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3.gothic period

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3.gothic period

  1. 1. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 05 HETALI BHATT 15 SAGAR GOTAWALA 18 SHREYA KELAWALA 21 SAGAR KHANESHA 38 MIKIL VANKAWALA
  2. 2. •The style of art known as Gothic developed in Europe during the Middle Ages. • It was mainly a method of building. Gothic characteristics appeared first in architecture. Many of the world's great cathedrals and churches were built in the Gothic style between the 12th and 16th centuries. GOTHIC PERIOD BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  3. 3. • Devout Christians would Undertake long pilgrimages in order to visit and venerate the relics of saints and martyrs. • Widely Travelled people to visit sites and see relics believing them To have curative powers. • These large numbers of people travelling routes standard created from one monastery to another "Pilgrimage Roads" - They Became routes of trade / commerce and travel. • Gothic style architecture included big churches called cathedrals. Cathedrals had tall skyscraper-like towers. • They made ​​them That way to get people to look up in the sky and think of God; the experience of looking at one of the great gothic cathedrals is to look up towards divinity. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  4. 4. • That is why most gothic structures emphasize the upright. • Represented gothic cathedrals faith, dedication, and cooperation. • The spiritual attitude dominated the Romanesque age that was not as strong and sure during the gothic. • Earlier in the period, people believed that the world was a god - inspired mystery that could be expressed in art. • Through engineering, intellect and spirituality these medieval cathedrals perfectly express the mind. • The church in the middle ages was a place that all people, could belong to. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  5. 5. •The Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but also wealth and power. •Bishops were appointed by the Church and often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. •The early Medieval periods had seen a rapid growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent and spreading their influence widely. •Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in England. •A part of their influence was that they tended to build within towns, unlike the Cistercians whose ruined abbeys are seen in the remote countryside. •The Cluniac and Cistercian Orders were prevalent in France, the great monastery at Cluny having established a formula for a well planned monastic site which was then to influence all subsequent monastic building for many centuries. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE RELIGIOUS
  6. 6. •From the 10th to the 13th century, Romanesque architecture had become a pan-European style and manner of construction, affecting buildings in countries as far apart as Ireland, Croatia, Sweden and Sicily. •The same wide geographic area was then affected by the development of Gothic architecture, but the acceptance of the Gothic style and methods of construction differed from place to place, as did the expressions of Gothic taste. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE GEOGRAPHIC
  7. 7. HERALDRY—A combination of particoloring, coat of arms and family insignia that would note family lineage in coat of arms or clothing. DIAPERING—Putting precious gems and stones on a garment in simple or elaborate patterns most often recognized by a diamond pattern. PARTI-COLORING—A multi-colored garment, often with one side embroidered based on the colors and the emblems in a coat of arms NOTABLE GOTHIC COSTUME ELEMENTS BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  8. 8. CHAPERON—A caped hood with long tail, or liripipe, worn with the face opening around the head and the liripipe wound about the head and then draped under the chin. DOUBLET—A short jacket or variety of pourpoint sleeved or sleeveless, worn under a closefitting pourpoint, when used as an outer garment it was padded and had a short skirt. POURPOINT—A short jacket with tight sleeves buttoned from elbow to wrist, worn under the cote-hardie; formerly known as a paltock. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  9. 9. • COTE-HARDIE—A shaped garment, tight-fitting around the shoulder, waist and hips. When worn by a woman it usually ended at the hips or slightly below, often with dagged or scalloped edges. It could be hooked or laced up either the front or the back. • TIPPET—A band sewn around the elbow of the cote-hardie sleeve with the end hanging as a streamer. • ROUNDEL—A headdress made of a thick roll of material with a scarf or liripipe hanging down one side and draped over the shoulder. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  10. 10. POMANDER—A ball or hollow ornament often made of filigree, containing a sponge of perfume, suspended from a necklace or girdle. TABARD—Square piece of fabric with a hole in the middle, to be worn over the armor. SHORT GOWN—A garment tailored at the shoulders and gathered at the waist with a cord that would be cut at the knees. Undergraduate gown of today. LONG GOWN—Same as the short gown but fuller and all the way to the floor. Graduate gowns of today BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  11. 11. CONNECTIONS WITH ROYALS AND FAMOUS PEOPLE • Royal connections – medieval shrine of an Anglo-Saxon saint at its heart of the building. – Unbroken role as the coronation church since 1066 – final resting place of 17 monarchs – Conducted many royal funerals – Hosted 16 royal weddings • Connections with famous people – burial place for several prominent people in British history HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  12. 12. •Buildings in Gothic times supplied the framework into which all other arts fitted. Leaves, flowers, conventional patterns, and large statues were carved into the stonework of buildings. •These statues were usually of saints or persons from the Bible. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE GOTHIC SCULPTURE
