Adjectivalisation Suffixes

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Word formation - forming adjectives

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Adjectivalisation Suffixes

  1. 1. Adjectivalisation Word Formation
  2. 2. -able / -ible <ul><li>Usually attaches to verbs </li></ul><ul><li>“ capable of being ~ed” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laughable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divisible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptible </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. -able <ul><li>Attached to nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ having the stated quality or condition” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. -al / -ar / -ial / -iar <ul><li>Usually attached to Latin, Greek, or French nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ pertaining / related to ~” </li></ul><ul><li>Additional </li></ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular </li></ul><ul><li>Proverbial </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul>
  5. 5. -en <ul><li>Attached to nouns denoting material </li></ul><ul><li>“ made of ~” or “ resembling ~ ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woolen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silken </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. -ful <ul><li>Attaches mainly to nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ full of ~” or “having / displaying ~” or “causing / exciting ~” </li></ul><ul><li>Also attaches to verbs </li></ul><ul><li>“ prone to ~” </li></ul><ul><li>Careful </li></ul><ul><li>Sinful </li></ul><ul><li>Sorrowful </li></ul><ul><li>Delightful </li></ul><ul><li>Shameful </li></ul><ul><li>Fearful </li></ul><ul><li>Stressful </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetful </li></ul><ul><li>Resentful </li></ul><ul><li>Fretful </li></ul>
  7. 7. -al / -atic / -ific / -ical / -istic <ul><li>Mainly attached to nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ of, like, or connected with ~” </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic </li></ul><ul><li>Photographic </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Allergic </li></ul><ul><li>Dogmatic </li></ul><ul><li>Problematic </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific </li></ul><ul><li>Terrific </li></ul><ul><li>Comical </li></ul><ul><li>Classical </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Euphemistic </li></ul>
  8. 8. -ive / -ative <ul><li>Attached mainly to verbs </li></ul><ul><li>“ tending to ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decorative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causative </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. -less <ul><li>Mainly attached to nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ without ~ / having no ~” </li></ul><ul><li>Also attaches to verbs </li></ul><ul><li>“ that never ~s / that can’t be ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Careless </li></ul><ul><li>Fearless </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningless </li></ul><ul><li>Harmless </li></ul>
  10. 10. -like <ul><li>Combines with nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ resembling ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childlike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Godlike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladylike </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. -ly <ul><li>Mainly attaches to nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ like / characteristic of / befitting ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cowardly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also attaches to nouns denoting time </li></ul><ul><li>“ recurring every ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yearly </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. -ory / -atory <ul><li>Usually attaches to Latinate verbs which form nouns with –ion </li></ul><ul><li>“ that ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfactory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligatory </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. -ous / -eous / -ious / -atious <ul><li>Attaches mainly to nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ causing or having ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glorious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flirtatious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Righteous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisonous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courageous </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. -y / -ey <ul><li>Mainly attaching to nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ full of ~” / “covered with ~” / “having the quality of ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attaching to verbs </li></ul><ul><li>“ inclined / apt to ~” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sticky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleepy </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Credits <ul><li>The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language , Rodney Huddleston / Geoffrey K. Pullum </li></ul><ul><li>Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Compiler - Henrick Oprea </li></ul>

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