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  1. 1. ACTIVISM Performance and Performitivity
  2. 2. RESISTANT PERFORMANCE By: Marvin Carlson <ul><li>BIOGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>Ph.D. in drama and theatre from Cornell University </li></ul><ul><li>City University of New York Graduate Center in the Ph .D. program of Theatre and Comparative Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Researching and teaching include dramatic theatre and literature, as well as Western European theatre history of the18 th ,19 th , and 20 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>ACHIEVEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>ATHE Career Achievement Award </li></ul><ul><li>George Jean Nathan Prize </li></ul><ul><li>Bernard Hewitt Prize </li></ul><ul><li>George Freedley Award </li></ul><ul><li>A Guggenheim Fellowship </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, his book The Haunted Stage won the Callaway Prize </li></ul><ul><li>His best known book, Theories of the Theatre has been translated into five different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Awarded honorary doctorate from University of Athens in 2005 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Summary <ul><li>Modern Women’s Movement- late 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miss America Pageant- 1968 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WITCH (Women’s International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guerrilla & other street theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Ulrike Rosenbach & Valie Export- “Feminist actionism” </li></ul><ul><li>Freud- male as dominant subject in patriarchal culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men as viewer, women as desirable object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judith Butler- gender a “performative,” aka a “doing” </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Agency </li></ul><ul><li>“ The master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house” - Audre Lorde </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Mimicry’- make spectacle of oneself in order to draw attention to the spectacle itself </li></ul><ul><li>Gay and lesbian camp performances are strong examples of resistant performance </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lateral Research <ul><li>The system: traditional theatre and visual art assumes a male spectator and offers females as the “other” – “the object of the male’s desiring gaze” (Carlson 233) </li></ul><ul><li>relates to Laura Mulvey’s theory of “the male gaze” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discusses how “mainstream Hollywood films represent women characters as passive objects of male sexual desire” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theory of the male gaze: male characters are “bearers of the look” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women are seen as objects both physically & sexually and also desirable characters  “cultural practice that has made of woman an object, a category, a sign” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ watch cinematic films through the eyes of the dominant male protagonists…”  “The traditional audience is assumed to be the male subject, and the woman on stage” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. GUERRILLA GIRLS Case Study #1 Reinventing the ‘F’ word – feminism
  6. 6. Relevance <ul><li>What word associations do you make when you hear the term ‘guerrilla’? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity, Aggressive, Destructive, Powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Guerrilla Girls strive to incorporate these aspects into their art </li></ul><ul><li>Guerrilla art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>term refers to art that is created in the streets opposed to government sponsored, commercial venues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional graffiti, flash mobbing,... </li></ul>
  7. 7. Guerrilla History <ul><li>Guerrilla girls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed in New York in 1985 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily created to grab people’s attention regarding the male dominated art world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ‘comic book’ style and humour to grab people’s attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 5% of the artists in the MET's modern art sections were women, but 85% of the nudes were female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The following is their most famous poster which is seen in a variety of texts </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Public Sphere <ul><li>Invasive- gives little option to viewer </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing a lesser subject to the attention of the public </li></ul><ul><li>Not defeated by commercial art </li></ul><ul><li>Comic book style </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Bright colour scheme </li></ul><ul><li>They represent in costume as well; gorilla mask, mini skirt with fish net stockings, and take on dead female celebrity names </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport with their viewer- more interactive </li></ul>Guerrilla Art
  9. 10. Class Discussion <ul><li>Do you think that resistant performance is a good method to generate a message? Do you think that the Guerrilla Girls encapsulate all the elements of resistant performance? If not, what elements do you think they need to incorporate? </li></ul>
  10. 11. PARDON ME BUT THE ART IS MOUTHING OFF By: Jori Finkel <ul><li>Lynn Hershman </li></ul><ul><li>64yr old digital media artist </li></ul><ul><li>Completed her Masters in Art </li></ul><ul><li>Explored artificial intelligence and virtual reality </li></ul><ul><li>Participated in activities such as photography, painting, performance art, video, laserdiscs, DVD’s, web-based work, artificial intelligences and interactive sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>A pioneer in interactive computer and net based media arts </li></ul><ul><li>1993 Donald Hess bought the entire Roberta archives </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Dietz displayed Lynn’s work at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis </li></ul><ul><li>University of California Press published an anthology that consisted of 10yrs documenting various projects of Lynn </li></ul><ul><li>DINA’s Programmer: Colin Klingman </li></ul>
  11. 12. Hershmann’s Projects Creating Roberta Breitmore 1974- 1978 <ul><li>Character Study </li></ul><ul><li>Divorced, blonde, heavy makeup and depressed </li></ul><ul><li>Owned her own apartment, had a drivers license and 2 credit cards </li></ul><ul><li>After 3yrs Kristine Stiles took over the role of Roberta </li></ul>
  12. 13. Creating Lorna- 1 st Interactive Laserdisc 1984 <ul><li>Originally conceived as an interactive game </li></ul><ul><li>Always prevailed a sad portrait of a woman (like Roberta) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Movie: Conceiving Ada (1997) <ul><li>Bringing Ada Lovelace (Lord Byron’s daughter) back to life through computer programming </li></ul>
  14. 15. Movie: Teknolust (2002) <ul><li>A story of a geeky biogeneticist who uses her own DNA to create 3 computer-bred clones </li></ul><ul><li>Marinne </li></ul><ul><li>Olive </li></ul><ul><li>Ruby </li></ul>