  13. 13. •Sculpture was used everywhere on Gothic churches. •Figures of saints stood around the piers; scenes from the old and new testaments were carved above doorways. • People were depicted more realistically during the Gothic period than during the Romanesque. •The folds and wrinkles of garments were shown falling in a natural way. The faces of the statues had expressions, and their almond- shaped eyes seemed to look in one direction or another. •This was unlike Romanesque sculpture, which was stiff and not naturalistic. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  14. 14. •Gothic carvers often combined beautiful, natural-looking, and saintly figures with imaginary demons, imps, or other invented creatures. •Sometimes these creatures were grotesque and sometimes they were funny. •The Middle Ages was a time when the church had absolute authority, but that did not stop people from remembering the old legends and superstitions that had been passed down from their ancestors. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  15. 15. •The earliest Gothic paintings were decorations on the walls of buildings. Later, stained-glass windows often took up much of the wall space, leaving no room for painting on a large scale . •Smaller painting on panels of wood were made to be placed above altars in churches. •Other examples of Gothic painting are found in hand-decorated books called illuminated manuscripts. • Later the artists painted studies of real life. Plants and animals and people served as models. • It was during the Gothic period that artists stopped copying older forms and started basing their designs on shapes in nature. GOTHIC PAINTING BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  16. 16. WALL PAINTING STAIN GLASS BOOK RELIGIOUS PAINTING HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  17. 17. WHAT IS GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE? ―Gothic architecture is a style of architecture the flourished during the high & late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture & it was succeeded by Renaissance architecture‖. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  18. 18. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE (12 – 15th century) • Gothic architecture began mainly in France, where architects were inspired by Romanesque architecture and the pointed arches of Spanish Moorish architecture. •It's easy to recognise Gothic buildings because of their arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, elaborate sculptures (like gargoyles) and stained glass windows. Gothic architecture was originally known as ―French Style‖. During the period of Renaissance it fell out of fashion and it was not respected by many artists. They marked it as ―Gothic‖ to suggest it was the crude work of German barbarians (Goths). •Examples of Gothic architecture: •Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris •Milan cathedral,milan, italy HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  19. 19. GOTHIC • Meaning of Gothic – “DARK AGE” • Invading barbarians from the north ruined ancient art and replaced it with their own culture – Goths took Rome in 410 • little damage but became known as the first tribe of barbarians and thus the name ―Gothic‖ HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  20. 20. SUPERSTITIONS • Gothic art expressed the apocalyptic sense that a great day of judgment and/or catastrophic change is at hand. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  21. 21. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE INVENTION
  22. 22. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE THE MECHANICAL CLOCK 13TH CENTURY AD SPINNING WHEEL 13TH CENTURY AD
  23. 23. HOW THE GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE CREATED IT’S OWN LANGUAGE. • Goths believed that forests were the first temples of God....The forests of the Gauls passed in their turn into the temples of our fathers, and our oak forests have thus preserved their sacred origin. • These vaults incised with leaves, these socles that support the walls and end brusquely like broken tree trunks, the coolness of the vaults, the shadows of the Sanctuary, the dark aisles, the secret passages, the low doors, all of this evokes in a Gothic church the labyrinths of the forests. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  24. 24. ELEMENTS OF CHURCH HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  25. 25. ELEMENTS OF CHURCH HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  26. 26. GREEK CROSS PLAN LATIN CROSS PLAN HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  27. 