Diversions<br />Vegetated Buf...
Good Pasture Management<br />Provides feed/recreation for horses<br />Reduces movement of soil and manure to water bodies<...
Pasture Planning Considerations<br />Total number of horses that will use the pasture<br />How horses can be grouped/size ...
Grass Needs<br />Enough leaf area for sunlight to reach for photosynthesis<br />Rest periods to maintain roots and allow l...
Pasture Management:Pasture as Forage<br />1.5% BW/day through hay or access to pasture <br />MINIMUM of 15 lbs of roughage...
Pasture Management: Percent of Ration that should be Forage<br />Maintenance 100-80% <br />	(NRC 100-75%)<br />Work:	light...
Pasture Management:Pasture as Only Forage<br />Fat and fiber supplement recommended<br />Must have additional P, Se, Zn, C...
Pasture Management:How do I tell what grass I have?<br />Need to see seed heads<br />Know what was planted<br />Books/webs...
Pasture Management:How do I tell what grass I have?<br />Books/websites may aid in identification: <br />Pasture and Range...
Pasture Management:How do I know how much fertilizer to apply?<br />Get a soil test, available from the cooperative extens...
Pasture Management:What do I do about invasive plants?<br />Use broadleaf weed killer such as 2,4 D - “Weed Be Gone” befor...
Pasture Management:How can I maintain my pastures well?<br />Many grasses need 2-6 weeks rest period to regrow roots and s...
Pasture Management:How can I maintain my pastures well?<br />Clip pastures before rest periods<br />Remove weeds before se...
Pasture Management:Rotational Grazing<br />A system of dividing pastures so that grass can rest when it is only 1 ½ to 2 i...
Pasture Management:Sacrifice Areas<br />A selected area is sacrificed from the grazing system and is used to confine anima...
Pasture Management:Benefits of Well-Planned Sacrifice Areas<br />Hoof-friendly surface for better horse health <br />Reduc...
Pasture Management:Should I re-seed my pastures?<br />If you have nothing but weeds and bare soil – yes!<br />Otherwise, i...
Pasture Management:When do I plant new grass?<br />Depends on your area of the country; check with the cooperative extensi...
Ideas to Improve Your Pasture Management<br />Put in a sacrifice area<br />Improve the footing of your sacrifice area<br /...
Watercourse Management:Stream Crossings<br />A way for horses to get across stream without causing erosion or stream conta...
River and Streambank Management:Vegetated Buffers-What are they?<br />Placed between horse-keeping activities and watercou...
Vegetated Buffers: Benefits<br />Reduce risk of injury due to mud and ice<br />Fewer lost shoes<br />Improve look of prope...
Vegetated Buffers: What do they do?<br />Slow runoff to watercourses<br />Absorb nutrients that would end up in the surfac...
Vegetated Buffers: What do they do?<br />Provides shade for fish, keeping water temperatures cool, oxygen levels high<br /...
Vegetated Buffers: How do I make one?<br />Determine desired width – 200 ft from sensitive areas is ideal<br />Install or ...
Ideas to Improve Your River/Streambank Management<br />Keep horses out of water bodies through fencing<br />Create a veget...
Runoff Management: Water Diversions<br />Diversion – way to redirect water around an area of concern and outlet to a stabl...
Two Types of Water Diversions<br />Diversion Ditch or Swale<br />Roof Gutters<br />
Diversion Ditch or Swale<br />Must handle predicted quantity of water<br />Constructed across a slope to intercept runoff ...
Roof Gutter<br />Discharged through downspout<br />Divert to dry well/underground pipe<br />
Runoff Management: Decreasing Soil Erosion<br />Need more than 2 acres per horse<br />(if on pasture full time)<br />Avoid...
Runoff Management:Decreasing Pollution of Water Bodies<br />Vegetative buffers along streams<br />Divert polluted runoff f...
Runoff Management:Decreasing Pollution of Water Bodies<br />Use soil test before applying N, P, K, Ca<br />Keep animal den...
