Equine Stress (Williams)


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Equine Stress (Williams)

  1. 1. Welcome to this live web presentation featuring:<br />Webcast Expert:<br />Dr. Carey Williams<br />Rutgers University<br />Question Facilitator:<br />Dr. CamieHeleski<br />Michigan State University<br />Contact us!<br />info@myhorseuniversity.com<br />www.myhorseuniversity.com<br />(517) 353-3123<br />Please note: This presentation is intended for users with high-speed internet connections. Unfortunately, we cannot offer support for dial-up users at this time.<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Types of Stress:<br />Physical<br />Psychological<br />Causes of Stress:<br />Temperature<br />Transport<br />Oxidation<br />Effects of Stress:<br />Ulcers<br />Tying-up<br />Summary<br />
  3. 3. What is Stress?<br />The body’s response to anything that it considers threatening<br />Types of stress:<br />Physical<br />Based on physical makeup<br />Ability to respond to changes in diet, injury, etc.<br />Psychological<br />Based on horses personality<br />Its perception to life<br />
  4. 4. Causes of Stress<br />Traveling<br />Showing<br />Irregular feedings<br />Change in other routines<br />Poor nutrition<br /><ul><li> Poor nutrition
  5. 5. Environmental toxins
  6. 6. Social environment
  7. 7. Variations in climate
  8. 8. Illness</li></li></ul><li>Basic Stress Response<br />Change in behavior<br />Moving away from stimulus, swishing tail, tightening of muscles, bucking, etc.<br />Sympathetic nervous system is activated<br />Triggers “Fight or Flight”<br />Involuntary action of intestines, glands and heart<br />Neuroendocrine system is activated<br />Increase in energy utilization<br />
  9. 9. Dealing With Stress<br />Depends on the personality of the horse<br />Demonstrative Confident = lets you know it!<br />Bucks, kicks, bites, curious, mouthy, troublemaker<br />Demonstrative Fearful = worries about everything!<br />Shies the first time, needs time to relax<br />
  10. 10. Dealing with Stress<br />Passive Fearful = wants to please!<br />Seems willing, tight muscles and lips, won’t show fear until pushed over the limit<br />Passive Confident = what’s everyone worried about?<br />Not normally stressed, internalizes stress, shows little change<br />
  11. 11. Heat Stress<br />Heat production will increase up to 50 % during exercise<br />Normal response to heat stress:<br /> sweating rate (abnormal = anhidrosis)<br />Blood moves to capillaries under the skin<br />respiratory rate<br />
  12. 12. Signs of Heat Stress<br />No sweating (Anhidrosis)<br />Skin will be hot and dry<br />Horse lacks major cooling system - evaporation<br />Rapid HR<br />50 + at rest<br />Rapid breathing<br />20 + at rest<br />High rectal temperature<br />104 ° F<br />
  13. 13. Treating Heat Stress<br />Move to a shady area<br />Provide fans, wind or other ventilation<br />Spray legs with cold water<br />Allow to drink small amounts of cold water frequently<br />Provide electrolytes<br />
  14. 14. Treating Heat Stress<br />If severe:<br />Vet will give cold water enemas<br />Treat for dehydration<br />Skin pinch test<br />Mucous membranes<br />Once overheated they <br />are more likely to<br />overheat again<br />
  15. 15. Preventing Heat Stress<br />Provide regular electrolytes in hot weather<br /> the amount of grain and  the forage<br /> fat in the diet<br />Properly cool down after exercise<br />Provide plenty of ventilation<br />
  16. 16. Cold Stress<br />Horses fight cold weather by using more energy to stay warm<br />You would have to supply 2 lb of feed for each 10 degree F below critical temp <br />In order to replace the energy lost during thermoregulation<br />Know your horse is loosing too much heat if snow melts on his back instead of accumulating<br />
