• Rapidly evolving
• Allow genetic diagnosis of diseases
• Allow prediction for disease later in life
• Determine human genome in details
Now Next generation Sequencer
Work flow of conventional versus second-
1. Prepare genomic DNA
2. Attach DNA to surface
3. Bridge amplification
4. Fragement become
5. Denature the double
6. Complete amplification
• ABI SOLiD
• Roche 454
What is next-generation sequencing ?
7. Determine first base
8. Image first base
9. Determine second base
10. Image second base
11. Sequence reads over
12. Align data.
1 billion bases per
run, 1% of the cost
Spindle transfer !!!!!
• spindle-chromosomal complex transfer
• taking nuclear DNA from an egg cell and
transferring that DNA into another egg cell,
leaving the defective mitochondrial DNA
• For genetic disease
• Safety?????? Gene therapy
DNG in endometriosis
• no glucocorticoid
• no antimineralocorticoid activity.
• no antiestrogenic activity
• due to DNG's low gonadotropic activity, E2
levels are not decreased to zero, in contrast to
treatments with gonadotropin-releasing
hormone (GnRH) analogues.
• This maintenance beneficial E2 effects is
of particular importance for the general
tolerability of the first contraceptive pill
to use E2V instead of EE
Ulipristal acetate & Fibroids
• oral selective progesterone receptor
modulator (SPRM) that has successfully
completed phase III clinical trials.
• licensed in Western Europe
• has shown efficacy with a significant reduction
in uterine bleeding, fibroid volume, and
improved quality of life
• low side effects unlike (GnRH) agonists.