Manure Management: Location<br />Ensure an adequate distance from runoff, slopes, water bodies, wells, property lines – ch...
Manure Management: Cover It!<br />Cover the manure pile either as simply as using a tarp or creating a roofed structure<br...
Manure Management: Size<br />Make sure storage area is big enough for the time period you need to store it<br />To calcula...
Manure Management: Storage Options<br />Covered Dumpsters<br />3 walled structures with roof or tarp cover<br />Covered co...
Manure Management: What do we do with it all?<br />Have a sanitation company haul it away<br />Have a local farmer or land...
Manure Management:Benefits of Composting<br />Kill parasites/weed seeds in waste<br />Improves soil quality if applied to ...
Manure Management: Composting Basics<br />Needs oxygen – active or passive piles<br />Maintain temperature at 140 degrees ...
Manure Management: Composting Basics<br />C:N ratio – should be 20:1 to 40:1<br />Location away from runoff and water bodi...
Ideas to Improve Your Manure Management<br />Cover your manure with a tarp<br />Buy a small manure spreader<br />Build a p...
Biological Control<br />
Why do flies need to complete their life cycles?<br />Appropriate breeding materials<br />Optimum moisture<br />Adequate w...
Integrated Fly Control Program<br />Must include:<br />General farm sanitation (manure & organic waste management, includi...
Definition of Biological Control<br />Reduction of pest populations by natural enemies, typically involves active human ro...
A Successful Natural Enemy has:<br />A high reproductive rate<br />Good searching ability<br />Host specificity<br />Adapt...
A Successful Natural Enemy has:<br />Health and robustness <br />Pre-adaptation<br />General mobility<br />Persistence at ...
Predators, parasitoids and pathogens<br />Predators – mainly free-living species that consume a large number of prey durin...
Predators, parasitoids and pathogens<br />Pathogens – disease-causing organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses that...
Horse Insect Pests<br />Mainly the house fly and stable fly<br />Life cycle of fly and parasitoid:<br />Courtesy of Ciba-G...
Horse Insect Pests<br />House and stable flies can be controlled by parasitoids<br />Parasitic wasps:<br />Spalangiaendius...
Horse Insect Pests<br />Pathogen for use in controlling mosquitoes:<br />Lagenidiumgiganteum<br />Possible future pathogen...
Pros of Biological Control<br />Long-term control <br />Relatively inexpensive<br />Target specific<br />Environmentally f...
Cons of Biological Control<br />Slow to act <br />Less effective<br />Potential non-target effects<br />Requires appropria...
How do you use these parasites?<br />They are shipped as parasitized pupae in sawdust <br />You place a small handful on “...
When do you use these parasites?<br />Are house flies and stable flies your major problems?<br />Do you have an effective ...
How much will this cost?<br />Varies depending on company and number of horses<br />For 1 horse, around $155.00 up to 20 h...
Is it effective?<br />Estimates of success vary<br />Hokkanen and Pimental (1984) estimated level of partial success to be...
Is it effective?<br />Multi-year study in cooperation with the University of California reported a 93% reduction in the po...
Summary: Biological Control<br />Biological control agents can be effective against house and stable flies when used prope...
Websites of Interest<br />http://www.ct.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/rc&d/km_heap-program.html<br />http://www.eXtension.org/hor...
Future Webcasts<br />February 10 – Horse Manure Management by Dr. Ann Swinker<br />March 10 – Horse Pasture Management by ...
Sources<br />Joyce Meader, Livestock Extension Educator, UConn<br />Forages: An Introduction to Grassland Agriculture by B...
Sources<br />Arbico’s Biological Fly Control Program.<br />Biological Control.  http://www.equinescienceupdate.co.uk/worm4...
Sources<br />Fernandez,AS, Hennigsen E, Larsen M, Nansen P, Gronvold J,<br />Sondergaard J.  Equine Veterinary Journal (19...
Sources<br />Non-Toxic Solutions for Controlling Manure Flies and<br />Biting Flies in Stable and Pastures. IPM Laboratori...
