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  1. 1. MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT SPATIAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT As follow-up to the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), the Danish Presidency is focusing on the implications of globalisation and the role of cities in regional development. In three main sections, this report deals in detail with the problems relating to the role of cities in regional development. A number of Scandinavian researchers have contributed to the report. The report is a contribution by the Danish Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planning Department to the international conference European Cities in a Global Era - Urban Identities and Regional Development. It is intended as a supplement to the conference, introducing key aspects of the issues discussed and providing background reading. URBAN IDENTITIES AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT The first section includes the Copenhagen Charter 2002 - the Danish Presidency’s suggested agenda for a discussion on future urban and regional development - as well as a number of operational recommendations. The second section deals in general terms with globalisation’s impact on Europe’s cities and regions. Finally, the last section deals with different aspects concerning the development of an urban identity concept. EUROPEAN CITIES IN A GLOBAL ERA EUROPEAN CITIES IN A GLOBAL ERA EUROPEAN CITIES IN A GLOBAL ERA URBAN IDENTITIES AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  3. 3. PAGES 002-003 / FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER Cities and regions are facing great challenges as a consequence of globalisation. In many ways, cities are the driving force of the global economy. The challenge for the future is to determine how this force can pull with it an entire region without compromising our identity. In other words, we must remain locally anchored in a changing global world. At one and the same time, cities are the bearers of the cultural heritage of Europe and the clearest illustration of our present: a present where cities are expressions of growth, wealth and community, as well as decay, poverty and loneliness. It is also clear that globalisation has different effects on our cities and regions. Large financial districts and communication centres have not been established in all cities. Some cities have instead developed as places for spe- Initiating a debate on these matters is vital cialised production. But all cities are part Hans Chr. Schmidt in order to meet the challenges in future of, and are affected by, the global economy. Minister for the Environment urban and regional development in Europe. The following report deals with the rela- There is a great challenge for Europe’s cities tionship between the identity of cities, and authorities here, and it is about looking globalisation, and regional development as at the problem of cities and regions in a part of the forthcoming conference entitled more functional and integrated light. European Cities in a Global Era - Urban Looking at cities and regions holistically. Identities and Regional Development. Understanding the important relationships between urban and rural areas. Supporting However we do not merely want to initiate co-operation and development both within a debate. With the Copenhagen Charter and between cities and regions. Therefore, 2002, we want to set the agenda for the the two principal elements in the Charter debate on urban and regional policy. are to utilise and improve the identity and
  4. 4. qualities of our cities in global competition the conference and the report. In partner- and to ensure balanced and coordinated ship with the City of Copenhagen and the development within and between the cities City of Frederiksberg, Fonden Realdania is and regions of Europe. also part of the ten-year urban and housing exhibition, Copenhagen X. Urban and regional policy is crucial for future European cohesion, and this was also I hope that the conference in Copenhagen emphasised in the European Spatial and this report can contribute to inspiration Development Perspective (ESDP). and debate and thus comprise a stepping European cities and authorities must be at stone for future regional policy as well as the leading edge of endeavours to promote urban and environment policy and work for cohesion and balanced development in sustainable development in Europe. Europe. Without active local involvement from cities, it is impossible to ensure the goals of sustainability that have been set at both national and international levels. I am extremely pleased that we are focusing on this dimension during the Danish EU Presidency, and I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the contributors to this report. I would also like to thank Fonden Realdania, which has contributed to both
