From  Introduction to Game Studies ,  Ch 2 & 3 Thanks to Frans Mäyrä & SAGE Publications Meaning in Games & Games and Play...
Frans Mäyrä  <ul><li>Frans Mäyrä  is a professor of digital culture and game studies in the University of Tampere, Finland...
Games and Meaning <ul><li>Games and play carry meaning - even in their pre-cultural form (e.g. puppies and kittens playing...
The Dialectic of Core and Shell Image credits: Frans Mäyrä Chapter 2
Experiential Gameplay <ul><li>This leads to the dual structure of games: the ‘core’ (gameplay) and ‘shell’ (symbolic repre...
Understanding the Core <ul><li>Core gameplay is something that is born directly from the rule set of game. </li></ul><ul><...
Understanding the Shell <ul><li>Representation appears secondary to the core of game: being active during in its gameplay....
Internal meanings <ul><li>In musicology, intramusical (non-referential) meanings are separated from referential meanings. ...
Games and Rules in Cultures <ul><li>Learning a game involves learning its rules. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Salen & Zi...
Huizinga and the Magic Circle <ul><li>Philosopher Johan Huizinga has argued that key cultural characteristics of games inc...
Game Dynamics <ul><li>Dynamics means the ‘forces or motions that characterise a system’. AKA Relationships/mechanics. </li...
Conventional  Forms of Game and Play <ul><li>Roger Caillois identified four main types of games, and two different attitud...
Two Senses of Culture <ul><li>‘ Culture’ is something that humans have and do. </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded with significance ...
Cultural Roles of Games <ul><li>Games of chance and skill have a long history. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also sport and ...
Subcultures <ul><li>Subcultures are groups of people who have some practices, values and interests in common, and who form...
Games and Identity <ul><li>Only a small number of people who sometimes play digital games identify themselves as ‘gamers’ ...
Hegemony <ul><li>Cultural hegemony means the unquestioned domination by certain consensus views and values (orig. Antonio ...
Perspectives for Digital Game History <ul><li>Digital game history not yet academically established as a domain of study. ...
Art Historical Perspective <ul><li>Aims to describe in formal and aesthetical terms the development of digital games. </li...
Software Industry Perspective <ul><li>Focusing on the industry’s historical events and developments in the market place. <...
Technology History Perspective <ul><li>Fans are already engaged in cataloguing the various gaming devices of the past. </l...
Social Historical Perspective <ul><li>Studying technology in relation to the social history. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.  how c...
History of Mentalities Perspective <ul><li>‘ Mentality’: loosely means ‘collective consciousness’ of a time. </li></ul><ul...
Games Historiography <ul><li>Games historiography is creating meta-history. </li></ul><ul><li>Making sense of how we write...
Multiple Layers in Games <ul><li>Juul: “video games are  real  in that they consist of real rules with which players actua...
Earliest Digital Games <ul><li>Impulse to ‘hack’, or play around with computers’ possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in ...
Tic-Tac-Toe  (A. S. Douglas, 1952) <ul><li>Early demonstration of  computer game with  graphical user interface:  ‘OXO’, a...
Other Early Demonstrations <ul><li>In January 1947, a patent application for a ‘cathode-ray amusement device ’ was recorde...
Early Commercial Video Games <ul><li>Engineer Ralph Baer developed a commercial television game system in 1966-1969. </li>...
Games of Magnavox Odyssey Source:  http://www.pong-story.com/odyssey.htm   Magnavox Odyssey Game Overlays . Image credit: ...
From  Spacewar!  (1962) to Atari <ul><li>Stephen ‘Slug’ Russell, with fellow students, implemented an early ‘space shooter...