Upcoming Events at UConn<br />Connecticut Horse Symposium – March 21/22<br />www.canr.uconn.edu/ansci/equine/horsesymp.htm...
Upcoming Events at UConn<br />Draft Horse Plow Match, UConn – April TBA<br />4-H Mounted Clinic, Hartford Co. Camp – April...
Questions?<br />For questions or more information<br />	 about this and other horse-related <br />	topics: jenifer.nadeau@...
Questions?<br />
Thank you for attending this live web presentation!<br />For more information about <br />My Horse University please visit...
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Introduction To Environmentally Friendly Horse Management (Nadeau)

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Introduction To Environmentally Friendly Horse Management (Nadeau)

  1. 1. My Horse University and eXtension’sHorseQuestwelcome you to this live Webcast.<br />Introduction to Environmentally Friendly Horse Management<br />Dr. Jenifer Nadeau<br />Associate Professor<br />Equine Extension Specialist<br />University of Connecticut<br />info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123<br />
  2. 2. Meet our presenter:<br />Dr. Jenifer Nadeau<br />University of Connecticut<br />Dr. Christine Skelly<br />Michigan State University<br />Question facilitator:<br />Please note: This presentation is intended for users with high-speed internet connections. Unfortunately, we cannot offer support for dial-up users at this time.<br />
  3. 3. Objectives<br />Define best management practices.<br />Describe some objectives of best management practices.<br />Describe some best management practices for pasture.<br />Describe some best management practices for rivers and streams.<br />
  4. 4. Objectives<br />Describe some best management practices for controlling runoff.<br />Describe some best management practices for manure management.<br />Describe biological control including its pros and cons.<br />List sources for further study and information on this topic.<br />
  5. 5. What is a “Best Management Practice?”<br />A proactive way for horse owners to protect the environment <br />Used alone or in combination with other practices<br />
  6. 6. Objectives of Best Management Practices<br />Decrease soil erosion<br />Protect water quality of ground and surface water<br />Scenic landscapes<br />
  7. 7. Types of Best Management Practices<br />Pasture Management<br />Manure Management<br />Water Diversions<br />Vegetated Buffers<br />
  8. 8. Good Pasture Management<br />Provides feed/recreation for horses<br />Reduces movement of soil and manure to water bodies<br />Improves property aesthetics<br />
  9. 9. Pasture Planning Considerations<br />Total number of horses that will use the pasture<br />How horses can be grouped/size of group<br />Desired length of turnout period<br />Land resources available<br />
  10. 10. Grass Needs<br />Enough leaf area for sunlight to reach for photosynthesis<br />Rest periods to maintain roots and allow leaves to re-grow<br />Proper soil pH/fertility to increase grass vigor, reducing competition from weeds<br />Protection from hooves when wet or other vulnerable times<br />
  11. 11. Pasture Management:Pasture as Forage<br />1.5% BW/day through hay or access to pasture <br />MINIMUM of 15 lbs of roughage per day<br />Eat about 1-1.4 lbs/hr on pasture<br />Mature horses need coarse forage (&gt;8” tall) for healthy digestive systems<br />
  12. 12. Pasture Management: Percent of Ration that should be Forage<br />Maintenance 100-80% <br /> (NRC 100-75%)<br />Work: light 80-60% <br /> (NRC 100-75%)<br /> heavy 50-25% <br /> (NRC 60-50%)<br />
  13. 13. Pasture Management:Pasture as Only Forage<br />Fat and fiber supplement recommended<br />Must have additional P, Se, Zn, Cu and Vitamin A (Hoffman 2001)<br />
  14. 14. Pasture Management:How do I tell what grass I have?<br />Need to see seed heads<br />Know what was planted<br />Books/websites<br />
  15. 15. Pasture Management:How do I tell what grass I have?<br />Books/websites may aid in identification: <br />Pasture and Range Plants Pub: Fort Hays University<br />Forages: An Intro to Grassland Agriculture<br /> Barnes, Miller, Nelson<br />Plant Image Gallery:<br /> http://www.noble.org/imagegallery/<br />