  7. 7. PAGES 006-007 / EUROPEAN CITIES IN A GLOBAL ERA EUROPEAN CITIES IN A GLOBAL ERA AN INTRODUCTION Danish Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planning Department The need for common efforts towards balanced urban and regional development has grown in line with European integration and increasing competition between cities. With the conference European Cities in a Global Era Urban Identities and Regional Development, the Danish Presidency will focus on the role of the cities in regional development at a time influenced by globalisation. ing that future urban and regional policy contributes to regional development, without comprising the environment and the identity of our cities - and without creating large areas that do not share in the benefits of development. This means that initiatives at various authority levels must be co-ordinated. It means that we must begin shaping a regional policy where the role of the cities as growth centres is supported for the benefit of the region as a whole. Therefore, global development emphasises the need to revise our knowledge and strategies if we are Globalisation intensifies the need for an to ensure balanced urban and regional integrated perspective on urban and development. This is also a central objective regional development. In many ways, cities of the European Spatial Development function as the driving force of the global Perspective (ESDP). economy and are important actors in regional development, which puts pressure At the ministerial conference in Tampere on the urban environment and leads to cer- during the Finnish Presidency, Denmark tain regional disparities in growth opportu- undertook to take a closer look at experi- nities. Therefore, the fact that regional and ence gained from the Interreg Programme. urban policy is often perceived as two sepa- A debate on urban and regional develop- rate entities is a problem. The EU and the ment should, however, also be viewed in Member States face a great challenge ensur- connection with the inevitable conse-
  8. 8. MUSEUM PROJECT # 001, ATTA KIM, PART OF A PHOTO- quences of the global economy, both the identity of place. The views of these authors GRAPHIC WORK SHOWN ON A HOLOGRAPHIC SCREEN AT positive and the negative. Therefore, it is are their own contribution to the debate not enough merely to assess the experience and therefore do not necessarily represent gained from one isolated programme. A the views of the Danish government. broader debate is needed on how we ensure Likewise, the articles do not constitute an that regional policy contributes to a bal- exhaustive discussion on the subject, but anced and polycentric development pattern, attempt rather to provide an interdiscip- thus creating frameworks for growth in all linary approach to a complex issue. THE FESTIVAL “ASIAN COMMENTS” IN COPENHAGEN, SEPTEMBER 2002. the regions of Europe. The report opens with the Copenhagen The quality and identity of a place are Charter 2002, a statement from the Danish becoming increasingly important para- Presidency, which also provides an agenda meters in urban and regional development for the debate on future urban and regional during globalisation. Therefore, the concept development in Europe. The Copenhagen of urban identity is central in this confer- Charter, the subsequent articles and the ence report. The objective is not, however, conference together constitute an invitation to provide a definitive answer to what to politicians, planners, researchers and urban identity is. The objective rather is to other interested parties to enter the debate elaborate the diversity of the concept and to on the future objectives and strategies of support urban and regional development European regional policy. embedded in the place. In this connection, a number of Nordic researchers and practi- At the same time, we hope the ten-year tioners have contributed to examining the urban and housing exhibition, Copenhagen relationships between globalisation and X, being held from 2002 to 2012 will urban and regional development, and the inspire future urban development in other
  9. 9. PAGES 008-009 / EUROPEAN CITIES IN A GLOBAL ERA PART OF KALVEBOD BRYGGE IN THE PORT OF European cities. We are pleased that the two tional relations. Smaller towns, however, COPENHAGEN, 2002 large municipalities of the Danish capital - often fulfil other functions than those of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg - along with larger cities. In general, larger cities repre- the foundation Fonden Realdania, are sent centres where knowledge and commu- working together on Copenhagen X, and as nication resources are concentrated, whilst such highlighting the long-term perspective smaller towns still essentially manufacture in development of the spatial environment. specialised goods. Global competition can, however, have neg- The significance of globalisation for urban and regional development ative consequences for cities and regions if Globalisation implies a new division of out a long-term perspective. The result can labour between countries, regions, and be a social and spatial separation between cities. To a much greater extent than before, cities and regions, as well as between urban cities and regions are specialising in niche and rural areas, with only few areas benefit- areas where they have special expertise. This ing from global competition. it depends on development strategies with- means that cities and regional networks will increasingly become central players in glo- These trends provide some specific chal- bal competition. lenges for urban and regional policy. If we are to promote balanced regional develop- Many believe that development of the new ment throughout Europe, then it is essential knowledge economy will, in many ways, that we strengthen co-operation and co- lead to larger cities experiencing a greater ordination as well as initiate long-term and level of growth than smaller towns. Yet holistic strategies. Both the role of the larger smaller towns are also experiencing increas- cities and smaller towns must be encour- ing growth on the basis of more interna- aged, allowing development to contribute
