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Television: Broadcast and Beyond


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Television: Broadcast and Beyond

  1. 1. Television: Broadcast and Beyond Resource Textbook: Ralph E. Hanson, Mass Communication: Living in a Media World
  2. 2. Invention of Television <ul><li>Philo T. Farnsworth </li></ul><ul><li>1922: Diagrams plans for television at age 16. </li></ul><ul><li>1930: Receives patent cathode ray tube. </li></ul><ul><li>RCA attempted to promote its own Vladimir Zworykin as inventor of TV. </li></ul><ul><li>1947: Farnsworth ’s television patent expires a year before TV starts to take off. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Beginning of Broadcast Television <ul><li>1939: NBC starts broadcasting, most sets in bars, restaurants. </li></ul><ul><li>1942: TV manufacturing suspended for duration of World War II; most stations go off air. </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing of new TV stations suspended 1948–1952, leaving many cities without television. </li></ul>Philco TV, pre 1940
  4. 4. Examples of Live TV, Late 40s <ul><li>Texaco Star Theatre, Milton Berle </li></ul><ul><li>Political campaign/Swifts Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>NBC Promo Howdy Doody </li></ul><ul><li>Howdy Doody Theme Song </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lucy & Desi End Live TV <ul><li>1951: Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz create I Love Lucy. </li></ul><ul><li>First sitcom to be filmed, rather than live. </li></ul><ul><li>Lucy and Desi hold onto syndication rights to show. Still being broadcast today. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Color Television <ul><li>1950s: Early experiments in color TV. </li></ul><ul><li>1965: Big Three networks broadcasting in color </li></ul><ul><li>NBC peacock logo designed to tell black-and-white viewers that a show was in color </li></ul><ul><li>Early color TVs cost the equivalent of big screen TVs today </li></ul>
  7. 7. Beginning of Cable Television <ul><li>Community Antenna Television (CATV) Early form of cable television used to distribute broadcast channels in communities with poor television reception. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively expensive, was source of a good TV signal, not additional programming. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rebirth of Cable <ul><li>By mid-1970s, FCC began loosening rules on cable companies. </li></ul><ul><li>1975: HBO starts providing programming nationwide, sending signal to local cable companies via satellite. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Point: HBO could send programming to 1,000 cable companies as cheaply as to one. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ted Turner—Cable Pioneer <ul><li>1963: Inherits failing billboard company from father. </li></ul><ul><li>1970: Buys Channel 17 in Atlanta. </li></ul><ul><li>Buys Atlanta Braves and Hawks sports franchises to provide programming for channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Turns Channel 17 into Superstation WTBS in 1976, takes the local station national. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ted Turner – Cable Pioneer <ul><li>1980: CNN becomes first cable 24-hour news network. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed idea of repackaging content across multiple channels. </li></ul><ul><li>1996: Turner Broadcasting faces financial trouble, is acquired by media giant Time Warner. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What ’s on Cable? <ul><li>Affiliates of Big Four broadcast networks </li></ul><ul><li>Independents and smaller network affiliates </li></ul><ul><li>Superstations </li></ul><ul><li>Local-access channels </li></ul><ul><li>Cable networks </li></ul><ul><li>Premium channels </li></ul><ul><li>Pay-per-view </li></ul><ul><li>Audio services </li></ul>
  12. 12. Home Recording <ul><li>Late 1970s: Videocassette Recorder (VCR) becomes household appliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Movie studios fight spread of VCRs, but 1984 Supreme Court decision says consumers can make recordings for own use. </li></ul><ul><li>21st century: DVRs, DVDs, on-demand replacing VCR technology. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) <ul><li>Early satellite TV required large/expensive dish. </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller pizza-sized DBS cheaper, easier to use than old systems; competing with cable. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2008, 24% of American households have DBS. </li></ul>Satellite dish art
  14. 14. Conversion to Digital Broadcasting <ul><li>Farnsworth ’s television technology was analog. Basic technology stayed the same for decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Black-and-white televisions could still receive new color signals. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009, all broadcast television converted to digital, old-style analog sets went dark without either conversion box or cable/satellite. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Digital Television <ul><li>High-definition television (HDTV) High-resolution, wide-screen format with enhanced sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard digital television Same quality as analog, but can broadcast up to six channels in airspace that carried one old-style channel. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Networks and Affiliates <ul><li>Broadcast networks provide programming to local affiliate stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliates have license from FCC, equipment, and local staff. </li></ul><ul><li>If affiliate carries programming from network, get limited ad revenue and (may) get carriage fee. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also carry local and syndicated programming, keep all ad revenue. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Public Broadcasting <ul><li>1967: Corporation for Public Broadcasting created. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Broadcasting System (PBS) provides network-like programming to member stations. </li></ul><ul><li>PBS initially known for children ’s programming like Sesame Street. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Big Three Becomes Big Four <ul><li>1986: Rupert Murdoch launches Fox Network </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted independent stations by offering them free programming. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows like NFL football, The Simpsons , American Idol , and House have made Fox top-rated broadcaster. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Audience Ratings <ul><li>Challenge of rating major and minor broadcast networks, major cable networks, and minor cable networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of counting DVR audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Nielsen Media Research is major rating company. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Measuring Audiences <ul><li>People Meters used in larger markets </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeps periods used to measure audience size of individual stations </li></ul><ul><li>Rating point Percentage of potential television audience actually watching the show. </li></ul><ul><li>Share Percentage of television sets in use tuned to a show. </li></ul>
  21. 21. An Earthquake in Slow Motion <ul><li>1976: Average viewer has 7 channels, Big Three networks have 90 percent of viewers. </li></ul><ul><li>1991: Average viewer has 33 channels, Big Three lose one-third of viewers. </li></ul><ul><li>1998: VH-1 out-earns three of four top broadcast networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Cable/Satellite more profitable because programming cheaper to produce, get subscription fees and ad revenue. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Diversity on Television <ul><li>Networks frequently criticized for ignoring people of color. </li></ul><ul><li>2008 study showed television much whiter than American population. </li></ul><ul><li>But shows like Grey ’s Anatomy and Lost have done “color blind” casting. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey ’s Anatomy producer says shows need to move beyond the “sassy black friend.” </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of non-English speaking characters. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Black Entertainment Network <ul><li>1980: Washington, DC area local station </li></ul><ul><li>First black-owned cable network </li></ul><ul><li>Worth $2 billion at time it was sold to Viacom </li></ul>
  24. 24. Television as a Social Force <ul><li>Television brings world into the home in an easy-to-consume format. </li></ul><ul><li>Television becomes dominant source of shared experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Television can dominate people ’s leisure activity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Audience Members as Active Consumers <ul><li>Why do children choose to consume television? </li></ul><ul><li>To be entertained </li></ul><ul><li>To learn things </li></ul><ul><li>For social reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Different children watch for different reasons and get different outcomes from their viewing </li></ul><ul><li>(They aren ’t that different from adults….) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Standards for Television <ul><li>1950s: Married couples had to sleep in separate beds; Capri pants immodest. </li></ul><ul><li>1990s: Mild nudity appears on broadcast television. </li></ul><ul><li>1997: Broadcasters implement content ratings. </li></ul><ul><li>2004: Janet Jackson ’s Super Bowl “wardrobe malfunction”; decency rules become much stricter. </li></ul>