  17. 17. Dealing with Cold Stress<br />Precondition horse for COLD WEATHER<br />Feed free choice grass hay<br />Provide shelter from wind, rain and cold<br />Blanket horses not ‘allowed’ in shelters<br />
  18. 18. Why Do Horses Get Transport Stress?<br />Physical factors: <br />Unnatural sense of confinement<br />Withholding food and/or water<br />Noise and vibration of a moving vehicle<br />Balancing and bouncing during the ride <br />Poor ventilation <br />Presence of exhaust, dust, molds, manure, and urine<br />
  19. 19. Why Do Horses Get Transport Stress?<br />Psychological factors: <br />Separation from the herd<br />Exposure to strange animals and environment<br />Climatic factors: <br />High internal temperature <br /> and humidity<br />Health factors:<br />Dehydration and fatigue<br />
  20. 20. Transport Stress<br />Shipping Fever – respiratory disease during or shortly after a trip<br />Primary factor is a suppression of the immune system due to stress of the trip<br />Transport stress can also cause:<br />fluid intake, loss of appetite, hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia, weight loss, dust inhalation and coughing, diarrhea, colic, and tying-up<br />
  21. 21. Effects of Transport Stress<br />Studies have investigated:<br />Horse orientation, design of the suspension and ventilation, quality of the transport environment, amount of stress<br /> levels of Cortisol(stress hormone)<br /> heart rate variability (HRV)<br />Weight loss of ~ 6 % during a 24 hr haul<br />Recovered ½ of weight lost over the 24 hr recovery<br />Muscle enzymes (CK & AST)  after a 24 hr haul<br />
  22. 22. Decrease Transport Stress<br />Keep total travel time under 12 h<br />If not plan over night stops<br />Stop every 3 to 4 hrs <br />Offer water every 6 to 8 hrs<br />Clean the trailer thoroughly after each use<br />Leave your horse’s head untied, or loosely tied<br />This way they can lower his head to cough<br />
  23. 23. Decrease Transport Stress<br />Give your horse a few days to recover<br />Record daily rectal temperatures <br />Provide things the horse is used to<br />I.e. usual hay, feed, water, bedding, etc.<br />Leave a window or vent open<br />Horses are much more tolerant of cold than we are<br />
  24. 24. Decrease Transport Stress<br />Dietary adjustments necessary?<br />Bran mashes not necessary<br />Vitamin C to increase immune system<br />Vaccinate your horses against respiratory disease at least 2 weeks before <br />Don’t ship a sick horse<br />Allow extra time incase of an emergency<br />
  25. 25. What Causes Oxidative Stress?<br />Inflammation<br />Reproduction<br />UV Rays<br />Other Stresses<br />Bacterial Infection<br />Rapid Growth<br />Viral Infection<br />Poor Nutrition<br />Protozoa<br />Environmental Toxins<br />Exercise<br />
  26. 26. O2•HO•H2O2<br />O2 + 4 e- + 4 H+ 2 H2O<br />Oxidative Metabolism<br />ROS are intermediates formed during metabolism of oxygen<br />
  27. 27. Reactive Oxygen Species<br />Harmful effects:<br />Degrade proteins, DNA and PUFAs<br />Cell environment is compromised<br />Include:<br />Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)<br />Singlet oxygen (1O2)<br />Free radicals<br />
  28. 28. H2O<br />Oxidative Damage<br />*OH<br />
  29. 29. Antioxidant Mechanisms<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />*OH<br />H2O<br />H2O<br />*OH<br />E<br />E<br />E<br />E<br />E<br />
  30. 30. Antioxidant Action<br />Oxidation<br />Antioxidant<br />Free Radicals<br />Stable Chemical<br />Stable Chemicals<br />
  31. 31. Antioxidants<br />Antioxidant supplements:<br />Vitamin E (most common)<br />Vitamin C<br />Beta-Carotene<br />Glutathione<br />Lipoic Acid<br />Selenium<br />Cysteine<br />
  32. 32. Antioxidant Interaction<br />adapted from Sen and Packer, 2000<br />+<br />2 Cys<br />Vit E<br />DHLA<br />Cystine<br />GSH<br />Vit E•<br />DHAA<br />LA<br />GSSG<br />Vit C<br />
