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La agricultura incaica


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Presentation on Incan agricultural practices and architecture.

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La agricultura incaica

  1. 1. Growing Food in the Incan Empire La agricultura incaica
  2. 2. Objetivos <ul><li>Vamos a estudiar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La agricultura incaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La arquitectura agrícola incaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Las maneras de irrigación incaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La comida incaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Las maneras de preservar la comida incaica </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Los Incas
  4. 4. Sudamérica <ul><li>El imperio incaico se ubicaba en el Perú, Equador, Bolivia, Chile y Argentina. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenía bosques lluviosos, montañas, el desierto, el altiplano y la costa. </li></ul>
  5. 5. El imperio incaico <ul><li>Es un mapa del imperio incaico. </li></ul><ul><li>Los incas tenían una cultura riquísima con ciencia advancada, medecina, arquitectura magnífica y la gastronomía. </li></ul><ul><li>Se terminó el imperio incaico con la llegada de los españoles en los años 1500. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Los bosques lluviosos <ul><li>Una parte del imperio incaico era los bosques lluviosos de Perú y Bolivia. </li></ul><ul><li>Los bosques lluvios de Sudamérica están en la parte occidental de los Andes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. El altiplano <ul><li>El altiplano es un plano alto. </li></ul><ul><li>Es un desierto de alta elevación de Bolivia. </li></ul><ul><li>Es muy seco. </li></ul><ul><li>¿Puede ver las vicuñas en la foto? </li></ul>
  8. 8. El desierto de la costa de el Perú <ul><li>La costa de Perú el el norte de Chile es un desierto. </li></ul><ul><li>No hay mucha agua en estas áreas. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Los andes <ul><li>La mayoría del imperio incaico estaba en las montañas de Sudamérica. </li></ul><ul><li>Se llaman los Andes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. La agricultura y la architectura
  11. 11. La agricultura y la architectura <ul><li>Los andenes son las terrazas que construyeron los incas para cultivar comida en las montañas. </li></ul><ul><li>The incas used gravity to provide water to irrigate the andenes, so it was crucial to know the direction of water flow down the mountain before construction could begin.   </li></ul>
  12. 12. Los andenes <ul><li>The andenes were filled at the bottom with a layer of sand and stones for good drainage. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the Incas transported fertile ground from other locations and use it to fill up the andenes right to the top. </li></ul><ul><li>The soil was fertilized and tended to produce high quality food for the Incan empire. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Waru Waru <ul><li>This system was use in flat high terrains where the water supply was coming from the rain. </li></ul><ul><li>The system consists of a water tempered micro-climate by the construction of canals around the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>The channels were filled with water from the rain which irrigates the crops and cools the ambient temperature. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Waru Waru <ul><li>Los waru waru son importantísimos para la áreas secas como el altiplano de Bolivia y los desiertos de la costa para cultivar comida. </li></ul>
  15. 15. La quchakuna <ul><li>Quchakuna means lagoon. </li></ul><ul><li>This method consist in the construction of huge, deep artificial lagoons that fill with rain water during the rainy season. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a popular system in the drier regions of the Incan empire because of a lack of a permanent water supply. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Irrigación incaica
  17. 17. La agricultura y la architectura <ul><li>Los andenes son las terrazas que construyeron los incas para cultivar comida en las montañas. </li></ul><ul><li>The incas used gravity to provide water to irrigate the andenes, so it was crucial to know the direction of water flow down the mountain before construction could begin.   </li></ul>
  18. 18. Irigación <ul><li>Los incas construyeron canales y acueductos para regar sus cosechas en tierras secas y los desiertos. </li></ul><ul><li>Los incas fueron ingenieros hidráulicos. </li></ul>
  19. 19. El pescado <ul><li>Incan agriculture also used fish guts to fertilize the ground in the andenes. </li></ul><ul><li>They also planted the fish carcasses with corn seeds for extra fertilizer. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fertilizantes Y Abono <ul><li>Los incas usaban el guano de pájaros para fertilizar a las plantas. </li></ul><ul><li>Guano comes from the Incan word “huano” for bird poop. </li></ul><ul><li>So valued was the bird guano that it was illegal to kill certain species of birds that congregated on offshore islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Violators were punished by death. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fertilizantes Y Abono <ul><li>Los incas usaban el guano de las alpacas, las llamas, las vicuñas y los guanacos para fertilizar a las plantas también. </li></ul><ul><li>They also used the carcasses of these animals in their gardens after slaughtering them for meat. </li></ul><ul><li>¡¡Eran jardineros orgánicos!! </li></ul>