  10. 10. to growth for the whole region. There is means involving all urban areas in develop- towns in all regions for the benefit of continued need for us to ensure regional ment. It means that the different identities regional development as a whole. Holistic development whereby cities complement of a place, including those affiliated to development of our cities and regions must one another, and where conditions of life in social and cultural environments, urban and be based upon local diversity, as also empha- weaker cities and regions are safeguarded so regional knowledge competencies, and the sised in Local Agenda 21 work. that everybody shares in the benefits of various spatial features of a city and region, development. etc., are considered when the spatial envi- The key words are integration, involvement, ronment is to be developed and renewed. and participation, if we are to ensure wellfunctioning urban and regional policies. The Urban identity as a potential in spatial development The basis for development of our regions citizens of city and region must co-operate therefore should be a broad understanding with public and private actors as equal part- The value of cultural and spatial symbols, or of European urban history, qualities and ners. We must support co-operation and co- the identity of the place, is an important identities. It is also necessary to acknowl- ordination internally between urban and competitive parameter. At the same time, the edge the less positive features of a given city regional actors and promote co-operation identity of the place provides a feeling of or region and assess how these features can between different cities and regions. belonging and meaning for local inhabitants. be applied constructively in development. Cities evolve constantly as a consequence of In the future, it will be a challenge to commit Copenhagen Charter 2002 both big-city competition and development to long-term and holistic strategies for urban We will face great challenges in the future, of the global economy, as well as mass- development that do not differentiate but also great opportunities. Everyone media proliferation of cultural values and between centre and periphery, but rather, are responsible for urban and regional develop- the global flows of businesspeople and based on a more varied picture of the identi- ment at all authority levels must work tourists. The result is that cities are becom- ties of the place. Strategies that take into con- together to perform these tasks. It is ing more and more uniform, thereby losing sideration both the negative and constructive through debate and the joint formulation of their local character, but also that central aspects associated with urban identity. action strategies that we can ensure balanced and sustainable development. There urban areas and buildings are allocated is no secret formula for how we can ensure higher priority at the expense of less spec- such development. However, it is possible rural areas. This development reflects an Sustainable urban and regional development unconstructive relationship between local It is important that development strategies which is important to debate in order to preservation and globally inspired renewal. be rooted in the culture, nature and com- ensure frameworks for regional develop- mercial structure of an area in order to ment based on growth and sustainability. tacular buildings and peripheral urban and to sum up a number of factors; an agenda Yet the dynamics of the identity of the place ensure sustainable development. Urban resulting from globalisation can also be used policies and regional strategies should be The Copenhagen Charter is a suggestion constructively. By making the scenery, structured so they are based on the place for such an agenda. The aim of the Charter architecture, history, local lifestyle, and cul- and the life led there, both in respect to is to function as a stepping-stone on the ture the basis for development, and at the transport, environmental planning and path towards improved urban and regional same time drawing on new trends, it is pos- other aspects relevant to everyday life. development in Europe. Firstly, the Charter sible to see both local and global character- Development must counteract social exclu- addresses the need to acknowledge the con- istics reflected in one another. In this way, it sion. The city and region must be accessible nection between urban policy and regional is possible to preserve local character for the to all. This concerns physical access as well development. Secondly, the Charter also benefit of both local and global actors. as social and cultural accessibility. addresses the need to focus on urban and regional conditions of life in a global era, The spatial environment is fundamental if Everyone must share in the benefits of where the identity of the place is an impor- the identity of the place is to be created, development, not just within urban areas, tant aspect. In other words, strategies devel- developed, and promoted. Highlighting but throughout Europe, as well as in the oped on the basis of an integrated perspec- local identities in relation to the spatial individual Member States and regions. The tive of urban and regional development can environment means being aware of how central message of the ESDP was that, support identities of place and thereby con- global and international flows are assimil- because of this, we should create the frame- tribute to creating growth in all regions of ated into local construction, so develop- work for a polycentric development pattern. Europe. An aspect that should underlie ment is based on neither rigid traditional- We must ensure sustainable and balanced future European debate on regional policy. ism nor uncritical internationalism. It also development in larger cities and smaller
  11. 11. PAGES 010-011 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002
