is owed by one to a person who has helped him through some difficulties he had undergone. PAKIKIPAGKAPWA-TAOdeep sense of concern for one's dignity and respect
Filipino cultural values-sociology (PPT)
VALUES - from the Latin word VALERE. strong and vigorous JOCANO (2000) - concepts which we use as points of reference or criteria for recognizing, expressing and evaluating social realities in the environment in terms of:• desirability - quality• importance - merit• significance - price• worth - usefulness
EDGAR SHEFIELD BRIGHTMAN - whatever is actually likes, prized, esteemed, desired, approved or enjoyed by anyone at any time. ANDRES (1989) - it is the actual experience of enjoying a desired object or activity. Hence, value is an existing realization of desire.
STANDARD VALUE we decide on things depending on some valid criteria that would provide credibility to pursue such action. one is guided with his/her own or commonly accepted norms in realizing a particular end. its function to direct our way of looking at things towards a desirable result.
VALUE SYSTEM one of the important elements in Filipino culture.• basic personality• basic social unit• politics• economics• technology• ecology
Filipino values can be translated as: Buti - it is something desired of what is good. Pamantayan - standards which enable us to organize our ideas and interpret our experiences within the context of commonly shared meaning of things, events or actions. Halaga - worth, importance, evaluation or assessment. Ganda - encompassing everything that is to be pursued. What is beautiful must be realized.
4 Tests of Value by Robin Williams1. Extensive of the value in the total activity of the system. What proportion of the population manifests the value? How many of the people in the community are applying?2. Duration of the value. When was this value implemented? Was it persistently important over a period of time?
3. Intensity with which the value is sought or maintained as shown through efforts, choices, verbal affirmations and by reactions to threats to the value.4. Prestige of value carriers. Who are the implementers of the value? Do they possess the integrity to be such models of the value?
1. PRECONDITIONAL STAGE: CHILDHOOD - is the phase wherein children comply with the values of those who assert power on them (parents, teachers, nuns, and priests).2. THE CONVENTIONAL STAGE: YOUTH - during the conventional stage or youth, adolescence identify with their peers, idols and teachers due to interpersonal communication.3. POSTCONVENTIONAL STAGE: ADULTHOOD - the people internalize the values they have imbibed in the first two stages without fear.
Landa F. Jocano -pamantayan is the appropriate modelfor understanding the Filipino traditional valuesystem. - The model rightfully answers the question:“Why do Filipinos behave the way they do?” The answeris unanimous: because they observe the samepamantayan for doing things.
NATURE FUNCTION ORIENTATION REFERENCES JUDGMENTSExtrinsic Cognitive/ Kamalayan Person-Person Right/ Wrong Evaluation (conscious Person-Society knowledge)Intrinsic Cognitive/ Kalooban Person-Self Good/ Bad Expressive (subconscious/ inner feelings)Psychic Affective/ Pananampalatay Person-Super- (a) Sacred/(extra- Spiritual a (faith) natural Profanesensory) (b) Strong/ Weak Diwa Asal Halaga
HALAGA represents the surface level of the pamantayan system and functions as the cognitive- evaluate core of the system. ASAL is primarily a behavioral concept which refers to the intrinsic quality and meaning of actions. DIWA is the spiritual core of our traditional values and the essence of our collective sentiments or psyche as a people.
FAMILY CLOSENESS AND SECURITY natural dependence and mutual sharing among family members, financially and emotionally. Filipinos have an extended family structure where married sons and daughters remain under the roof of their parents for protection.
CLOSE-KNIT PHENOMENON – is a binding element as the threads of society are rewoven by giving attention on what the individual experiences in his/her capacity as a member of the community. The family is seen as a defense against ahostile world and a unit where one canturn to in case he/she has a serious problem (Panopio & Rolda, 2000).
SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE - refers to the way of life ofFilipinos to be recognized oracknowledged by their fellowmenand social groups. PAKIKISAMA - is yielding to the will of the majority or to the leader which could result to both to positive and negative behavior. It refers to one’s effort to get along with everybody.
Fr. Frank Lynch - defined PAKIKISAMA as the ability to get along with each others in such way as to avoid signs of conflict. Camaraderie among Filipino makes them flexible and easy to be with. Pakikisama occurs when teenagers join their peer groups in a drinking spree for fear of incurring the groups disapproval.
