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Qualitative research methodology @ FMVEK, DSV fall 2011

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lecture on the masters course FMVEK/SviWri, DSV/SU, fall 2011.

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Qualitative research methodology @ FMVEK, DSV fall 2011

  1. 1. qualitative research methodology– methods and data analysispatrik hernwall · hernwall@dsv.su.se2011.11.24
  2. 2. today✤ qualitative methodology?✤ method and methodology✤ key concepts✤ analysis✤ research ethics✤ examples from on-going research project(s)
  3. 3. aimto deepen the understanding ofqualitative methodology (benefits,draw-backs, etc.), the use qualitativemethods and qualitative analysis
  4. 4. quantitative qualitative objective facts exist, separate from human percpetion and reality is socially constructed understandinggoal: discover causes of change, goal: interpret phenomena from by measurement and several perspectives quantitative analysis best approach: ethnography, as itbest approach: experiment, as it gives a solid base for several reduces sources of error interpretations ideal: objectivity ideal: digging in deep
  5. 5. knowledge interests(Three domains of knowledge, Habermas 1992) research kind of type of method knowledge human interest positivistic sciences instrumental technical (empirical-analytic (causal explanation) (prediction) methods) practical interpretative research practical (interpretation and(hermeneutic methods) (understanding) understanding)critical social sciences emancipatory emancipation (critical theory (criticism and (reflection) methods) liberation)
  6. 6. the challenge ✤ how to measure ”beautiful”? [Bo Eneroth, 1984]
  7. 7. the challenge ✤ how to measure ”beautiful”? [Bo Eneroth, 1984] ✤ what does it mean? [Johan Asplund, 1970]
  8. 8. methodology and method✤ principles/approaches and tools✤ approaches (examples) ✤ ethnography ✤ ethno-methodology ✤ phenomenology ✤ grounded theory✤ tools (examples) ✤ interviews (structured, semi-structured, open, etc.) ✤ observations (hidden, open, participatory, etc.) ✤ text analysis ✤ pilot testing
  9. 9. interpretation ✤ what are the human senses?
  10. 10. interpretation ✤ what are the human senses?
  11. 11. interpretation ✤ what are the human senses? a. a creative mind b. prejudices and pre-conceptions
  12. 12. experiment 1 shut your eyes, please
  13. 13. gestalt psychology
  14. 14. optical illusions
  15. 15. optical illusions
  16. 16. what is the quality of qualitative research?– and how ”measure” it ...
  17. 17. what is the quality of qualitative research?– and how ”measure” it ...✤ validity and reliability as a heritage from the positivistic sciences
  18. 18. what is the quality of qualitative research?– and how ”measure” it ...✤ validity and reliability as a heritage from the positivistic sciences✤ human interpretation, flexibility of the mind, an ability to see the unexpected are qualities of human
  19. 19. what is the quality of qualitative research?– and how ”measure” it ...✤ validity and reliability as a heritage from the positivistic sciences✤ human interpretation, flexibility of the mind, an ability to see the unexpected are qualities of human✤ credibility (internal validity) good correspondence between observations and theory✤ transferability (external validity) the extent results can be generalized to other social contexts and environments✤ dependability (internal reliability) agreement on how to interpret a body of data, a phenomenon, etc.✤ confirmability (external reliability) the extent a study can be replicated
  20. 20. everyday meaning-making
  21. 21. everyday meaning-making✤ perception✤ interpretation✤ making connections (seeing patterns)✤ building ”theory”✤ perception✤ interpretation✤ ...
  22. 22. experiment 2 coming late to lecture
  23. 23. analysis✤ generating categories from data (not based on your pre-conceptions!)✤ interplay between theory and data (c.f. abductive reasoning)
  24. 24. three forms of reasoning deductive reasoning abductive reasoning theory the world inductive reasoning
  25. 25. analysis cont.✤ transcription is always a translation✤ translation is always (initmately connected to) analysis✤ translation is the process of representing one mode in another ✤ interviews -> written text ✤ observations -> written text ✤ filmed sequence -> still photo ✤ still photo -> written text✤ categories are created, as a result of a thourough analysis, using the tools of theory, methodology, etc.
  26. 26. research etichs✤ utilitarian vs. deontological perspective✤ five principles: (http://dissertation.laerd.com/articles/principles-of-research-ethics.php) i. minimising the risk of harm ii. obtaining informed consent iii. protecting anonymity and confidentiality iv. avoiding deceptive practices v. providing the right to withdraw✤ collecting and storing personal data (c.f. PUL; personuppgiftslagen)✤ for more information, please see http://www.codex.vr.se/
  27. 27. the quality of qualitative research— and its challenges✤ not comparisons --> searching for (unique) qualities✤ understanding (humanities) and reflection ((critical) social sciences)✤ finding the more general question (what is it that I really want to know?)✤ relevance (a solid question, adequate methods/methodology, sound theoretical framework, sound and creative analysis)✤ time & be flexible
  28. 28. example ”Invisible girl”The image is a combination of a ”Yees” in a sans-serif bold typefacepostproduced (”photoshoped”) […]. The letters are white with aphotograph of herself from torso black con-tour. The image as suchand up, taken from a position is in the colour range brown-slightly below her face, and yellow, softened, and with thewritten text. She is wearing a dark contours of the face, the longtop. The photographed subject is blond hair and the eyelashesbending her head forward slightly marked. Below the image isto her right, looking down. If her written, in the default sans-serifeyes are open or not is not possible typeface, ”why like me when oneto see, but the eyelashes are can hate me?” In the lower left ofmarked/highlighted, and they are the image, are some interior detailsin the centre of attention/image. visible but it is not possible to seeAt the lower fourth of the image is what they are, except suggestingfour letters forming the word the photograph is taken indoors.
  29. 29. example ”Invisible girl” cont.
  30. 30. UNGMODs http://mt.sh.se/UNGMODs
  31. 31. the.GTO.project http://mt.sh.se/gto 10 y.o. 12 y.o. 14 y.o.
  32. 32. short summarization✤ methodology ≠ method✤ knowledge interests [Habermas]✤ (human) interpretation, (human) senses✤ language✤ uniqueness rather than generalisation✤ theories developed out of empirical data✤ the importance of ethical guidelines✤ be imaginative

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