27. •Church, in architecture, is a building designed for christian worship. •The earliest churches were based on the plan of the pagan roman basilica, or hall of justice. •The plan generally included a nave, or hall, with a flat timber roof, in which the crowd gathered; one or two side aisles flanking the nave and separated from it by a row of regularly spaced columns; a narthex, or entrance vestibule at the west end, which was reserved for penitents and unbaptized believers; and an apse of either semicircular or rectangular design, located at the east end and reserved for the clergy. •Greek-cross plan, church plan in the form of a Greek cross, with a square central mass and four arms Of equal length. •The Greek-cross plan was widely used in byzantine Architecture and in western churches inspired by Byzantine examples. GREEK CROSS BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  28. 28. LATIN CROSS • A plain cross in which the vertical part below the horizontal is longer than the other three parts. • Cathedrals were usually oriented along an east-west axis. • The main entrance was on the west end while the liturgical stuff (altar, bishop’s throne, etc.) Was located in the east end. • They had the shape of a Latin cross. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  29. 29. NAVE : The central longitudinal space of a basilica church. TRANSEPT: An extension across the main axis giving a church the shape of a cross. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  30. 30. AISLE: The space between the columns of the nave and the side wall. narthex NARTHEX: A vestibule leading to the nave of a church, originally separated by a screen. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  31. 31. apse CROSSING: Area of a church where the nave, choir, and transept intersect . CHOIR: Area of the church where the priest performs the mass. APSE: Vaulted, circular extension or projection at the eastern end of a church . BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  32. 32. Gothic Architecture CHARACTERISTICS HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE •SKELETAL STONE STRUCTURE •VISUAL ARTS WERE IMPORTANT NCLUDING THE ROLE OF LIGHT IN STRUCTURES •SCHOLISTICAL- TRANSLATIONS OF REAL EVENTS INTO STONE AND GLASS
  33. 33. SKELETAL STONE STRUCTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  34. 34. VISUAL ARTS WERE IMPORTANT INCLUDING THE ROLE OF LIGHT IN STRUCTURES HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  35. 35. SCHOLISTICAL- TRANSLATIONS OF REAL EVENTS INTO STONE AND GLASS HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  36. 36. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE • Dark • Focus on verticality • Pointed arches • Rib vaults • Flying buttresses • Large stained glass windows • Ornaments and pinnacles HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  37. 37. POINTED ARCH • Gothic architecture is not merely about ornamentation. • The Gothic style brought innovative new construction techniques that allowed churches and other buildings to reach great heights. • One important innovation was the use of pointed arches. • Earlier Romanesque churches had pointed arches, but builders didn't capitalize on the shape. • During the Gothic era, builders discovered that pointed arches would give structures amazing strength and stability. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  38. 38. Gothic Architecture: The Pointed Arch HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  39. 39. RIBBED VAULTING • Earlier Romanesque churches relied on barrel vaulting. • While barrel vaulting carried weight on continuous solid walls, ribbed vaulting used columns to support the weight. • The ribs also delineated the vaults and gave a sense of unity to the structure. • Arches, usually three pairs per rectangular bay, running diagonally HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  40. 40. THE RIB VAULT HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  41. 41. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  42. 42. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  43. 43. THE FLYING BUTTRESS • In order to prevent the outward collapse of the arches, Gothic architects began using a revolutionary "flying buttress" system. • Freestanding brick or stone supports were attached to the exterior walls by an arch or a half- arch. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  44. 44. THE FLYING BUTTRESS HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  45. 45. LARGE STAINED GLASS WINDOWS • Since the walls themselves were no longer the primary supports, Gothic buildings could include large areas of glass. • Huge stained glass windows and a profusion of smaller windows created the effect of lightness and space. • The stained glass window shown here is from Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  46. 46. GARGOYLES • Cathedrals in the High Gothic style became increasingly elaborate. • Over several centuries, builders added towers, pinnacles, and hundreds of sculptures. • In addition to religious figures, many Gothic cathedrals are heavily ornamented with strange, leering creatures. • These gargoyles are not merely decorative. • Originally, the sculptures were waterspouts to protect the foundation from rain. • Since most people in Medieval days could not read, the carvings took on the important role of illustrating lessons from the from the scriptures. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  47. 47. • In architecture, a gargoyle is a carved or formed grotesque with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building, thereby preventing rainwater from running down masonry walls and eroding the mortar between. • Architects often used multiple gargoyles on buildings to divide the flow of rainwater off the roof to minimize the potential damage from a rainstorm. • A trough is cut in the back of the gargoyle and rainwater typically exits through the open mouth. • Gargoyles are usually an elongated fantastic animal because the length of the gargoyle determines how far water is thrown from the wall. • When Gothic flying buttresses were used, aqueductswere sometimes cut into the buttress to divert water over the aisle walls HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  48. 48. GOTHIC FLOOR PLANS •Gothic buildings were based on the traditional plan used by basilicas. •However, single units were integrated into a unified spatial scheme. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  49. 49. • Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel. There are several regional variations on this plan. • The nave is generally flanked on either side by aisles, usually singly, but sometimes double. • The nave is generally considerably taller than the aisles, having clerestory windows which light the central space. Ameins cathedral Wells cathedral HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  50. 50. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE THE ENTIRE SANCTUARY IS THUS PERVADED BY A WONDERFUL CONTINUES LIGHT ENTERING THROUGH THE MOST SACRED WINDOWS
  51. 51. NAVE ELEVATION COMPARISON FOR HIGH GOTHIC CATHEDRALS Figure 18-9 Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (after Louis Grodecki): (a) Laon, (b) Paris, (c) Chartres, (d) Amiens. 80 ft. 107 ft. 118 ft. 144 ft. Height of nave vaults HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  52. 52. LIST OF CATHEDRALS • WESTMINSTER ABBEY, LONDON • ST .STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL VIENNA, AUSTRIA • NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL, PARIS, FRANCE • MILAN CATHEDRAL, MILAN, ITALY HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  53. 53. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE 1. WESTMINSTER ABBEY
  54. 54. INTRODUCTION • Collegiate Church of St. Peter at Westminster, located in the City of Westminster, by the Thames in South West London. • Initially established by King Edward the Confessor (later Saint Edward) in 1040. • The building was subsequently enhanced, the present church begun by King Henry III in 1245. • English Gothic architecture masterpiece. • Still a working church, but one that represents a unique pageant of British history HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  55. 55. WESTMINSTER ABBEY – ARCHITECTURE • Gothic architecture – Introduced from France (style of the medieval period) – English Gothic flourished between 1180-1520 • Westminster Abbey has many of the defining characteristics of English Gothic, as follows: – pointed arches and large windows – large windows – vaulted roof and ceiling – narrow nave – buttress – spires • At Westminster Abbey, the physical characteristics combine in such a way as to appeal to the emotions HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  56. 56. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  57. 57. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  58. 58. BENEDICTINE MONASTERY / JERUSALEM CHAMBER • Benedictine monastery history – Monks at Westminster Abbey – Dissolution by King Henry VIII – Reign of the protestant Elizabeth I • Jerusalem Chambers – The principal room in the medieval house of the Abbots of Westminster (this house known as Cheyneygates) – Rich tapestries – Historic significance of Jerusalem Chambers HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  59. 59. WESTMINSTER ABBEY – WORLD WAR II • Blitz – numerous bombing raids by the Luftwaffe – night of 10 May 1941 • Protection of treasures – evacuation – protection • Building usage during the War • Victory celebrations – Victory in Europe (VE) Day on 8th May 1945 – Victory over Japan (VJ) Day on 15th August 1945 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  60. 60. CONCLUSION • Worship – A living church today, part of the Church of England, with daily services. • Historic significance – One of the world’s greatest churches, a designated World Heritage site – reflects key events in British history • Architectural significance – masterpiece of English Gothic architecture HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  61. 61. 2. ST .STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL VIENNA, AUSTRIA BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  62. 62. • Its most recognizable characteristic, the diamond- patterned tile roof, was only added in 1952. • the initial Romanesque structure was extended westward; the present-day west wall and Romanesque towers date from this period. In 1258, however, a great fire destroyed much of the original building, and a larger replacement structure, also Romanesque in style and reusing the two towers. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE ST .STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL VIENNA, AUSTRIA