  16. 16. Pasture Management:How do I know how much fertilizer to apply?<br />Get a soil test, available from the cooperative extension service or feed & supply stores<br />
  17. 17. Pasture Management:What do I do about invasive plants?<br />Use broadleaf weed killer such as 2,4 D - “Weed Be Gone” before clipping<br />Remove weeds before seed heads mature<br />Roundup may cause colic in horses <br />Let it rain after use, then OK to put horses out but read label to be sure<br />http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/pubs/midatlantic/romu.htm<br />
  18. 18. Pasture Management:How can I maintain my pastures well?<br />Many grasses need 2-6 weeks rest period to regrow roots and shoots<br />Most grasses need to rest when they are down to 1 ½ to 2 inches high<br />Remove manure or drag before rest periods <br />
  19. 19. Pasture Management:How can I maintain my pastures well?<br />Clip pastures before rest periods<br />Remove weeds before seed heads mature<br />Remove mature grass for uniform re-growth<br />Add livestock to graze steep/rocky land where mowing is difficult<br />
  20. 20. Pasture Management:Rotational Grazing<br />A system of dividing pastures so that grass can rest when it is only 1 ½ to 2 inches high<br />Can use portable or temporary fencing or create a system of paddocks<br />Take horses off when grass is too low; put back on pasture when it re-grows to 6-8 inches<br /> high, only 4 inches for Kentucky <br /> bluegrass and white clover pasture<br />
  21. 21. Pasture Management:Sacrifice Areas<br />A selected area is sacrificed from the grazing system and is used to confine animals in order to protect pastures from over-use at critical times<br />Need to have minimal size, creating a good surface, location near the barn but away from water bodies/runoff, daily manure removal<br />
  22. 22. Pasture Management:Benefits of Well-Planned Sacrifice Areas<br />Hoof-friendly surface for better horse health <br />Reduction of mud and ice <br />Ease of manure removal/management <br />Improved aesthetics <br />Reduction of manure- or soil-laden runoff to water bodies <br />Reduction of fly-breeding habitat <br />Improved pastures utilizing the sacrifice area as a management tool <br />
  23. 23. Pasture Management:Should I re-seed my pastures?<br />If you have nothing but weeds and bare soil – yes!<br />Otherwise, if grass is present, try using some of these tips to revive your pasture such as rotation, resting, testing soil pH and fertility and adjusting it as needed<br />
  24. 24. Pasture Management:When do I plant new grass?<br />Depends on your area of the country; check with the cooperative extension service<br />May plant in spring or fall<br />
  25. 25. Ideas to Improve Your Pasture Management<br />Put in a sacrifice area<br />Improve the footing of your sacrifice area<br />Divert water away from your sacrifice area<br />Create/refine a rotational grazing system<br />Clip the field <br />Soil test and fertilize only as needed<br />
  26. 26. Watercourse Management:Stream Crossings<br />A way for horses to get across stream without causing erosion or stream contamination<br />Need to consider stream characteristics, location, purpose, traffic, longevity, cost and design<br /> Can use culvert or bridge<br />
  27. 27. River and Streambank Management:Vegetated Buffers-What are they?<br />Placed between horse-keeping activities and watercourses<br />Creates distance to prevent pollutants from going into sensitive areas<br />Are vegetated with dense grass, shrubs, trees, to slow the flow of water<br />
  28. 28. Vegetated Buffers: Benefits<br />Reduce risk of injury due to mud and ice<br />Fewer lost shoes<br />Improve look of property<br />
  29. 29. Vegetated Buffers: What do they do?<br />Slow runoff to watercourses<br />Absorb nutrients that would end up in the surface water<br />Traps sediments and solids carried in runoff<br />Stabilizes streambanks, shorelines<br />