  15. 16. Creating DINA (2004) <ul><li>Originally could only communicate through keyboard but now has progressed to speech </li></ul><ul><li>Ruby was an earlier model but Dina contained twice as much programming </li></ul><ul><li>Both Ruby and Dina had the face of actress Tilda Swinton </li></ul><ul><li>Dina is a flat screened monitor equipped with voice recognition software- artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose was to chat about current affairs </li></ul>
  16. 17. Lateral Research <ul><ul><li>“ Men seem to like Ruby more…she’s funnier and quirkier, and they are put off by DiNA’s intelligence”  a past notion that men were smarter and more successful than women and felt threatened by intelligent women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DiNA, an all knowing, interactive and intelligent robot = how women have gained power and an identity for themselves, not imprisoned by the ‘male gaze’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men interacting with DiNA = how men have more respect for women today, they are seen as an equal and not looked down upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilda Swinton representing the face of DiNa = how women of today are beautiful and intelligent </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Lateral Research (cont’d) <ul><li>**BUT some female robots degrade women** </li></ul><ul><li>Vodka: </li></ul><ul><li>Heinekin: </li></ul><ul><li>They are completely plastic/metal and have the bare essentials, lips, chest, behind, a seductive look  promoting traditional sexist standards </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the only features of a woman in the eyes of a man </li></ul><ul><li>Robots are “human slaves”, controllable and programmable  men control women, have them when, as and how they want them, </li></ul><ul><li>“ FEMBOTS” represent women as male prisoners, imprisoned by their sexual and empowering needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ads using robots to promote their products </li></ul><ul><li>Robots have become “sex symbols” </li></ul>
  18. 19. STRUGGLE TO SUCCESS By: George Belliveau <ul><li>George Belliveau is an Assistant Professor in the faculty of Education at the University of P.E.I. </li></ul><ul><li>Belliveau teaches Integrated Arts and Drama Education </li></ul><ul><li>The anti- bullying collective drama Wasn’t Me! is a play created by Belliveau and a group of students from the education program of the University of P.E.I. </li></ul><ul><li>Over their 5 week teaching practicum in 2002 the group of students and Belliveau presented the play to over 30 schools </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by: </li></ul><ul><li>- The Shape of a Girl by Joan MacLeod </li></ul><ul><li>- Augusta Boal’s Forum Theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Verriour and Carol Tarlington’s Role Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Other bullying related performances </li></ul><ul><li>- Personal experiences of the actors and writers </li></ul>
  19. 20. 1.Exploring and Researching <ul><li>Main theme or topic </li></ul><ul><li>Target play at students between the grade of 7 and 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus mainly on the bystanders of bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions with guidance counselors, schools with anti-bullying initiatives, literature on bullying and websites </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on a girl who is struggling with issues at home and therefore results in her bullying a young boy at school </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to be a performer increased by many </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone became involved in the acting, setting, writing, directing, content and overall mood of the play </li></ul>2. Framing
  20. 21. 3. Sequencing <ul><li>Non-linear presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Caused some anxiety because they were fearful that the audience would not be able to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Has a circular structure beginning and ending for the search of a little boy named Tim </li></ul><ul><li>Results in a more engaging script </li></ul><ul><li>The time rehearsing (3 to 4 solid days) took much less time than scripting </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions, music and connecting scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Developed post-performance activities for the audience members </li></ul>4. Rehearsing
  21. 22. 5. Performing <ul><li>Well received by the Department of Education, Teachers Federation, School Boards, principals, teachers and intermediate students </li></ul><ul><li>Media coverage (newspapers, radio and television) </li></ul><ul><li>The Shape of a Girl and Augusta Boal’s Forum Theatre was evident in the production of Wasn’t Me! </li></ul><ul><li>Tim is the victim of bullying and he never appears on stage and in the end he is the boy that goes missing and results in a search </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on a female aggressor as she manipulates and bullies a male victim </li></ul><ul><li>Drama overall is a powerful medium for providing messages and educating youth on current affairs </li></ul>
  22. 23. Lateral Research <ul><li>Relates to David Diamond’s Form Theatre that discusses social issues: drugs, violence, alcohol, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Drama is a powerful medium for providing learning for people at all stages of life, and creating collective drama, rather than using scripted text, further heightens individual and collective satisfaction…”  David Diamond: “…the Forum Theatre events were able to explore a lot of creative options that were perception altering, and sometimes skill building, for everyone involved…” </li></ul><ul><li>David Diamond even helped with an anti-bullying production Don’t Say a Word </li></ul><ul><li>form of “activist theatre” that tries to raise awareness about issues and persuade people to take action </li></ul>
  23. 24. Lateral Research (cont’d) <ul><li>Other anti-bullying programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe Canada : Anti bullying programs and preventative measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Education : register for bullying prevention programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful Schools International : resources, support and ideas on bullying </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Lateral Research (cont’d) <ul><li>The media draws a lot of attention to bullying, in a positive light, seen as “cool” and accepted </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids are influenced by this bullying exposure and don’t see it as being bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullies are often the ‘popular’ kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female bullies are referred to as “mean girls,” and male bullies as “cool guys” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullying is sometimes an answer to one’s insecurity  more of a question of how to raise kid’s self esteem and acceptance of others and differences (social, physical, mental, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates to Hebdige’s subcultural  people who, in an attempt to resist mainstream culture, often face bullying, their outspoken identity is ridiculed because it goes against the norm </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Our Performance Starring: Instigator Bully Victim Bystander Confronter
  26. 27. Class Discussion <ul><li>The text as well as our play, shows bullying occurs well into adult circumstances. Do you think that resistant performances being exposed to us at a younger age alters our frame of reference regarding bullying? </li></ul>