  12. 12. COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 AND RECOMMENDATIONS The dynamics and consequences of globalisation are extremely important for future developments in European cities and regions. But how can these global dynamics be exploited without compromising the local qualities in European cities? And how can global dynamics be used to promote urban and regional development? Drawing attention to the issue of cohesion between the challenges of globalisation and the development potential of urban identity is the first step. However, the individual authorities responsible for urban and regional development must take the decisive leap from words to action. The problems and issues in the different articles are illustrated with differing perspec- The Copenhagen Charter contains ten tives and summarised in this chapter with an principles on how the challenges of global- article on challenges and policy recommen- isation can be managed in urban and dations. The article shows how the abstract regional strategies in order to secure cohe- discussions in the report can be offered spe- sion and continued sustainable develop- cific relevance in strategy and policy devel- ment. Through the Charter, the Danish opment, and thus become a useful tool for Presidency wants to inspire decision-makers, planners and decision-makers. researchers, and other stakeholders in regional and urban development in Europe to take part in the debate on urban and regional development. The Charter also emphasises the necessity of an integrated approach to spatial development, if we are to promote balanced regional development.
  13. 13. PAGES 012-013 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 A STATEMENT ON THE OCCASION OF THE DANISH PRESIDENCY The challenges The global changes promote standardisation Globalisation generates new challenges in in many ways, including architecture, images preparing strategies for urban and regional and culture. Diversity, identity and locally development. The Copenhagen Charter anchored development can protect against 2002 aims to recommend how to manage this conformity. In addition, the special char- the challenges of the global era, in which acteristics of specific urban areas and regions maintaining growth and sustainability as provide the driving force for social and econ- well as identity and diversity has become omic development. The location-specific increasingly difficult. qualities and identity give meaning to the sense of place by making it unique. The global competition between cities and regions has shaped a new global division of Cities comprise a paradox. They embody labour. National borders and cultures do not the leading centres of development, but limit the chains of production and consump- they are also fertile soil for social exclusion tion. Companies can choose where they and environmental problems. Many city want to locate, and people where they want residents have poor access to transport, to work and live, on a global market. These housing, education, social services, jobs and changes influence the cities and regions of other services. Most European towns and Europe. The disparities between European cities have old industrial and harbour cities and between cities and the countryside districts that need to be regenerated. are increasing. Rural areas with small and Determining how to regenerate balanced medium-sized towns often have limited and polycentric development in cities and opportunities for development. regions using the special local and regional qualities, competencies, identities and creativity is therefore a major challenge.
  14. 14. Meeting the challenges region, to improve the territorial balance in An integrated approach to urban and European development. regional policies is needed. Urban development and regional development are interre- Local, regional, national and European lated. All strategies and programmes with authorities need to take responsibility for spatial effects at the local, regional, national ensuring sustainable and balanced urban and and European levels influence urban and regional policy. Urban and regional author- regional development. In the future, author- ities should assess their potential role in the ities need to take responsibility for enhanc- global economy and convert this assessment ing co-operation and co-ordination to pro- into specific strategies for their territory. The mote cohesion, sustainability and growth in foundation for this could be the principles of all of Europe. Meanwhile, policy-makers the Copenhagen Charter 2002. The 10 must consider how globalisation affects points of the Charter are not the final regions and cities, to prevent imbalanced answers, but they outline main principles. development. If an integrated approach is Strategies for urban and regional develop- not implemented, the lack of co-ordination ment and implementation thereof need to be between different levels of authority will not carefully tailored to individual circumstances only result in greater disparity between dif- to develop and enhance the characteristic ferent areas in the same region but also identities of cities and regions. Interreg, increase the gaps between the regions of URBAN and other EU programmes support Europe. In the end, this will lead to devel- regional and urban development and regen- opment that is extremely unsustainable. eration, but progressive strategies for urban Future regional policies in Europe can con- and regional development should make use tribute to reinforcing the role of cities and of these programmes in relation to national towns as growth centres that benefit a whole and regional initiatives.