Play as Performance <ul><li>According to sociologist Erving Goffman (1959), performance is “ all of the activity of a give...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Week 3 Game Design

2,090 views

Published on

This is the week three study guide for PTC 2956 at Montana Tech

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,090
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
72
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Week 3 Game Design

    1. 1. From Introduction to Game Studies , Ch 2 & 3 Thanks to Frans Mäyrä & SAGE Publications Meaning in Games & Games and Play in History MontanaTech
    2. 2. Frans Mäyrä <ul><li>Frans Mäyrä is a professor of digital culture and game studies in the University of Tampere, Finland. His background is in comparative literature and the arts studies, and topics he explores include fantasy, science fiction, horror fiction, video games, and digital culture. He was the founding president of DiGRA (Digital Games Research Association) and heads the Games Research Lab in Tampere. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.uta.fi/~tlilma/index.html </li></ul>
    3. 3. Games and Meaning <ul><li>Games and play carry meaning - even in their pre-cultural form (e.g. puppies and kittens playing). </li></ul><ul><li>Our perceptions of reality are socially and culturally constructed through “social constructionism.” </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is a system that is based on communication of meaning. “Cultural Anthropology” is close to sociology in its holistic inquiry into humanity and all its dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sense, culture means ‘system of beliefs, values, customs, behaviours and artefacts’ that are shared by certain people and transmitted through learning. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    4. 4. The Dialectic of Core and Shell Image credits: Frans Mäyrä Chapter 2
    5. 5. Experiential Gameplay <ul><li>This leads to the dual structure of games: the ‘core’ (gameplay) and ‘shell’ (symbolic representation) both need to be taken into account while analysing and understanding games. </li></ul><ul><li>Gameplay can be understood as non-linguistic performance (eg. dance, music). The PHENOMENOLOGICAL ‘PERFORMANCE” of gameplay. (ie the Walkthrough on page 15). Focuses on “narrative” of the experience. The CORE. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, there are also signs and symbols in games, constructing meaning through semiotics and representation systems. The SHELL. </li></ul>Chapter 2 – pages 14 – 15 – Your paper will focus on this approach.
    6. 6. Understanding the Core <ul><li>Core gameplay is something that is born directly from the rule set of game. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules can be written down, transferred elsewhere, and the ‘same game’ played using a different game board and playing pieces, for example. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus a game of chess is still chess, even if it is played using differently shaped playing pieces. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    7. 7. Understanding the Shell <ul><li>Representation appears secondary to the core of game: being active during in its gameplay. </li></ul><ul><li>However, digital games can also be approached as parts of digital media. </li></ul><ul><li>The images, characters, storylines, sounds and music of games all contribute to the shell, or the representational layer of games. </li></ul><ul><li>The shell is where games can be interpreted to “carry a message”, and many players love or hate, agree or disagree, with games on the basis of this shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, core and shell, or gameplay and representation, should be considered as equally important parts of contemporary digital games. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    8. 8. Internal meanings <ul><li>In musicology, intramusical (non-referential) meanings are separated from referential meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, games’ meanings can refer only to the game itself (internal meanings) or refer outside of the game (communication of some referential content). </li></ul><ul><li>Core gameplay is mostly internal (SZ call it closed system.) </li></ul><ul><li>While the shell of the game is more likely to convey referential communication (SZ call this open system.) </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive understanding of games’ meanings needs to take into account both game-internal and external, or referential signification. SZ’s “Experiential” approach of both open and closed systems. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    9. 9. Games and Rules in Cultures <ul><li>Learning a game involves learning its rules. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Salen & Zimmerman, game rules are multi-dimensional: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operational rules (guidelines for play) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constituative rules (underlying logical structures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implicit rules (proper player behaviour). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implicit rules about games extend far in culture, informing the basic sense of what game ‘is’, and why and how they should be played. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    10. 10. Huizinga and the Magic Circle <ul><li>Philosopher Johan Huizinga has argued that key cultural characteristics of games include that games are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free and voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separate from everyday reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>created and maintained by communities of players. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This separation (known as the ‘magic circle’ of games) situates game activities within a world of their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Games are (or, should be) only governed by the internal logic of play. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    11. 11. Game Dynamics <ul><li>Dynamics means the ‘forces or motions that characterise a system’. AKA Relationships/mechanics. </li></ul><ul><li>In a dynamic game, a previous move influences moves that are made after it. </li></ul><ul><li>In digital games, dynamics involve e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dynamics of conflict (between players, between the player and the environment, or a challenge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spatial dynamics (space affects player actions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temporal dynamics (time affects player actions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social dynamics (social relationships affect the game system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economical dynamics (money or some exchangeable game resources affect the game system). </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