  30. 30. Vegetated Buffers: What do they do?<br />Provides shade for fish, keeping water temperatures cool, oxygen levels high<br />Provides food/habitat for wildlife & organisms that fish feed on <br />
  31. 31. Vegetated Buffers: How do I make one?<br />Determine desired width – 200 ft from sensitive areas is ideal<br />Install or move existing fences to keep horses out of buffer area, and provide water for horses if needed<br />Plant grasses or improve those present to get a dense growth, mow twice a year to help keep grass dense and reduce weeds<br />If possible, allow a strip of shrubs, trees, grasses to be established <br />
  32. 32. Ideas to Improve Your River/Streambank Management<br />Keep horses out of water bodies through fencing<br />Create a vegetated buffer<br />
  33. 33. Runoff Management: Water Diversions<br />Diversion – way to redirect water around an area of concern and outlet to a stable suitable site<br />Keep clean water clean<br />Reduce erosion and mud<br />
  34. 34. Two Types of Water Diversions<br />Diversion Ditch or Swale<br />Roof Gutters<br />
  35. 35. Diversion Ditch or Swale<br />Must handle predicted quantity of water<br />Constructed across a slope to intercept runoff and redirect or divert it to another location<br />Sized & stabilized depending on velocity, soil type, slope<br />
  36. 36. Roof Gutter<br />Discharged through downspout<br />Divert to dry well/underground pipe<br />
  37. 37. Runoff Management: Decreasing Soil Erosion<br />Need more than 2 acres per horse<br />(if on pasture full time)<br />Avoid wet soils<br />Use sacrifice area<br />(well drained, no organic matter, minimal size)<br />
  38. 38. Runoff Management:Decreasing Pollution of Water Bodies<br />Vegetative buffers along streams<br />Divert polluted runoff from sacrifice lots toward level pastures, away from wells/surface water<br />Spread manure on pastures in fall<br />
  39. 39. Runoff Management:Decreasing Pollution of Water Bodies<br />Use soil test before applying N, P, K, Ca<br />Keep animal density &lt;1.5 horses/acre to prevent excessive P levels in soil if using pasture year round<br />Apply limestone to maintain soil pH&gt;6.0 <br />
  40. 40. Manure Management: Location<br />Ensure an adequate distance from runoff, slopes, water bodies, wells, property lines – check local zoning ordinances for minimum setbacks<br />
  41. 41. Manure Management: Cover It!<br />Cover the manure pile either as simply as using a tarp or creating a roofed structure<br />Helps reduce fly breeding<br />Helps speed up decomposition and reduces volume of manure on property<br />Keeps rainwater from washing manure from pile and contaminating clean areas<br />
  42. 42. Manure Management: Size<br />Make sure storage area is big enough for the time period you need to store it<br />To calculate, measure your average daily waste (manure and bedding) x number of days between planned removal for composting, disposal, or utilization<br />
  43. 43. Manure Management: Storage Options<br />Covered Dumpsters<br />3 walled structures with roof or tarp cover<br />Covered compost piles<br />Covered or enclosed truck bed/manure spreader<br />Trash cans with lids – if small<br />
  44. 44. Manure Management: What do we do with it all?<br />Have a sanitation company haul it away<br />Have a local farmer or landscaper remove it, or bring it to them<br />Give it to friends, family, neighbors for landscaping<br />Manure cooperative<br />Composting<br />
  45. 45. Manure Management:Benefits of Composting<br />Kill parasites/weed seeds in waste<br />Improves soil quality if applied to fields<br />Does not cause nitrogen depletion caused when un-composted horse waste is spread<br />Contains plant nutrients that help plants grow!<br />
  46. 46. Manure Management: Composting Basics<br />Needs oxygen – active or passive piles<br />Maintain temperature at 140 degrees F<br />Minimum size is 4x4x4<br />Can use 3 bin system or windrows<br />Should be as moist as a wrung out sponge – can cover or add water as needed <br />
  47. 47. Manure Management: Composting Basics<br />C:N ratio – should be 20:1 to 40:1<br />Location away from runoff and water bodies<br />