  22. 22. Centros de ciéncia botánica <ul><li>Archaeologist believe that Cuzco was center of Incan agricultural research with hundreds of inca agriculture technicians working year round testing new plants, and developing hybrids plants. </li></ul><ul><li>They also focused on disease-resistant plants, and plants that grow at the various altitudes of the empire. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Quinoa <ul><li>Quinoa was referred to in the Incan language as “quinoa aschisaya mama” or mother of all grains. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be grown at high altitudes and is similar to rice but smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Es muy buena para la salud y es deliciosa. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Quinoa <ul><li>Unlike  wheat or rice (which are low in lysine), quinoa contains a balanced set of essential amino acids for humans, making it an unusually complete protein source among plant foods.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is a good source of dietary fiber and phosphorous and is high in magnesium and iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Quinoa is gluten-free and considered easy to digest. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Las papas <ul><li>Las papas eran la comida más importante del imperio incaico. </li></ul><ul><li>La papa es muy buena para la salud y tiene muchísima nutrición. </li></ul><ul><li>Estas papas tienen muchísimos colores y formas diferentes. </li></ul><ul><li>A ti ¿te gustan las papas? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Papas <ul><li>The potato contains vitamins and minerals, as well as an assortment of phytochemicals, such ascarotenoids and polyphenols. </li></ul><ul><li>A medium-size 150 g (5.3 oz) potato with the skin provides 27 mg of vitamin C (45% of the Daily Value (DV)), 620 mg of potassium (18% of DV), 0.2 mg vitamin B6 (10% of DV) and trace amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>The fiber content of a potato with skin (2 g) is equivalent to that of many whole grainbreads, pastas, and cereals. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Maíz <ul><li>Maíz era una comida importantísima para muchísimas culturas de América como los aztecas, los mayas, la gente indígena de los Estados Unidos y también para los incas. </li></ul><ul><li>Los incas tenían mucho maíz diferente. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Maíz <ul><li>Corn is rich in phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc,copper, iron and selenium with small amounts of potassium. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin Content: Corn has Vitamin B (Thiamin, Vitamin B6, Niacin, Riboflavin, Folate). It has traces of Vitamin A and Vitamin E. </li></ul>
  29. 29. La ciéncia de la preservación de la comida <ul><li>Los incas tenían 4 maneras de preservar la comida: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La Jarwa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La Mallulloc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La Chochocca </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La Charqui </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. La Jarwa <ul><li>Is used for hybrid potatoes: </li></ul><ul><li>Start with a lightly cooked, drain it, cut in half lengthwise </li></ul><ul><li>Place in a special surface in the exterior of the house using the frost at night for 21 nights </li></ul><ul><li>During the day the oca have to be protected from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>After 21 nights, dry the oca for another 21 days in the sun and protect them at night. </li></ul>
  31. 31. La Mallulloc <ul><li>Is used for tubers: </li></ul><ul><li>First it is lightly cook, drain, and peal the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Place on a special surface in the exterior of the house for 3 nights </li></ul><ul><li>During the day they have to be protected from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>After 3 nights, follow another day of drying the food to the sun. </li></ul>
  32. 32. La Chochocca <ul><li>Is used for corn: </li></ul><ul><li>First it is lightly cooked, drain and all the grains of the corn are cut off, </li></ul><ul><li>Then the grains are place in a special area in the exterior of the house during 3 nights, they must be protected during the day </li></ul><ul><li>Following another 3 days drying them to the sun and protecting them during the night. </li></ul>
  33. 33. La Charqui <ul><li>Is used to dry meat and fish: </li></ul><ul><li>First they cut the meat into strips or slices, removing as much fat and blood as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Then the strips are hung in a dry, ventilated and sunny spot until the meat takes a texture of leather </li></ul><ul><li>Then lightly cook in mud ovens </li></ul><ul><li>Cut in small pieces and store in small containers </li></ul><ul><li>Then cover with salt. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Preguntas o comentarios <ul><li>What is the most interesting facet of Incan agriculture for you and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you or your parents have a garden? How do you fertilize it? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Bibliografía <ul><li>&quot;Inca Agriculture.&quot;  The Incas Civilization. Cuzco, Machu Picchu, Inca Trail, Nazca Lines, Peru.  Web. 29 June 2010. . </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Inca Agriculture.&quot;  Peru Travel Confidential . Web. 29 June 2010. . </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Quinoa.&quot;  Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 29 June 2010. http:// /wiki/Quinoa . </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Incan Agriculture.&quot;  Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 29 June 2010. http:// . </li></ul>