  33. 33. Antioxidant Supplementation<br />May be needed for:<br />Growth<br />Reproduction<br />Transport<br />Strenuous exercise<br />Illness <br />Any other stresses<br />Avoid over-supplementation<br />Mixtures work best<br />
  34. 34. Are you giving your horse an ulcer?<br />Ulcers affect:<br />80-90 % of all race horses<br />60 % of all performance horses<br />30-40 % of all dressage horses<br />
  35. 35. Equine Ulcers<br />Horses secrete stomach acid even when not eating<br />Only ½ of stomach can handle acid<br />When a horse grazes all day the roughage absorbs acid<br />Saliva produced also neutralizes acid<br />Grain increases ‘gastrin’, which stimulates acid secretion<br />
  36. 36. Causes of Ulcers<br />Main causes of ulcers:<br />Changes in eating behavior<br />Changes in training intensity<br />Horses that are used to being outside can develop ulcers in 1 week after being kept inside<br />Could be as early as 24 hours<br />
  37. 37. Signs of Ulcers<br />Change in attitude<br />Poor appetite<br />Colic<br />Decreased performance<br />Decrease in body condition<br />Weight loss<br />Dull or sour attitude<br />Prevent ulcers by preventing stress!<br />Also limit the use of Bute<br />
  38. 38. ExertionalRhabdomyolysis<br />Tying-up/Azoturia/Monday Morning Sickness<br />Muscle pain associated with exercise<br />Sporadic and chronic forms<br />Different causes among breeds and types of horses<br />Leads to poor performance and may end career<br />
  39. 39. Recurrent ER<br />Primarily affects Thoroughbreds<br />but may occur in Standardbreds and Arabians<br />Nervous 2 yr old TB fillies most severely affected<br />May increase in severity as fitness increases<br />Stress often creates and/or induces episode<br />Elevations of CK and AST intermittent<br />Hereditary condition<br />
  40. 40. Clinical Signs<br />
  41. 41. Managing the Episode<br />Move into box stall initially for up to 24 hrs<br />Call your veterinarian <br />Blanket horse if weather is cool or hose horse to remove sweat if weather is warm<br />Check for dehydration<br />Small frequent sips of water when horse is hot<br />Free access to water when horse is cool<br />
  42. 42. Minimizing Stress<br />Keep horses turned out if at all possible<br />If not possible, feed ad libitumhay<br />Stick to a routine<br />If you need to make changes, do so slowly<br />When traveling take items that are familiar <br />I.e. own hay, water, grain, etc. <br />Avoid riding in extreme conditions<br />Feed a well balanced diet<br />
  43. 43. Minimizing Stress<br />Maintain a good health program<br />Provide a pleasant environment<br />Provide regular varied exercise<br />Allow for play time<br />Prevent boredom<br />Allow your horse social activity<br />Keep yourself happy and healthy!<br />
  44. 44. What’s in Those Calming Aids?<br />Supplements have been designed to ‘decrease stress’ or ‘calm a nervous horse’<br />Thiamin, Magnesium, and Taurine combined with other B-complex vitamins <br />Tryptophan, insitol, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, B12<br />Little research<br />Lots of testimonials<br />
  45. 45. Equine Science Center<br />Better horse care through research & education<br />Thank You!<br />Carey Williams, Ph.D.<br />Equine Extension Specialist<br />cwilliams@aesop.rutgers.edu<br />www.esc.rutgers.edu<br />
  46. 46. Thank you for attending this live web presentation!<br />For more information about <br />My Horse University and its online program,<br />Please visit us at:<br />www.myhorseuniversity.com<br />Contact us!<br />info@myhorseuniversity.com<br />www.myhorseuniversity.com<br />(517) 353-3123<br /> My Horse University is a national online program based at Michigan State University in partnership with eXtension and Equisearch.<br />