  48. 48. Ideas to Improve Your Manure Management<br />Cover your manure with a tarp<br />Buy a small manure spreader<br />Build a portable structure over your manure<br />Move manure further from a water body or well<br />Divert water away from your manure storage area<br />Try composting<br />
  49. 49. Biological Control<br />
  50. 50. Why do flies need to complete their life cycles?<br />Appropriate breeding materials<br />Optimum moisture<br />Adequate warmth<br />If eliminate one, prevents breeding<br />
  51. 51. Integrated Fly Control Program<br />Must include:<br />General farm sanitation (manure & organic waste management, including weed control)<br />Moisture control<br />Judicious use of insecticides<br />Mechanical and biological control<br />
  52. 52. Definition of Biological Control<br />Reduction of pest populations by natural enemies, typically involves active human role<br />Biological control agents – predators, parasitoids, pathogens<br />
  53. 53. A Successful Natural Enemy has:<br />A high reproductive rate<br />Good searching ability<br />Host specificity<br />Adaptability to environmental conditions<br />Synchronization with its host (pest)<br />
  54. 54. A Successful Natural Enemy has:<br />Health and robustness <br />Pre-adaptation<br />General mobility<br />Persistence at low prey densities<br />
  55. 55. Predators, parasitoids and pathogens<br />Predators – mainly free-living species that consume a large number of prey during their lifetime, ex. lacewing & lady beetles<br />Parasitoids – species whose immature stage develops on or within a single insect host, ultimately killing the host – ex. many species of wasps, some flies<br />
  56. 56. Predators, parasitoids and pathogens<br />Pathogens – disease-causing organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses that kill and/or debilitate host and are relatively specific to certain insect groups<br />
  57. 57. Horse Insect Pests<br />Mainly the house fly and stable fly<br />Life cycle of fly and parasitoid:<br />Courtesy of Ciba-Geigy Corporation.<br />
  58. 58. Horse Insect Pests<br />House and stable flies can be controlled by parasitoids<br />Parasitic wasps:<br />Spalangiaendius<br />Spalangianigoraenea<br />Spalangiacameroni<br />Spalangianigra<br />Muscidifurax raptor<br />Muscidifuraxzaraptor<br />
  59. 59. Horse Insect Pests<br />Pathogen for use in controlling mosquitoes:<br />Lagenidiumgiganteum<br />Possible future pathogen for use in controlling worms in horses:<br />Duddingtoniaflagrans<br />
  60. 60. Pros of Biological Control<br />Long-term control <br />Relatively inexpensive<br />Target specific<br />Environmentally friendly<br />
  61. 61. Cons of Biological Control<br />Slow to act <br />Less effective<br />Potential non-target effects<br />Requires appropriate timing<br />Requires release of correct number of enemies<br />
  62. 62. How do you use these parasites?<br />They are shipped as parasitized pupae in sawdust <br />You place a small handful on “hot spots” –<br /> roughs in pasture, near water troughs, etc.<br />You dig a ½” hole in ground, drop in a small handful of the sawdust and pupae, and cover with straw, manure or earth to protect against wind, birds or insecticides<br />They travel 30-50 m in search of viable larvae and pupae<br />
  63. 63. When do you use these parasites?<br />Are house flies and stable flies your major problems?<br />Do you have an effective waste management program?<br />Can you get the right type of wasps and are they affordable for you?<br />Is it the right time of year – April 15 – Sept 30 in our area?<br />
  64. 64. How much will this cost?<br />Varies depending on company and number of horses<br />For 1 horse, around $155.00 up to 20 horses for around $400 per shipment<br />
  65. 65. Is it effective?<br />Estimates of success vary<br />Hokkanen and Pimental (1984) estimated level of partial success to be about 14% (1 in 7 attempts), fully successful 5.5% (1 in 18 attempts)<br />2 independent test studies by USDA completely suppressed a population of houseflies w/in 30 d and eliminated stable flies at a poultry house after 98 d<br />