  15. 15. PAGES 014-015 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 GLOBAL EFFECTS REGIONAL IDENTITY Regional development in global competition 1. Use the forces of globalisation construc- 3. Develop an integrated perspective on tively by assessing the local potential in urban and regional policy by promoting the global economy and integrating this awareness of the role of towns and cities into strategies for urban and regional in regional development, to promote development. regional cohesion and a polycentric urban pattern. 2. Use regional and urban identities as the starting-point in adapting to global 4. Co-ordinate strategies for urban and changes and dynamics by interpreting regional development and support and registering the characteristics of the partnerships between public and pri- physical environment, architecture and vate actors. the social and cultural capital in the region and its cities. 5. Develop innovative and sustainable long-term perspectives in which regional identity and cities’ potential strengths are linked to regional competencies, creativity and culture.
  16. 16. REGIONAL BALANCE IDENTITY AND QUALITY CO-OPERATION AND CO-ORDINATION Urban identity and balanced regional development 6. Use the architectural history of the city 8. Create diverse and creative living and and global trends to shape the urban working environments in all urban and regional environment, to protect districts by including all cultures and diversity and local identity and to coun- potential factors in the development teract the monotony of the global archi- process. tectural expression. 9. Enhance integration in the entire region 7. View the revitalisation of the city and to avoid social exclusion by ensuring region as a dynamic process and make that everyone has access to sustainable use of local customs and new initiatives. transport, jobs, housing, knowledge, education and social services. 10. Strengthen opportunities for public participation in the discussion on strategies for urban and regional development and thereby empower local actors by making use of their knowledge about the place and its potential.
  17. 17. PAGES 016-017 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 / URBAN AND REGIONAL IDENTITY & GLOBALISATION URBAN AND REGIONAL IDENTITY CHALLENGED BY GLOBALISATION REPORT SUMMARY AND POLICY RESPONSES Niels Boje Groth Urban and regional identity has become an issue of great political concern, due to the impacts of globalisation and the restructuring of cities and regions. Paying due reference to the other articles in the present report, this article examines the concept of identity and discusses how recent urban and regional strategies deal with the concept. Conclusions and recommendations for urban strategies and regional policies are presented. Globalisation: threats and challenges Urban as well as regional planners have always been interested in understanding how to deal with spatial identity. However, globalisation has now given spatial identity a special priority on the planning agenda. On the one hand, globalisation has caused changes in the economy of cities and regions, changes so radical that cities and regions risk losing their identities. On the other hand, globalisation forces cities and regions to become more visible towards new markets and political arenas. Cities and regions are thus faced with the threat of losing identity while at the same time they are challenged to find new ones. Therefore, cities and regions have engaged in a new discourse on spatial identity. The discourses on identity have exhibited two strands (Gerner 1997, Staun 2002). One strand, ethnos, stresses the importance of heritage. It focuses on community spirit as formed by intrinsic and coinciding rela-