  63. 63. • King Albert I ordered a Gothic three-nave choir to be constructed east of the church, wide enough to meet the tips of the old transepts. • The middle nave is largely dedicated to St. Stephen and All Saints , while the north and south nave, are dedicated to St. Mary and the Apostles respectively. • he winds carried the fire to the cathedral where it severely damaged the roof, causing it to collapse. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  64. 64. SECTION OF ST .STEPHEN'S CATHEDRAL VIENNA BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  65. 65. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  66. 66. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  67. 67. 3. NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL, PARIS, FRANCE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  68. 68. • Names: Notre Dame Cathedral; Cathédrale Notre- Dame de Paris (Cathedral of Our Lady of Paris) • Location: Paris, Ile-de- France, France • Date: 1163-1345 • Features: Medieval Stained Glass; Romanesque Sculpture HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL, PARIS, FRANCE
  69. 69. HISTORY OF THE CATHEDRAL • The Notre Dame de Paris stands on the site of Paris' first Christian church, Saint Etienne basilica, which was itself built on the site of a Roman temple to Jupiter. • Construction on the current cathedral began in 1163. • Between 1210 and 1220, the fourth architect oversaw the construction of the level with the rose window and the great halls beneath the towers. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  70. 70. • The towers were finished around 1245 and the cathedral was finally completed around 1345. • During the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV at the end of the 17th century the cathedral underwent major alterations, during which many tombs and stained glass windows were destroyed. • In 1793, the cathedral fell victim to the French Revolution. • Many sculptures and treasures were destroyed or plundered • The cathedral also came to be used as a warehouse for the storage of food. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  71. 71. Double aisles – ambulatories on a bent axial line Transepts not projected beyond the aisle wall High vault –a ribbed vault whose lateral triangles are bisected by an intermediate transverse rib, producing six triangles within a bay Vault is 100ft (30m) high Double span flying buttresses (earliest form) HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  72. 72. • Interior elevation – 4 levels • Arcade of columnar piers • Tribune (originally covered by transverse barrel vault, and lit by the round windows) • Decorative rose windows • Small clerestory HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  73. 73. FLYING BUTTRESSES HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  74. 74. NORTH AMBULATORY LOOKING EAST HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  75. 75. •The beautiful West Rose Window dates from about 1220. •The west rose window at Notre Dame is 10 meters in diameter and exceptionally beautiful. •The main theme of the west rose is human life, featuring symbolic scenes such as the Zodiacs and Labours of the Months. •On the exterior, it is fronted by a statue of the Virgin and Child accompanied by angels. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  76. 76. • The south rose window installed around 1260. • its general themes are the New Testament, the Triumph of Christ • The south rose is 12.9 meters in diameter and contains 84 panes of glass. SOUTH ROSE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE •Notre-Dame, Paris •West front has a solid quality •Triple portals •Gallery of Kings •Represents twenty-eight kings of the Old Testament
  77. 77. • The three west portals of Notre Dame Cathedral are magnificent examples of early Gothic art. • Sculpted between 1200 and 1240, they depict scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary, the Last Judgment, and scenes from the life of St. Anne (the Virgin Mary's mother). HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  78. 78. Interior of Notre Dame cathedral HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE INTERIOR VIEW OF NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL, PARIS, FRANCE
  79. 79. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  80. 80. 4. MILAN CATHEDRAL, ITALY • Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan in Lombardy, northern Italy. • The Gothic cathedral took five centuries to complete. • It is the largest Gothic cathedral and the second largest Catholic cathedral in the world. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  81. 81. • Length 157 metres (515 ft) • Width 92 metres (302 ft) • Width (nave) 16.75 metres (55 ft) • Height (max) 45 metres (148 ft) • Dome height (outer) 65.5 metres (215 ft) • Spire height 106.5 metres (349 ft) • Materials Brick with Candoglia marble HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  82. 82. • The plan consists of a nave with four side-aisles, crossed by a transept and then followed by choir and apse. • The cathedral's five broad naves, divided by 40 pillars, are reflected in the hierarchic openings of the facade. • Even the transepts have aisles. • The nave columns are 24.5 metres (80 ft) high, and the apsidal windows are 20.7 x 8.5 meters (68 x 28 feet). • The huge building is of brick construction, faced with marble • The height of the nave is about 45 meters, the highest Gothic vaults of a complete church. • The roof carries spectacular sculpture that can be enjoyed only from top. The roof of the cathedral is renowned for the forest of openwork pinnacles and spires, set upon delicate flying buttresses. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  83. 83. The famous "Madonnina" a top the main spire of the cathedral, a baroque gilded bronze artwork. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  84. 84. THE CATHEDRAL AS IT APPEARED IN 1745. THE CATHEDRAL IN 1856. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  85. 85. MILAN CATHEDRAL FLYING BUTTRESS HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE INTERIOR VIEW OF MILAN CATHEDRAL