EUPHEMISM - stating an unpleasant truth, opinion or request as pleasantly as possible. In order not to offend others, direct, harsh and brutal words must be avoided. • Go-between or middleman is a way of social acceptance to avoid being embarrassed in a face-to-face confrontation that may bring about an uncomfortable feeling of shame.
MIDDLEMAN is used when a person needs his/her promotion or appointment papers signed, when following up documents or when in need of certifications.PAKIKIRAMDAM - a value affecting the team’s spirit. PERSONALISM - emphasizes the importance of the person with whom one has immediate face-to-face contact over the abstract rule of law or common good.
pakiusap (request) lagay o areglo (fixing) palakasan (use of power and influence) nepotism favoritism Friendship and Kinship - play important roles in the reciprocal relationship between parties. Nepotism - is the employment of relatives to share an individual’s good fortune.
NONRATIONALISM - refers to the tendency to perceive thoughts, objects, events and persons as sacred. ANIMISM - is the belief that a spirit pervades in activities. FATALISM - expresses the bahala na attitude which means leaving matters as they are because nature will take its course.
It is believing that life depends on: Swerte or buenas (good luck) Tadhana (decried by fate) Malas (bad luck) BAHALA NA - is an expression which expresses that fatalistic outlook of the Filipino. It happens when one simply resigns to the consequences of life’s difficulties.
Expressions which reflect bahala na are: iginuhit ng tadhana (decried by fate) malas (bad luck) swerte (good luck) gulong ng palad (life’s ups and downs) tsamba (undeserved success brought about by luck) In every positive way, bahala na is what makes people move, take risks and plan for the future (Panopio & Rolda, 2000).
BAYANIHAN: TEAM SPIRIT - denotes camaraderie among the people in the community and connotes helping one another in time of need.
UTANG NA LOOB: INFINITE RESPONSIBILITY - portrays our true identity based on our concern and response to others.o Pagtanaw is the unending gratitude but this is not enough because the responsibility to others does not end since pagpapakatao has no limits, same with pakikipagkapwa-tao.
HOSPITALITY: A WELCOME ATTITUDE Bukas-Loob na Pagtanggap - Filipinos open their hearts to complete strangers and offer them the best in their homes.
2 Hospitable Attitudes1. Tao Po? Tuloy! (Is There Anybody Home? Welcome!) - invites a down-to-earth encounter between a stranger and a host. - process of welcoming one’s sense of being: I am a person who knocks and wishes to be treated as a person (tao po…ako); The host or hostess who welcomes is also a person (tao rin ako… tuloy!).
2. Puwede bang makisukob? Oo, ba! (May I take cover? Of course!) - denotes sharing something. • Puwede (May I…) is a courteous word in packaging of pleading and request. • Oo is the height of the encounter that shows as acceptance of a person is no matter what he/she looks like. • Puwede bang makisukob? Oo, ba! May be interpreted in the Filipino ideal as PAKIKISAMA.
Disvalued Perceptions explained byJocano Some critics portray Filipino values as possessing no value at all: they are negative. They say values have “damaged” our culture, brought about the ‘ills in our society’, given rise to our ‘undesirable traits’, brought about weaknesses in our character as a people and have caused the ‘moral breakdown’ of our institutions. We were made to believe that what is imported must be better that its local counterpart.
Hilario David CULTURE simply rendered people’s lives meaningful. It was a source of identity, of confidence and of self- esteem. It allows people to understand the world and to define their places within it. Culture permitted communities and generations to share a common memory.
Filipinos are: proud of being puspusang-loob. Mapamaraan(resourceful) and mapanuklas (ingenous). Part of their being resourceful is their use of ANTING-ANTING (amulets and charms) Filipinos know their competence (kilala ang kakayahan). “Kayang-kaya mo ‘yan” is the encouraging phrase of the Filipinos to do their best through tiyaga.
imbued with lakas ng loob (self-confidence or self reliance). In their desire for social acceptance, Filipinos are: Marunong makibagay Marunong makiisa Marunong makilahok Marunong makipagpalagayang loob Marunong makisalamuha Marunong makisangkot Marunong makitungo Marunong makisama
Filipinos are likened to a bamboo which symbolizes flexibility, endurance and harmony with nature. Bahala na attitude should not be judged as a fatalistic resignation or withdrawal from an engagement or crisis but because of their kababaang-loob. It is manifested by their daop-palad habit. Their relationship with God is the source of their malinis at tapat na panunungkulan.