  18. 18. EUROPE’S VITAL AXIS ATLANTIC ARC FINISTERRES EUROPE’S MAJOR CITIES: VERY IMPORTANT IMPORTANT NOTABLE MODERATE ORBITS OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT: MEDITERRANEAN FORMER OTTOMAN EAST EUROPEAN THE HETEROGENEITY OF EUROPEAN REGIONAL IDENTITIES. tions of joint ethnic status, language, reli- when ethnic groups fight for regional devo- IN HIS HISTORICAL SKETCH OF EUROPEAN REGIONAL gion and history. The arguments are emo- lution. Historically, however, urban identi- BACKDROP FOR UNDERSTANDING THE DISPARITIES OF tionally-based, binding individuals and com- ties are closely connected to the demos REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE. munity together in common feelings and position. Par excellence, European market inherited cultural values. The other strand, towns and trade cities were regulated by demos, stresses the importance of the con- statutes defining civil rights and obligations. tract. It focuses on general and mutual rights Some statutes were national, whereas other WELL KNOWN. OUTSIDE THIS CORE OF ECON- and responsibilities of the citizen and soci- were founded on internationally codified, OMIC DEVELOPMENT, DUNFORD IDENTIFIES ety. The arguments are rationalist, binding e.g. the Magdeburg and Lübeck statutes, by LARGE REGIONAL ARCS AND ORBITS, THE citizens and society together in joint agree- which cities were connected across national DEVELOPMENT OF WHICH HAS BEEN ments on civil rights and duties. boundaries. The city statutes were a breach DEVELOPMENT, MICHAEL DUNFORD (1998) WEAVES A THE SUPERIORITY OF THE “VITAL AXIS” FROM GREATER LONDON VIA THE BENELUX AND THE RHINELAND TO NORTHERN ITALY IS FORMED BY COMMON ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL PROCESSES IRRESPECTIVE OF with feudal society and were crucial to the The ethnos position has dominated dis- forming of the new ruling class, the citizen. courses on national identity, e.g. as related When taking the demos strand as a point of to the forming of European national states departure, identity is likely to be polycentric TEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE in the 19th century and the current revitali- rather than monocentric, formed as it is by EUROPEAN SUB-REGIONS. IT REVEALS THE sation of nationalism. However, discourses citizens organising their life in their own HETEROGENEITY OF REGIONAL IDENTITIES, on national identity have also shown to be interests, however within a common legal HENCE, IT ILLUSTRATES THAT EUROPEAN strongly influenced by the demos position, framework of society. IDENTITY IS MORE ABOUT DIFFERENT FATES as was the case in post-war and post-Cold OF CITIES, REGIONS AND NATION-STATES War Germany (Staun 2002). NATIONAL BORDERS. DUNFORD’S ANALYSIS DEMONSTRATES THAT LOCAL REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT HAS TO BE SEEN IN THE CON- WITHIN ONE EUROPEAN TERRITORY RATHER THAN A UNIFORM FATE OF DIFFERENT EUROPEAN CITIES, REGIONS AND NATIONSTATES. Closely connected to the idea of identity is that it has to be authentic. However, mod- In cities and regions, the ethnos position ern marketing acts as if identities are artifi- seems to be present, when urban riots occur cial. Modern marketing knows that identi- due to the presence of ethnic minorities and ties are not visible by themselves. They are
  19. 19. PAGES 018-019 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 / URBAN AND REGIONAL IDENTITY & GLOBALISATION made visible only indirectly by signs and The problems of the historic strategies symbols. Accordingly, we can only grasp become apparent in the former industrial identities indirectly, via interpretations, and cities that have lost their economic base. we can only express identities indirectly, via They need to identify with new rather than representations. historical roles, and they need the entire city to be part of the new identity. Hence, Even when we search for authentic identi- Jens Kvorning, in his article, suggests that ties by excavating the historical heritage, we cities should set up strategies for new devel- find only representations that have to be opment paradigms which can embrace the interpreted. entire city as frameworks for the globalisation forces. He suggests that cities should These brief introductory remarks on general aspects of identity stress that urban and tions that work positively for the realisation