  66. 66. Is it effective?<br />Multi-year study in cooperation with the University of California reported a 93% reduction in the population of common biting stable flies<br />DeBach and Rosen (1991) estimated level of partial success to be about 40% for 416 insect species, fully successful for 18% (75) of these species<br />
  67. 67. Summary: Biological Control<br />Biological control agents can be effective against house and stable flies when used properly<br />Biological control agents are cost effective<br />Biological control methods should be used with other methods such as waste management, weed control, moisture control, and mechanical control<br />More studies are being done, with emerging information in the area of using pathogens, not just parasitoids on horse pests<br />
  68. 68. Websites of Interest<br />http://www.ct.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/rc&d/km_heap-program.html<br />http://www.eXtension.org/horses <br />
  69. 69. Future Webcasts<br />February 10 – Horse Manure Management by Dr. Ann Swinker<br />March 10 – Horse Pasture Management by Dr. David Freeman<br />
  70. 70. Sources<br />Joyce Meader, Livestock Extension Educator, UConn<br />Forages: An Introduction to Grassland Agriculture by Barnes, Miller, and Nelson<br />Picture Aids to Grass Identification by Hartwig<br />Hoffman RM. 2001. Optimal nutrition and supplementation of horses on pasture. Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. 62: 89-99.<br />
  71. 71. Sources<br />Arbico’s Biological Fly Control Program.<br />Biological Control. http://www.equinescienceupdate.co.uk/worm4.htm<br />Biological Control of Flies. Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist. <br />University of Kentucky College of Agriculture.<br />Biological Control of Livestock Pests.<br />http://res2.agr.ca/lethbridge/scitech/kdf/theory.htm<br />Ciba-Geigy Corporation<br />Farm & Ranch Equipment - Fly Parasites<br />http://www.buyfarmstuff.com/products/ranch/fn/fly-p1.htm<br />
  72. 72. Sources<br />Fernandez,AS, Hennigsen E, Larsen M, Nansen P, Gronvold J,<br />Sondergaard J. Equine Veterinary Journal (1999) 31(6): 488-<br />491.<br />http://www.rube-goldberg.com/html/printflyswt.htm<br />http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/Urban/mosqbred.htm<br />Lysyk, T.J. 1993. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and house<br />flies (Diptera:Muscidae)in dairies in Alberta, Canada. Journal of<br />Medical Entomology 30: 888-895.  <br />
  73. 73. Sources<br />Non-Toxic Solutions for Controlling Manure Flies and<br />Biting Flies in Stable and Pastures. IPM Laboratories <br />Weeden, Shelton, Hoffman and Li. Biological Control: A<br />Guide to Natural Enemies in North America. Cornell<br />University.<br />http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/info/biocont.html<br />
  74. 74. Upcoming Events at UConn<br />Connecticut Horse Symposium – March 21/22<br />www.canr.uconn.edu/ansci/equine/horsesymp.htm<br />Sigma Alpha Open Horse Show, UConn – April 18<br />
  75. 75. Upcoming Events at UConn<br />Draft Horse Plow Match, UConn – April TBA<br />4-H Mounted Clinic, Hartford Co. Camp – April 18<br />4-H Hippology Contest, UConn – April 25<br />UConn Horse Auction – April 25<br />Horse Judging Contest, UConn – April 26<br />Riding Camp Safety Certification Clinic – June 6<br />
  76. 76. Questions?<br />For questions or more information<br /> about this and other horse-related <br /> topics: jenifer.nadeau@uconn.edu<br />Website: www.canr.uconn.edu/ansci/equine/extension<br />The University of Connecticut supports all state and federal laws that promote equal opportunity and prohibit discrimination. An equal opportunity employer and program provider.<br />
  77. 77. Questions?<br />
  78. 78. Thank you for attending this live web presentation!<br />For more information about <br />My Horse University please visit us at:<br />www.myhorseuniversity.com<br />info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123<br />

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