  86. 86. REGIONAL VARIATIONS -BRITISH • The thing that makes English cathedrals different from the others is that they are long, and look horizontal • English cathedrals nearly all took hundreds of years to build, and every part is in a style that is quite different to the next part. • The West window is very large and is never a rose window. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  87. 87. • The west front may have two towers like a French Cathedral, or none. • There is nearly always a tower at the middle of the building, which may have a big spire. • The distinctive English east end is square, but it may take a completely different form. Both internally and externally, the stonework is often richly decorated with carvings, particularly the capitals. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
  88. 88. REGIONAL VARIATIONS -ITALY • The plan is usually regular and symmetrical. • With the exception of Milan Cathedral which is Germanic in style, Italian cathedrals have few and widely spaced columns. • The proportions are generally mathematically simple, based on the square, and except in Venice where they loved flamboyant arches, the arches are almost always equilateral. • Italian cathedral façades are often polychrome and may include mosaics in the lunettes over the doors. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  89. 89. • Italian gothic cathedrals use lots of colour, both outside and inside. • The columns and arches are often decorated with bright colored paint. • There are also mosaics with gold backgrounds and beautifully tiled floors is geometric patterns. • The facades often have an open porch with a rose windows above it. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  90. 90. • The bell tower is hardly ever attached to the building, because Italy has quite a few earthquakes. • The windows are not as large as in northern Europe and, although stained glass windows are often found, the favorite way of decorating the churches is fresco (wall painting). GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  91. 91. REGIONAL VARIATIONS - FRANCE • The distinctive characteristic of French cathedrals, and those in Germany and Belgium that were strongly influenced by them, is their height and their impression of verticality. • They are compact, with slight or no projection of the transepts and subsidiary chapels. • The west fronts are highly consistent, having three portals surmounted by a rose window, and two large towers. • Sometimes there are additional towers on the transept ends. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  92. 92. • The east end is polygonal with ambulatory. • In the south of France, many of the major churches are without transepts and some are without aisles. • It was good for building because it was soft to cut, but got much harder when the air and rain got on it. It was usually a pale grey colour. France also had beautiful white limestone from Caen which was perfect for making very fine carvings. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  93. 93. • The architects had to think of a new way to make a wide roof from short pieces of timber. That is how they invented the hammer-beam roofs which are one of the beautiful features seen in many old English churches. • Hammer-beam roof: consists of a series of trusses, repeated at intervals. • its object is to transmit the weight and thrust of the roof as low as possible in the supporting wall. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  94. 94. HIGH POINTED ARCHES GARGOYLES BUTTRESSES LARGE COLORED WINDOW THICK SUPPORTING WALLS WITH A FEW WINDOWS THICK TOWERS HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  95. 95. Romanesque Gothic Radiating chapels and apse: Separate compartments. Unified, unbroken space. Vault: Mostly barrel-vaults, some groin-vaults. Groin-vaulted cathedrals. Arch type: Rounded arches. Pointed arches. Main vault support: Thick walls, buttresses. Exterior flying buttresses. Clerestory: Small few windows Large stained-glass windows. Elevation: Horizontal, modest height. Vertical, soaring. Exterior: Plain, little decoration, solid. Ornate, delicate, lots of sculpture. Sculptural decoration: Thin, elongated, abstract figures. More realistic proportions and individualized features. Mood: Necessary light Dark, gloomy later bright and airy Example: St. Sernin, Toulouse, France. Chartres Cathedral, France. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREGOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

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