of historical and current processes rather of new visions for the cities. The most pro- than one all-embracing cultural spirit of each nounced example is the Emscher-Park pro- urban and regional community. Urban and ject covering the old industrial Ruhr dis- regional identities are not inherited in any trict. Other authors of the present volume authentic manner. Rather, they are artificial (e.g. Andersen) are close to the same argu- and have to be made visible by interpretation ment when they suggest giving priority to and reinterpretation of local culture, practice long-term rather than short-term strategies. and aspirations of the city and region society. The short-term strategies are usually based According to these observations, it is not on spectacular events created in co-opera- possible or relevant to make joint interpretaELECTOR JOHN THE STEADFAST OF SAXONY, BEFORE 1532. lead the forces of globalisation into direc- regional identities owe much to multi-layers LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER (1472-1553): PORTRAIT OF not fight globalisation. Rather, they should tion with great international architects. tions of the European city or region. Such events may be recognised world-wide for a period, but are often soon forgotten. SIGNIFYING IDENTITY. THE GERMAN PAINTER CRANACH WAS FAMILIAR WITH THE IDEA Urban strategies THAT PAINTINGS ARE ONLY INDIRECT INTER- The articles in this report reveal that iden- gral part of long-term development strategies PRETATIONS OF THE MOTIF, RATHER THAN A tity is a matter of great concern to embracing the whole city rather than focusing on MIMETIC PRESENTATION - AN IDEA GRASPED European cities, either because they have event-architecture or just the historical parts of ONLY MUCH LATER BY MODERN SEMIOTICS AND MARKETING (POULSEN 2002). HE SUGGESTED TO LUTHER THAT THE PAINTINGS AND • had to reshape lost identities or because they search for new ones. The rebuilding of The creation of urban identities should be an inte- the city. • Rather than fighting against globalisation, the DRAWINGS FROM CATHOLIC TIMES SHOULD many cities demolished during World War generative forces of globalisation should be BE REINTERPRETED IN THE NEW CONTEXT OF II revealed how intense historical identity is utilised as part of an integrated strategy for urban THE REFORMATION RATHER THAN BEING to the general public. Even though Gdansk, restructuring. DESTROYED. LIKEWISE, WHEN TIMES CHANGE, for example, had become an important CITIES MAKE NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF THEIR shipyard town and in many aspects changed Cities undergoing a restructuring process IDENTITY. CRANACH’S UNDERSTANDING OF its social identity, the city was keen to have experienced that the process in itself reshape the historical identity of the rather than the results of the process medieval merchant town after the war. endows the city with a new identity. SYMBOLIC MEANING WAS DEMONSTRATED IN SOME OF HIS PORTRAITS, WHERE HE DELIBERATELY COMPOSED STIFF REPRESENTATIONS OF According to Mats Olsson, this was the case THE OFFICIAL ROLES AND RANKS OF THE PORTRAYED PERSON RATHER THAN SENSITIVE According to Karl Otto Ellefsen, the idea of in Malmö. Furthermore, Malmö experi- PRESENTATIONS OF THE INDIVIDUAL, preservation became very influential after enced a pronounced commitment by young ENDOWED WITH MANY QUALITIES OF THE the Second World War, an idea promoted people to the city. The fascination of the MODERN LOGO. THE FIGURE SHOWS ONE by the international community of planners urbanisation process was also at stake when in several charters, one of which was the cities were made the icon of modernism in Venice Charter from 1964. However, the the 19th and 20th centuries. Haussmann’s authors of this report recommend avoiding Paris, praised by Baudelaire and the impres- the stigmatisation of the old part of the sionists, Robert Moses’ New York and the cities as museums, a view so common to Scandinavian functionalist design are but a urban planning. few examples of this modernist fascination. SUCH PORTRAIT.