    12. 12. Conventional Forms of Game and Play <ul><li>Roger Caillois identified four main types of games, and two different attitudes of play: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competition games ( agôn ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>games of chance ( alea ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simulation games ( mimicry ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical, ‘vertigo’ games ( ilinx ). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two styles of play: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paidia (improvised free play, playful behaviour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ludus (more convention based, rule-bound play). </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2 – Also refer to page 207 in Salen Zimmerman
    13. 13. Two Senses of Culture <ul><li>‘ Culture’ is something that humans have and do. </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded with significance and value. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally means ‘high culture’: “contact with the best which has been thought and said in the world” (Matthew Arnold). </li></ul><ul><li>Current academic use is based on anthropology. </li></ul><ul><li>In this sense, culture means ‘system of beliefs, values, customs, behaviours and artefacts’ that are shared by certain people and transmitted through learning. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    14. 14. Cultural Roles of Games <ul><li>Games of chance and skill have a long history. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also sport and outdoor games, card and board games, as well as building and simulation activities, such as the use of dolls and toys that have influenced contemporary digital games. </li></ul><ul><li>These popular forms of entertainment have not traditionally been considered ‘high culture’. </li></ul><ul><li>In modern society, digital games are mostly understood as part of ‘popular culture’, alongside popular movies, genre literature or pop music etc. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    15. 15. Subcultures <ul><li>Subcultures are groups of people who have some practices, values and interests in common, and who form a distinct group within contemporary culture and society. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital game players sometimes develop distinctive subcultures of their own. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. some shooter game fans can develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shared rituals (regular LAN parties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared language (slang of ‘fragging’ their enemies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interest in artefacts and memorabilia (game boxes etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared space (physical and virtual meeting spaces). </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
    16. 16. Games and Identity <ul><li>Only a small number of people who sometimes play digital games identify themselves as ‘gamers’ or game hobbyists. </li></ul><ul><li>So-called ‘casual gamers’ do not display such clear signs of their association with games as do ‘hardcore gamers’. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of identity is further complicated by the fact that some people intensely play ‘casual games’ (e.g. solitaire) - often without considering themselves ‘gamers’. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity is produced in multiple ways, in talk and action, explicitly and by more implicit means. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    17. 17. Hegemony <ul><li>Cultural hegemony means the unquestioned domination by certain consensus views and values (orig. Antonio Gramsci’s concept). </li></ul><ul><li>In game cultures and media, certain kinds of games appear to receive most of the attention. </li></ul><ul><li>A critic of game cultures should pay attention to this and try to uncover, for instance, the roots of why violent games receive most mainstream media attention. </li></ul>Chapter 2
    18. 18. Perspectives for Digital Game History <ul><li>Digital game history not yet academically established as a domain of study. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple perspectives available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>art historical perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>software industry perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology history perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social historical perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>history of mentalities perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>games historiography, or meta-history. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 3
    19. 19. Art Historical Perspective <ul><li>Aims to describe in formal and aesthetical terms the development of digital games. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives grounds for what the artistic and aesthetic criteria are for games’ audiovisual and interaction design in different decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides perspective on how the concept of a ‘good’ or original game has changed over the years. </li></ul>Chapter 3
    20. 20. Software Industry Perspective <ul><li>Focusing on the industry’s historical events and developments in the market place. </li></ul><ul><li>Some alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a case study approach; e.g. David Sheff, Game Over (1999), a book about Nintendo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positioning games industry within the larger historical context of the software industry; e.g. Martin Campbell-Kelly, From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industry critique; e.g. Kline, Dyer-Witheford and Du Peyter, Digital Play (2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biographical studies of industry luminaries. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 3
