After 300 years of passivity under Spanishrule, the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora wereguillotined without sufficient evidence ofguilt. This occurred on the 17th of February.This was buttressed with the spirit ofliberalism when the Philippines opened itsdoors to world trade and with the coming of aliberal leader in the person of Governor CarlosMaria de la Torre. The Spaniards were unable to suppress thetide of rebellion among the Filipinos.
The once religious spirit transformeditself into one of nationalism and theFilipinos demanded changes in thegovernment and in the church. This movement was spearheaded mostlyby the intellectual middle-class like JoseRizal, Marcelo del Pilar; Graciano LopezJaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, JoseMa. Panganiban, and Pedro Paterno. Theobjectives of this movement were to seekreforms and changes like the following:
1. To get equal treatment for the Filipinosand the Spaniards under the law.2. To make the Philippines a colony ofSpain.3. To restore Filipino representation in theSpanish Cortes.4. To Filipinize the parishes.5. To give the Filipinos freedom ofspeech, of the press, assembly and forredress of grievances.
There were three principal leaders of the Propagandamovement. They were Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo H. delPilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena. Here are highlightsabout them and what they have done for our country. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonzo yRealonda was born on June 19, 1861 atCalamba, Laguna. His first teacher was his motherTeodora Alonozo. He studied at the Ateneo deManila, started medicine at UST and finished at theUniversidad Central of Madrid. He also studied atthe University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg.
He died by musketry in the hands of theSpaniards on December 30, 1896 on charges ofsedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. Hispen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang.His books and writings:1. NOLI ME TANGERE. This was the novel thatgave spirit to the propaganda movement and pavedthe way to the revolution against Spain.In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in theSpanish-run government in the Philippines.
The Spaniards prohibited the reading ofthis novel but a lot of translations were able toenter stealthily in the country even if it meansdeath to those caught in possession of them. The NOLI gave Philippine literature theimmortal characters Maria Clara, JuanCrisostomo Ibarra, Elias, Sisa, Pilosofong Tasio,Doña Victorina, Kapitana Maria, Basilio andCrispin, Rizal had a powerful pen in thedelineation of these characters.2. . This is a sequel tothe NOLI.
4. SOBRE LA INDOLENCIA DE LOSFILIPINOS (On the Indolence of the Filipinos). Anessay on the so-called Filipino indolence and anevaluation of the reasons for such allegations.5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CIEN AÑOS (ThePhilippines within a Century). An essay predicting theincreasing influence of the US in the Philippines andthe decreasing interest of Europe here. Rizalpredicted that if there is any other colonizer of thePhilippines in the future, it would be the US.6. A La Juventud Filipina (To the FilipinoYouth). A poem Rizal dedicated to the Filipino youthstudying at UST.
7. (The Councilof the Gods). An allegorical play manifesting admirationfor Cervantes.8. (Beside the Pasig River). Writtenby Rizal when he was 14 years of age.9. ME PIDEN VERSOS (You asked Me forVerses); 1882 and A LAS FLORES DE HEIDELBERG (Tothe Flowers of Heidelberg). Two poems manifesting Rizal’sunusual depth of emotion.10.(Notes on Philippine Events by Dr. Antonio deMorga): 1889
11. (P. Jacinto: Memoirs of a Student of Manila) 188212. (Diaryof a Voyage to North America) Marcelo H. del Pilar is popularly known forhis pen name of Plaridel, Pupdoh, Piping Dilat andDolores Manapat. He was born at Cupang, SanNicolas, Bulacan on August 30, 1850.
His parents were Julian H. del Pilar, notedFilipino writer and Biasa Gatmaita. His brotherwas the priest Fr. Toribio del Pilar who wasbanished to Marianas in 1872. Because there weremany children in the family, Marcelo gave up hisshare of his inheritance for his other brothers andsisters. Marcelo started schooling at the school of Mr.Flores and then transferred to that of San Josebefore UST. His last year in law school wasinterrupted for 8 years after he had quarrel with theparish priest during a baptism at SanMiguel, Manila in 1880.
He established the Diariong Tagalog in 1883 where he exposed the evils of the Spanish government in the Philippines and in order to avoid the false accusations hurried at him by the priests. To avoid banishment, he was forced to travel to Spain in 1888. He was assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in publishing a different Cathecism and Passion Book wherein they made fun of the priests. They also made the DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN and KAIINGAT KAYO taken from the word IGAT, a kind of snake fish caught in politics.
Upon his arrival in Spain, he replacedGraciano Lopez Jaena as editor of , a paper which becamethe vehicle thru which reforms in thegovernment could be worked out. This didnot last long for he got sick and even toreach Hong Kong from where he couldarouse his countrymen. He died oftuberculosis in Spain but before hedied, he asked his companions to tell hiswife and children that he was sorry hewasn’t able to bid them goodbye; to tellothers about the fate of our countrymenand to continue helping the country.
