Forms of writing NARRATION: to tell or relate DESCRIPTION: to define, report, illustrate EXPOSITION: to explain or interpret ARGUMENTATION: to persuade or argue
Example #1: NarrationChristmas Cookies (http://examples.yourdictionary.com/narrative-essay-examples.html )―Although I have grown up to be entirely inept at the art of cooking, as tomake even the most wretched chef ridicule my sad baking attempts, mychildhood would have indicated otherwise; I was always on the countertopnext to my mother’s cooking bowl, adding and mixing ingredients that woulddoubtlessly create a delicious food. When I was younger, cooking cameintrinsically with the holiday season, which made that time of year the primeoccasion for me to unite with ounces and ounces of satin dark chocolate,various other messy and gooey ingredients, numerous cooking utensils, andthe assistance of my mother to cook what would soon be an ediblemasterpiece. The most memorable of the holiday works of art were ourChocolate Crinkle Cookies, which my mother and I first made when I wasabout six and are now made annually.‖
Elements of a narration Acts or events Natural time sequence Short stories, novels, letters, conversations Enjoyment Introducing – Increasing actions- Climax – Outcomes More examples: http://thewritesource.com/studentmodels/ http://www.infoplease.com/homework/writingskills4a.ht ml
Example #2: DescriptionCarnival Rides (http://www.infoplease.com/homework/writingskills5a.html)…My first experience with a carnival ride was a Ferris wheel at a local fair.Looking at that looming monstrosity spinning the life out of its sardine-cagedoccupants, I was dumbstruck. It was huge, smoky, noisy and not a littleintimidating. Ever since that initial impression became fossilized in myimagination many years ago, these rides have reminded me of mythicalbeasts, amazing dinosaurs carrying off their screaming passengers likesacrificial virgins. Even the droning sound of their engines brings to mind thegreat roar of a fire-breathing dragon with smoke spewing from its exhaust-pipe nostrils.…
Elements of a description Sensation Emotions & Moods Visualized people, time, places Visualized inside of heads (character, personality, taught, etc.) More examples: http://www.elc.byu.edu/classes/buck/w_garden/st udents/students_descr_place.html http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/comp osition/narrative.htm
Example #3: ExpositionThe Myth (http://www.apstudynotes.org/english/sample-essays/definition-success/ )Do you know someone rich and famous? Is he confident, popular, and joyful all ofthe time—the epitome of mainstream success? Or, on the other hand, is hestressed, having second thoughts about his life choices, and unsure about themeaning of his life? I am willing to be that it is the second one. Mainstreammarketing and media have effectively brainwashed our society into accepting afalse, even potentially dangerous definition of success. Marketers want us to believethat having lots of money, living in a big house, and owning all of the latest cars,fashions, and technology is the key to happiness, and hence, success. Thisoverstated, falsely advertised myth is hardly ever the case in real life. True successrequires respect, appreciation, integrity, and patience—all of which are traits that byhuman nature are genuinely difficult to attain—especially in the face of modernmarketers who relentlessly deceive us, control our thoughts, and usurp ourindependence in order to increase their bottom line.
Elements of an exposition Information, explanation, meaning making Editorial, essay, instructional materials Usually NOT Stand Alone Types: process – definition – analysis – criticism More examples: http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of- exposition.html http://library.thinkquest.org/10888/expos.html
Example #4: ArgumentationShould high school athletes be given drug test?(http://people.oregonstate.edu/~petersp/ORST/WR121_files/argument.htm#Sample Essays)There is evidence that shows that students who are involved in athletics are nomore likely to use drugs than any other people in the student body. (Bailey, William)There should be a reason for the schools to single out athletes from the otherstudents for drug testing. The only appropriate reasons for treating athletesdifferently by giving them drug tests would be if they more likely to use drugs thanother students, they were at greater risk of using drugs, the use of drugs beingriskier to them, or that the tests will be more likely to come back positive forathletes. It is true in some schools across the United States, that athletes are morelikely to consume alcohol at a weekend party, but if a urine sample were taken thefollowing week, it would come back clean. So this testing would only be a waste oftime and money. Student athletes more than likely know that there are way to beata drug test so they won’t hesitate to drink anyways.
Elements of an argumentation Opinion – Stand point Persuade, Convince Inviting debate (pro and cons) More examples: http://people.oregonstate.edu/~petersp/O RST/WR121_files/argument.htm#Sample Essays
Individual practiceWrite a description of a place (a football stadium, garden,classroom, library, bridge, well-known street corner,country road, superhighway) or a point in time (the hourbefore dawn, noon in the summer, one of the seasons, aholiday, twilight, a moonlit night, sunset, a rainy day, asnowy afternoon).*) Taken from Wishon & Burks (1980), Let’s Write English
Conclusion Usually: combination of writing forms Possible to be used alone Practice and feedback