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  1. 1. Technology In Action <ul><li>Chapter 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Your System </li></ul>
  2. 2. Assessing Your Hardware: Evaluating Your System <ul><li>Assess the computer’s subsystems </li></ul><ul><li>The subsystems include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ports </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Evaluating the CPU <ul><li>How does the CPU work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine cycle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decode </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Execution Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Execute </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Store </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GHz </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Evaluating RAM <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary storage (memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory modules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIMM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of RAM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SDRAM </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How Much Ram is Needed? <ul><li>RAM for System Software </li></ul><ul><li>RAM for Productivity Software </li></ul><ul><li>RAM for Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>RAM for Graphics Programs </li></ul>System Software Windows XP 128 MB Productivity Software MS Office Pro 128 MB Entertainment Software Windows Media Player 64 MB Graphics MS Picture It! 128 MB
  6. 6. Adding RAM <ul><li>Increase system performance </li></ul><ul><li>Things to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of RAM module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of RAM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum limit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of slots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applications running at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Evaluating Storage <ul><li>Physical storage devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy drive (um?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip disk drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD/DVD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual storage? </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Hard Disk Drive <ul><li>Storage capacity up to 500 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Access time is measured in milliseconds </li></ul><ul><li>Data transfer rate is measured in megabits or megabytes per second </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle speed is measured in revolutions per minute (rpm) </li></ul>
  9. 9. How a Hard Disk Works <ul><li>Composed of several coated platters stacked on a spindle </li></ul><ul><li>Data saved to the disk: pattern of magnetized spots – Spots = 1 – Spaces = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Between platters are read/write heads that read and write magnetized data </li></ul><ul><li>Spots are translated into data </li></ul>Platters Read/write head Access arms
  10. 10. Optical Storage <ul><li>Optical media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-RW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pits scatter laser light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equaling a 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpitted area reflects laser light equaling a 0 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Upgrading Storage <ul><li>Hard drive options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace current drive with a larger capacity drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install an additional hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace CD ROM with CD-R/RW or DVD-R/RW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash card reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory drive </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Video Cards <ul><li>Process binary data into images </li></ul><ul><li>Contain memory known as video RAM (VRAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Control the number of colors a monitor can display (bit depth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard VGA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 bits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16 colors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True color (SVGA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 bits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16 million colors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Ports <ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer rate of 1 Mbps; radio waves send data over short distances </li></ul></ul>Bluetooth
  14. 14. Evaluating System Reliability <ul><li>Performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crashes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upkeep and maintenance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update software and hardware drivers </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Upkeep and Maintenance <ul><li>System tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk defragmenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk cleanup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unnecessary files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Control panel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add/remove programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Device manager </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Update Software and Hardware Drivers <ul><li>Software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic updates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download updated drivers </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Last Resort <ul><li>If problems persist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinstall the operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade the operating system to the latest version </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Final Decision <ul><li>How closely does your system come to meeting your needs? </li></ul><ul><li>How much would it cost to upgrade your system? </li></ul><ul><li>How much would it cost to purchase a new system? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Computers in Society <ul><li>See page 276 for sidebar on How to Donate your Computer Safely. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury in screens, cadmium in batteries and circuit boards, flame retardant in plastic and lead in monitors are all toxic. (Do not use monitors as boat anchors). See Manufactured Landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Take your old computers to a recycling centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you reformat your hard drive to prevent identity theft. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Manufactured Landscapes (Jennifer Baichwal, 2006) 90 minutes Best Documentary – 2007 Genie Awards Best Canadian Film – Toronto International Film Festival Best Canadian Film & Best Documentary - Toronto Film Critics Association Awards Nominated for Grand Jury Prize- Sundance 2007 Edward Burtynsky is internationally acclaimed for his large-scale photographs of nature transformed by industry. Manufactured Landscapes follows Burtynsky to China, as he captures the effects of the country’s massive industrial revolution. This film leads us to meditate on human endeavour and its impact on the planet.
  21. 21. Networking Fundamentals <ul><li>Computer network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more computers connected together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each is a Node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits of a network: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferring files </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>Nodes communicate with each other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share peripheral devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home and small office networks </li></ul>
  23. 23. Client/Server Networks <ul><li>Client computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server computers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide resources to clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central network control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large, multiserver, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiclient network. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. LANs and WANs <ul><li>Local area network (LAN): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nodes are within a small geographic region: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide area network (WAN): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LANs connected over long distances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A few miles to thousands of miles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use telecommunications lines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Network Components <ul><li>Transmission media </li></ul><ul><li>Network adapters </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation devices </li></ul><ul><li>Network software </li></ul>
  26. 26. Transmission Media <ul><li>Provides communications channel between nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone wire: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted pair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transfer rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughput </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Network Adapters <ul><li>Devices connected to or installed in nodes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network interface cards (NIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External network adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable communication between nodes </li></ul>
  28. 28. Network Navigation Devices <ul><li>Devices that help make data flow possible </li></ul><ul><li>Routers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Route data between networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive data and retransmit it to nodes on the network </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Networking Software <ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Software: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built into operating systems that support networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Client/Server Software </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Novell Netware </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Vista Enterprise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Types of Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>Power-line </li></ul><ul><li>Phoneline </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ethernet Switches <ul><li>Keep track of data packets </li></ul><ul><li>Amplify and retransmit signals </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the network running efficiently </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ethernet Routers <ul><li>Transfer packets from one network to another </li></ul><ul><li>Home Internet routers transfer data from the Internet to the home network. </li></ul>Router
  33. 33. Wireless Networks <ul><li>Use radio waves to connect nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Basically an Ethernet network that uses radio waves instead of wires </li></ul><ul><li>Each node requires a wireless network adapter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transceiver </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Power-Line Networks <ul><li>Computers are connected to a house’s electrical wiring to create a network </li></ul><ul><li>Power-line network adapter is used to connect nodes to electrical outlets </li></ul>
  35. 35. Phoneline Networks <ul><li>Computers are connected to a house’s telephone wiring to create a network </li></ul><ul><li>Home phoneline network adapter is used to connect nodes to phone jacks </li></ul>