Plaridel has truly earned a niche in thehistory of our nation. Even today, countlessstreets have been named after him. Theformer Kingwa has been named Plaridel, theMalolos High School is now Marcelo H. delPilar High School and above all, his patriotismand bravery will remain alive in our memories. 1.(Love of Country). Translated from theSpanish AMOR PATRIA of Rizal, published onAugust 20, 1882, in Diariong Tagalog.
2 (Be Careful). A humorous andsarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez inthe novel NOLI of Rizal, published in Barcelonain 1888. He used Dolores Manapat as pen-name here.3.(Prayers and Jokes). Similar to a cathecism butsarcastically done agains the parish priests,published in Barcelona in 1888. Because ofthis, del Pilar was called “filibuster.” Done inadmirable tone of supplication and excellentuse of Tagalog.4. (God’sGoodness). Published in Barcelona, it was alsolike a cathecism sarcastically aimed against theparish priests but also contains a philosophy ofthe power and intelligence of God and anappreciation for and love for nature.
5. (Answer toSpain on the Plea of the Filipinos). A poempleading for change from Spain but thatSpain is already old and weak to grantany aid to the Philippines. This poem isin answer to that of Hermenigildo Flores’Hibik sa Pilipinas (A Plea from thePhilippines).6.(A poetical contest in narrativesequence, psalms, riddles). A compilation ofpoems on the oppression by the priestsin the Philippines.
(Sovereignty in the Philippines). This shows the injustices of the friars to the Pilipinos.8. POR TELEFONO (By Telephone)9.PASIONG DAPAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NGTAONG BABASA (Passion that should arouse the hearts ofthe readers)A most notable hero and genius of the Philippines, Graciano LopezJaena was born on December 18, 1856 and died on January 20,1896.
The pride of Jaro, Iloilo, he won the admiration ofthe Spaniards and Europeans. He is a known writer andorator in the Philippines. He wrote 100 speeches whichwere published by Remigio Garcia, former bookstoreowner in Manila Filatica and which are still read up to noby modern Filipinos. Lopez Jaena left the Philippines in 1887 with thehelp of Don Claudio Lopez, a rich uncle, in order toescape punishment form his enemies and arrived atValencia, the center of the Republican movement of theSpaniards. He gained the acquaintance of the highofficials like Piy Margall, Morayta, Moret, Castelar, andSalmeron.
From Valencia, he moved to Barcelona where heestablished the first magazine LA SOLIDARIDAD. Thislater became the official voice of the AssociationHispano de Filipinas (a Filipino-Spanish Association)composed of Filipinos and Spaniards who worked forreforms in the Philippines. Because of this, Jaenasuccessfully showed the Spaniards and the people ofthe world how a newspaperman can introduce changesin law and reforms towards a better life and progress. Jaena, although he didn’t become aprofessor, was also a teacher in a sense to his friendsand relatives in the Philippines.
Like Antonio Maria Regidor, Tomas G. delRosario and Felipe Calderon, he stood for theseparation of church and state for freeeducation, better government andschools, freedom of worship and for anindependent and free university. He sided with Rizal in the controversybetween Rizal and del Pilar over who shouldhead the Association Hispano de Filipinas inMadrid. He returned to the Philippines to askfor donations to continue a new governmentcalled El Latigo Nacional or PambansangLatigo. He sold the rights of La Solidaridad otdel Pilar who had become a lawyer and hadbrought in money from his sojourn in Spain.
Graciano Lopez Jaena died in a charity hospitalin Barcelona on January 20, 1896, eleven monthsbefore his best friend Rizal was shot at theLuneta on December 30, 1896.1 (Friar Botod). One of hisworks written in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six yearsafter the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in thePhilippines. He exposed how some of the friarswere greedy, ambitious and immoral.
2 (The Child of theFriar) and EVERYTING IS HAMBUG (Everythingis mere show). Here Jaena explains the tragedyof marrying a Spaniard.3 Aspeech which aimed to improve the condition ofthe Filipinos to become free and progressive.4. (An Oration to CommemorateColumbus). A speech he delivered in Madrid on the39th anniversary of the discovery of America
5. Here he praisedGen. Morayta for his equal treatment of theFilipinos.6. A sincereexpression of praise for the paintings of Hidalgo onthe condition of the Filipinos under the Spaniards.7 (Love for Spain or To the Youth ofMalolos). The theme is about how girls weretaught Spanish in schools and whose teacherswere the governors-general of the place.
8(Banditry in the Philippines). Jaena refuted the existence ofbanditry in the Philippines and of how there should be lawson robbery and other reforms.9. (Honor in thePhilippines). The triumphant exposition ofLuna, Resurrecion and Pardo de Tavera of the thesis thatintellect or knowledge gives honor to the Philippines.10(Abolition of Taxes in the Philippines)11. (Sufferingsof the Philippines). Jaena refers here to the wrongmanagement of education in the Philippines 1887.
B. OTHER PROPAGANDISTS Antonio Luna was a pharmacist who wasbanished by the Spaniards to Spain. He joined thePropaganda Movement and contributed hiswritings to LA SOLIDARIDAD. Most of his worksdealt with Filipino customs and others wereaccusations about how the Spaniards ran thegovernment. His pen name was Tagailog. He diedat the age of 33 in June 1899. He was put todeath by the soldiers of Aguinaldo because of hisinstant rise to fame which became a threat toAguinaldo.
