How to Write Discussion
sections
Rules about doing research
 Choose the right research question
 Use the most appropriate study design
 Apply sound stat...
Writing papers
 Good writers are good artists!
 Be creative
 Express your personal style - be persuasive
 No place for...
Structure of a research paper
 Title page
 Abstract
 Background (+objectives)
 Methods
 Results
 Discussion
 Refere...
Discussion
 Summarise main study findings
 Interpret findings in light of research question
 Point out strengths and we...
Principal findings
 State the main findings in one sentence in
words.
 “Our study shows that … .”
 “Drinking coke cause...
Interpret study findings
 Make sense of results in light of
suggested hypothesis
 Use references that support your
inter...
Strengths and weaknesses
 Blow your own trumpet
 “The strengths of this study are …”
 The first, largest, best designed...
Literature search
 Comprehensive
 Learn what others have done before
 Boundary between knowledge and
ignorance
 Helps ...
Comparison with previous studies
 Previous studies or systematic reviews
 Discuss differences in relation to each study’...
Implications for readers
 Be realistic
 Only direct implications
 Be modest!
 Do not over-sell your paper
Future research questions
 Unanswered questions
 Only those directly related to the study
 Future research
 Specific r...
Figures and tables
 Do numbers add up?
 Should stand alone:
 Descriptive legends
 Foot-notes if necessary
 Explain al...
Objectives
 Some rules about doing research
 Some rules about writing up research
 Submitting papers
 Editorial proces...
Submitting your paper
 Choose the right journal
 Read “Instructions for Authors”
 Write paper according to instructions...
Choosing the right journal
 Subject fits with orientation and scope of journal
 Journal readers are your target audience...
Submit by rules –
quickly!
All articles need to be revised
Most need to be revised twice
 Some need extensive revising
 May be reviewed a second ti...
10 reasons for MS rejection
1. Inappropriate or incomplete statistics
2. Over-interpretation of results
3. Inappropriate o...
Rejection hurts
But it’s part of the game, especially
when starting out
 Learn everything you can from it
 Rejection may...
Be optimistic
Quality work will find quality journals
 They need you more than you need them
Writing is hard work but fun...
THANK YOU
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How to get ur paper published

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publishing manuscript is not an easy task. There are many tips to achieve this. Here we are trying to shed some light on such mission

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How to get ur paper published

  1. 1. How to Write Discussion sections
  2. 2. Rules about doing research  Choose the right research question  Use the most appropriate study design  Apply sound statistics  Consider external validity
  3. 3. Writing papers  Good writers are good artists!  Be creative  Express your personal style - be persuasive  No place for political views
  4. 4. Structure of a research paper  Title page  Abstract  Background (+objectives)  Methods  Results  Discussion  References  Acknowledgment  Figures and Tables  Covering letter – sell your product!
  5. 5. Discussion  Summarise main study findings  Interpret findings in light of research question  Point out strengths and weaknesses of study  Comparison with previous studies (be concise)  Implications for intended readers (be humble)  Make recommendations regarding future research
  6. 6. Principal findings  State the main findings in one sentence in words.  “Our study shows that … .”  “Drinking coke causes cancer”.  “rates of pregnancy are falling”  Do not repeat data
  7. 7. Interpret study findings  Make sense of results in light of suggested hypothesis  Use references that support your interpretation
  8. 8. Strengths and weaknesses  Blow your own trumpet  “The strengths of this study are …”  The first, largest, best designed, only one from your country….etc.  Be honest  “But it has the following weaknesses...”  Low follow up, not randomised, sample size... etc
  9. 9. Literature search  Comprehensive  Learn what others have done before  Boundary between knowledge and ignorance  Helps defining your research question  Place your project within the context of existing knowledge – more in line
  10. 10. Comparison with previous studies  Previous studies or systematic reviews  Discuss differences in relation to each study’s strengths and weaknesses  Justify your own results  Don’t be too critical
  11. 11. Implications for readers  Be realistic  Only direct implications  Be modest!  Do not over-sell your paper
  12. 12. Future research questions  Unanswered questions  Only those directly related to the study  Future research  Specific recommendations  If you have none, say nothing  DO NOT say “further research is needed”
  13. 13. Figures and tables  Do numbers add up?  Should stand alone:  Descriptive legends  Foot-notes if necessary  Explain all abbreviation
  14. 14. Objectives  Some rules about doing research  Some rules about writing up research  Submitting papers  Editorial process  Responding to editor’s decision
  15. 15. Submitting your paper  Choose the right journal  Read “Instructions for Authors”  Write paper according to instructions  Ask 2 colleagues to provide feedback  Proof read the manuscript  Submit the paper according to rules
  16. 16. Choosing the right journal  Subject fits with orientation and scope of journal  Journal readers are your target audience  Select journal of repute – Impact Factor  Seek advice from peers or seniors  Could write to the Editor-in-Chief
  17. 17. Submit by rules – quickly!
  18. 18. All articles need to be revised Most need to be revised twice  Some need extensive revising  May be reviewed a second time You don’t have to do what reviewers ask  But you have to make strong case why not  Reviewer ‘not getting it’ sign of unclear writing? Can be rejected after all the requested revisions made
  19. 19. 10 reasons for MS rejection 1. Inappropriate or incomplete statistics 2. Over-interpretation of results 3. Inappropriate or suboptimal instrumentation 4. Sample too small or biased 5. Text difficult to follow 6. Insufficient problem statement 7. Inaccurate or inconsistent data reported 8. Incomplete, inaccurate or outdated review of lit 9. Insufficient data presented 10. Defective tables and figures Bordage G. Academic Medicine 2001;76(9)
  20. 20. Rejection hurts But it’s part of the game, especially when starting out  Learn everything you can from it  Rejection may point to some real problems in how the MS was prepared If a reviewer makes constructive comments, use them  Don’t just submit to another journal  They may review for the other journal too
  21. 21. Be optimistic Quality work will find quality journals  They need you more than you need them Writing is hard work but fun  always have a Plan B And a Plan C
  22. 22. THANK YOU

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