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2021-03-05 H&T lecture Herman de Vries

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Lecture on influencing health-related behavior, habits and lifestyle using digital health tools such as wearables and apps

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2021-03-05 H&T lecture Herman de Vries

  1. 1. share your talent. move the world. Influencing health-related behavior, habits and lifestyle using digital health tools Health & Technology, March 2021; by Herman de Vries, MSc
  2. 2. share your talent. move the world. Contents 1. Defining behavior, habits and lifestyle 2. Theories on behavior change 3. Technology for behavior change 4. Behavior change techniques 5. Take away messages 2 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  3. 3. share your talent. move the world. 1.1 What is behavior? “Behavior is an umbrella term that describes the aggregate of responses to internal and external stimuli and the specific observable conduct of an individual” 1 3 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  4. 4. share your talent. move the world. 1.2 What are habits? “Habits are context–behaviour associations in memory that develop as people repeatedly experience rewards for a given action in a given context” 2 4 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  5. 5. share your talent. move the world. 1.3 What is a lifestyle? “A lifestyle is a set of habits that are directed by the same main goal” 3 5 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  6. 6. share your talent. move the world. 1.4 A taxonomy 1 Behaviors are building blocks of habits Habits are building blocks of a lifestyle 6 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  7. 7. share your talent. move the world. 2.1 Nature versus nurture Do we behave the way we do because we were built that way (nature) ... or because of what we have experienced and learned during our lives (nurture)? 7 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  8. 8. share your talent. move the world. 2.2 Fixed and growth mindsets 4 Adopting a growth mindset is generally more productive Be aware: not everything can be influenced or changed – absence of change ≠ culpable failure (!) 8 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  9. 9. share your talent. move the world. 2.3 Theory of Planned Behavior 5 • Behavior can be (sub)consciously influenced • TPB-based interventions often target attitude, subjective norm & perceived behavioral control The big question: How to sustain a certain behavior so that long-term beneficial habits are formed? 9 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  10. 10. share your talent. move the world. 2.4 Nudging Source: Behaviour Change By Design – YouTube 10 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  11. 11. share your talent. move the world. 3.1 Potential of technology • Submersed in personal context • Available 24/7 • Unobtrusive monitoring • Historical data • Personalized feedback, triggers and interventions 11 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  12. 12. share your talent. move the world. 3.2 Lessons from Silicon Valley 6 • It is difficult to change or replace established habits • Habit change requires repetition • Products need to motivate and enable users to keep using it • Variable rewards can help to engage users 12 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  13. 13. share your talent. move the world. 3.3 Persuasive systems design • Persuasive systems: "Interactive information technology designed for changing users’ attitudes or behavior“ 7 • Fogg Behavior Model: Behavior = motivation x ability x prompt 8 • Potential of health technology: provide the right prompt at the right time 13 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  14. 14. share your talent. move the world. 4.1 Behaviour Change Techniques • A taxonomy of 93 BCTs was formed to optimise the reporting and scientific study of behavior change interventions 9 • Some examples (paraphrased): – Provide information – Goal setting – Action planning – Prompt review of goals or rewards – Self-monitoring – Social comparison – Social support – Fear arousal – Motivational interviewing 14 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  15. 15. share your talent. move the world. 4.2 BCT effectiveness • Goal setting & self-monitoring help overweight & obese adults improve physical activity & healthy eating 10 • … but are associated with lower self-efficacy & physical activity in older adults 11 BCT effectiveness can differ per outcome, per demographic – and even per individual 15 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  16. 16. share your talent. move the world. 4.3 BCT’s in wearables • Mercer et al. (2016) assessed 7 activity trackers 12 • Average: 16.3 BCT’s per tracker • Most BCT’s centered around self-monitoring & self-regulation • BCT’s related to planning & instructions were scarce 16 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  17. 17. share your talent. move the world. 4.4 BCT’s in apps • Dunn et al. (2018) assessed 40 smartphone apps targeting sedentary behavior 13 • Just 10 BCT’s (out of a 93-item taxonomy) were used • On average 2.42 BCTs / app • Most focussed on prompts, information and self-monitoring 17 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  18. 18. share your talent. move the world. 4.5 BCT examples 14 18 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  19. 19. share your talent. move the world. 5 Take away messages • Behavior < habits < lifestyle • Using digital health tools tomonitor and nudge via well timed, personalized prompts can complement traditional approaches • Choose a tool with the right properties & BCT’s for the targeted individual or group 19 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  20. 20. share your talent. move the world. Questions or comments? Contact: • E-mail: h.j.de.vries@pl.hanze.nl • Twitter: @HermanDeVriesNL • LinkedIn: hermandevries 20 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)
  21. 21. share your talent. move the world. References: 1. Salvador-Carulla, L., Alonso, F., Gomez, R., Walsh, C. O., Almenara, J., Ruiz, M., & Abellán, M. J. (2013). Basic concepts in the taxonomy of health-related behaviors, habits and lifestyle. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(5), 1963–1976. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10051963 2. Mazar, A., & Wood, W. (2018). Defining habit in psychology. In B. Verplanken (Ed.), The Psychology of Habit: Theory, Mechanisms, Change, and Contexts (pp. 13–29). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97529-0_2 3. Jensen, M. (2009). Lifestyle: Suggesting mechanisms and a definition from a cognitive science perspective. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 11(1), 215–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-007-9105-4 4. Dweck, C. (2017). Mindset: Changing the way you think to fulfil your potential. In Constable & Robinson. Hachette UK. 5. Icek, A. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. 6. Eyal, N. (2014). Hooked: How to build habit-forming products. Penguin. 7. Fogg, B. J. (2003). Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do, 2002(December), 1–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-55860-643-2.X5000-8 8. Fogg, B. (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 350, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1145/1541948.1541999 9. Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., Eccles, M. P., Cane, J., & Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 81– 95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6 10. Samdal, G. B., Eide, G. E., Barth, T., Williams, G., & Meland, E. (2017). Effective behaviour change techniques for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight and obese adults; systematic review and meta-regression analyses. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0494-y 11. French, D. P., Olander, E. K., Chisholm, A., & Mc Sharry, J. (2014). Which Behaviour Change Techniques Are Most Effective at Increasing Older Adults’ Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Behaviour? A Systematic Review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48(2), 225–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-014-9593-z 12. Mercer, K., Li, M., Giangregorio, L., Burns, C., & Grindrod, K. (2016). Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 4(2), e40. https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.4461 13. Dunn, E. E., Gainforth, H. L., & Robertson-Wilson, J. E. (2018). Behavior change techniques in mobile applications for sedentary behavior. Digital Health, 4, 205520761878579. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207618785798 14. Bondaronek, P., Alkhaldi, G., Slee, A., Hamilton, F. L., & Murray, E. (2018). Quality of publicly available physical activity apps: Review and content analysis. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 6(3), e53. https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.9069 21 7-3-2021 Herman de Vries (@HermanDeVriesNL)

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