1. (Christmas Eve). Itpictured true Filipino life.2. (How They DivertedThemselves). A dig at a dance of the Spaniards wherethe people were very crowded.3. (A FilipinoConference or Feast). Depicts a Filipino customwhich he believed was much better than the Spanish
1. (Legend of Bulacan).Contains legends, and folklores of his native town.2. (The Beheading ofLonginos). A play shown at the plaza of Malolos, Bulacan.3 (About the Filipinos)4 (TheFilipinos in Indo-China) Pedro Paterno was a scholar, dramatic, researcher andnovelist of the Propaganda Movement.
He also joined the Confraternity of Masons and theAsociacion Hispano-Pilipino in order to further theaims of the Movement. He was the first Filipinowriter who escaped censorship of the press during thelast day of the Spanish colonization.The following were a few of his writings:1. The first social novel in Spanish by aFilipino.2. Shows theimportance of a mother especially in the home.3. A collectionof his poems.
Jose Ma. Panganiban hid his identity behind hispenname JORMAPA. He was also known for havingphotographic mind. He was a member of a number ofmovements for the country. Some of his writings were:1.
The Filipinos did not get the reforms demandedby the propagandists. The government turned deafears to these petitions; oppression continued and thechurch and the government became even moreoppressive to the Filipinos. The good intentions ofSpain were reversed by the friars who were lording itover in the Philippines. Because of this, not a few of the Filipinosaffiliated with the La Liga Filipina (a civicorganization suspected of being revolutionary andwhich triggered Rizal’s banishment to Dapitan). LikeAndres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Apolinario Mabini,Jose Palma, and Pio Valenzuela decided that therewas no other way except to revolt.
The gist of literature containedmostly accusations against thegovernment and was meant to arousethe people to unite and to prepare forindependence.D. Highlights of the Active Revolution The noted leaders of this period wereAndres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto andApolinario Mabini. These are theircontributions to our country.
Andres Bonifacio is best known as the Father ofFilipino Democracy, but more than others, as theFather of the Katipunan because he led inestablishing the Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangaKatipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK). Andres Bonifacio came from a poor family and itis said that what he learned he got from the school ofexperience. He was a voracious reader and among those heloved to read which aroused his revolutionary spiritwere the NOLI and the FILI of Rizal.
He joined the La Liga Filipinafounded by Rizal in 1892. Heestablished the Katipunan whichtriggered the spirit of freedomespecially when Rizal was banished toDapitan, Mindanao. Bonifacio is better known as thegreat Revolutionary rather than awriter but he also wrote things whichpaved the way for the revolution andwhich also became part of ourliterature. Among his works were:
1.2. .This is an outline of obligations just like the 10commandments of God.3. A poem with a title similarto that of Marcelo H. del Pilar.4 Atranslation of Mi Ultimo Adios of Rizal in Tagalog.
Emilio Jacinto was the intelligentassistant of Andres Bonifacio in theestablishment of the Katipuna. He iscalled the Brains of the Katipunan. Heedited Kalayaan (Freedom) a Katipunannewspaper. Bonifacio withdrew his writingof the Kartilya in deference to Jacinto’swork as secretary of the Katipunan. HisKartilya was the one followed by themembers of the organization. Here are fewof his writings:
1.2 A collection of essays on differentsubjects like freedom, work, faith, government,love of country.3. A touchingode to his mother.4. Hismasterpiece.
Apolinario Mabini is known in literatureand history as the Sublime Paralytic andthe Brains of the Revolution. He was born in Talaga, Tanauan,Batangas on July 22, 1864. Because hewas born of a poor family he had to workin order to study. He became known to hisprofessors and classmates at Letran andthe UST because of his sharp memory andthe simple clothes he used to wearthroughout his schooling.
He became the right-hand of EmilioAguinaldo when the latter founded hisRepublic in Malolos. His contributions toliterature were writing on governmentsociety, philosophy and politics. Here aresome of his works:1. This was hismasterpiece and his aim here was topropagate the spirit of nationalism.
2.Jose Palma became popular because of hisHimno Nacional Filipino (The PhilippineNational Anthem) which was set to music byJulian Felipe.
He was born in Tondo, Manila on June 6, 1876.His brother Rafael Palma became the president of theUP. He joined the revolution against the Americanstogether with Gregorio del Pilar, the youngestFilipino general who died during the revolution.Aside from the National Anthem, here are his otherworks:1. A collection ofhis poems.2 . A poemexpressing one’s longings for his sweetheart.
NEWSPAPERS DURING THEREVOLUTIONIn the effort of the Revolutionists to spread to the worldtheir longings for their country, many newspapers wereput up during the Revolutionary period. They were:1. . Printed the decreesof the Revolutiary Government, news and works inTagalog that aroused nationalism.2. Edited byAntonio Luna and whose aim was for PhilippineIndependence.3.Established by Pedro Paterno in 1898.4 Edited by Clemente Zulueta.