    21. 21. Technology History Perspective <ul><li>Fans are already engaged in cataloguing the various gaming devices of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic history of gaming technology would attempt to understand the wider social and cultural dynamics behind the changing hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>c.f. published work in journals such as Technology and Culture , from the Society for the History of Technology. </li></ul>Chapter 3
    22. 22. Social Historical Perspective <ul><li>Studying technology in relation to the social history. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. how changes in the family or working life, the amount of leisure time and money available to people from different social backgrounds, are related to the rise of a phenomenon like digital games. </li></ul><ul><li>In more detail: social history of science and technology, the social-technological developments in different countries, the alternative or subversive histories of technologies as socially-constructed reality. </li></ul>Chapter 3
    23. 23. History of Mentalities Perspective <ul><li>‘ Mentality’: loosely means ‘collective consciousness’ of a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Histories of mentalities try to make sense of how certain kind of ideas or practices become prevalent in some contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Often done as ‘micro-histories’: studies that focus on small scale. </li></ul><ul><li>A small group of people who at some point played or designed computer games might be a focus of such a micro-history. </li></ul>Chapter 3
    24. 24. Games Historiography <ul><li>Games historiography is creating meta-history. </li></ul><ul><li>Making sense of how we write about the history of games: what kind of activity it actually is, and what are the narratives, interpretations or other ‘discursive rules’ that govern this kind of writing. </li></ul>Chapter 3
    25. 25. Multiple Layers in Games <ul><li>Juul: “video games are real in that they consist of real rules with which players actually interact”; yet the digital game worlds are fictional - thus games are ‘half-real’. </li></ul><ul><li>Salen & Zimmerman: “A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that result in quantifiable outcome.” </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘core’ game becomes realised during meaningful play at the multiple levels or schemas of rules, play and culture. </li></ul>Chapter 3 Primary Schemas . Image credits: Katie Salen, Eric Zimmerman & The MIT Press. RULES PLAY CULTURE
    26. 26. Earliest Digital Games <ul><li>Impulse to ‘hack’, or play around with computers’ possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in 1945, Alan Turing used chess playing as an example of what computer could do. </li></ul><ul><li>The first functional chess program was written in 1950. </li></ul><ul><li>UNIVAC, the first commercial computer, had construction costs close to one million dollars in 1951 - its use was extremely expensive and controlled. </li></ul>Chapter 3 –
    27. 27. Tic-Tac-Toe (A. S. Douglas, 1952) <ul><li>Early demonstration of computer game with graphical user interface: ‘OXO’, a version of tic-tac-toe for the British EDSAC computer. </li></ul><ul><li>See: http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~edsac/ </li></ul>Chapter 3 Tic-Tac-Toe, created by A. S. Douglas, 1952 . Image credit: Martin Campbell-Kelly, Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick.
    28. 28. Other Early Demonstrations <ul><li>In January 1947, a patent application for a ‘cathode-ray amusement device ’ was recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The patent was granted to an electronic missile firing game, designed by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1958, Willy Higginbotham, working for Brookhaven National Laboratory, implemented a two-player tennis game using analogue computer and an oscilloscope for display. </li></ul><ul><li>See ‘Tennis for Two’ video youtube. </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =d0K9WwmpFSk </li></ul>Chapter 3
    29. 29. Early Commercial Video Games <ul><li>Engineer Ralph Baer developed a commercial television game system in 1966-1969. </li></ul><ul><li>The system became known as Magnavox Odyssey - it came packed with twelve games. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Games of Magnavox Odyssey Source: http://www.pong-story.com/odyssey.htm Magnavox Odyssey Game Overlays . Image credit: David Winter, PONG-Story. And then Along came Nolan Bushnell, Founder of Atari and … PONG!!
    31. 31. From Spacewar! (1962) to Atari <ul><li>Stephen ‘Slug’ Russell, with fellow students, implemented an early ‘space shooter’ game for DEC Digital PDP-1 computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Nolan Bushnell, with Ted Dabney, developed coin-operated arcade game Computer Space , released by Nutting Associates in 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>Bushnell and Dabney founded Atari, Inc. in 1972, and released their tennis game, PONG, developed by engineer Al Alcorn. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanders/Magnavox sued Atari, which settled out of court and paid licence fees to produce electronic ping-pong games – the video game industry had been born. </li></ul>Chapter 3
    32. 32. Play as Performance <ul><li>According to sociologist Erving Goffman (1959), performance is “ all of the activity of a given participant on a given occasion which serves to influence in any way any of the other participants”. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Schechner (2002) has provided a continuum of performance-related phenomena: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>play – games – sports – pop entertainments –performing arts – daily life – ritual. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Games take place as play, and this can mean very different things depending on how the game is performed. </li></ul>Chapter 3 – see diagram on page 46

    ×