  20. 20. Thus, one should acknowledge that the “second order” dialogues with the citizens and grammes are examples of initiatives follow- construction of urban identities by means cultural and social movements. ing up the ESDP. of preservation of the historical city is also a The efforts to market urban identities take The ESDP launches new ideas to counter- place in a period of changing planning par- balance tendencies of economic concentra- Any efforts to make the city identical to the his- adigms. To an increasing extent, cities are tion in core regions of Europe. The general torical city should be counterbalanced by the fact elaborating strategies rather than plans. idea is to support development of regions that cities are par excellence the locus of modern- Formerly, development required plans. via the generative forces of the cities. Thus, ity. Accordingly, urban identity should not be con- Today, development is no longer to be rather than a welfare perspective, the ESDP sidered to be static. Rather, urban identities taken for granted, and cities are deeply is based on a development perspective, should reflect the changes and development of involved in stimulating development. They thereby offering an alternative to the cur- urban society. do SWOT analyses, co-operate with other rent regional policies. “betrayal” of the city’s modernist heritage. • cities, agencies and firms, form new partIt has been argued (Ashworth 1998) that a nerships, and develop visions. However, The idea of supporting regional develop- small elite which dominates urban planning their strategies can often not cope with the ment outside the European core areas is a and preservation efforts is crucial for the situation because what is needed are break with former mainstream thinking of signification of the urban identity. The pref- changes that can be seen only from the per- regional development. Formerly, theories of erence for preservation of historical build- spective of a new urban identity. Thus, in regional development were based on the pre- ings and monuments expresses the norms of order fully to grasp the range of radical sumption that economic development dif- the elite and leaves little room for the citi- strategic choices open to them, cities should fuses from the centres. Empirical evidence zen to feel at home. Taking into account explore the options from the perspectives of had shown that growth centres induce a that cities are the locus of social conflict imagined alternative urban identities. convergence of income and welfare (Cavazos and segregation, it seems obvious that the story of the city belongs not just to the 2001). According to this theory, the regional • In formulating their urban strategies, cities should policies of the 1950s and 1960s were domi- elite. The easy response to this problem is operate from the perspective of alternative urban nated by supporting the development of to press for more democratisation of deci- identities in order fully to cope with the radical hierarchical urban systems suited for chan- sion-making. However, it has to be changes they are facing. nelling economic development from the acknowledged that the act of producing an largest centres to the smaller centres. In the urban identity does not restrict people’s 1970s, regional development changed drasti- objects of identification. Rather than being Regional strategies cally. One reason was the increasing price restricted by the symbols of the elite, people EU regional policies have been dominated competition for industrial production of create their own identities in their own by a concern for a fair regional distribution standard products due to the opening of logic of street life, joking relations, slang of welfare. In order to avoid great disparities international markets, being facilitated by and symbols. According to the French soci- between regions, the EU Structural Funds new international trade agreements and ologist and philosopher Michel de Cherteau are concentrating on regions lagging behind major declines in transport costs. (1984), the production of a first order cul- the EU average. And massive funding by Meanwhile, the production of service- and ture by the elite does not restrict ordinary the European Agricultural Guidance and knowledge-based products started to develop. people. Rather, it gives cause for the pro- Guarantee Fund subsidises current ways of duction of second order cultural production living in regions dominated by the primary These developments radically changed the by the ordinary people. Thus, rather than sector. This welfare approach has dominated economic life of cities and regions. One just asking for a public dialogue on the first EU regional policy for many years. overall conclusion was that the former order cultural production, one should also However, strands of the EU regional poli- growth model was nonviable, since it came ask for a new dialogue between the first and cies are also oriented to regional develop- out in the open that regional development second order cultural productions. In conse- ment. Most pronounced is the work carried was much more dependent on local capabil- quence, the dialogue should be mediated in out during the late 1980s and the 1990s by ities within the regions rather than on exter- a multitude of current cultural expressions the Member States on the European Spatial nal relations. Further, it was envisaged that of the elite and the people. Development Perspective (ESDP). Informal technology and education, and other factors and non-statutory as it is, it invites govern- internal to the region, stimulated economic The construction of urban identities should be ments, decision-makers, organisations and development rather than being an achieve- formed in a broad partnership-dialogue on visions the European Commission to contribute to ment of economic development. Finally, it for the “first order” development of the city while goal-oriented spatial development of the was acknowledged that the strongest posi- at the same time leaving room for a multitude of EU. Within the EU, the Interreg pro- tion in international competition was held •
  21. 21. PAGES 020-021 / COPENHAGEN CHARTER 2002 / URBAN AND REGIONAL IDENTITY & GLOBALISATION THE SEARCH FOR NEW IDENTITIES. GLASGOW by products that were difficult to copy else- tion is the object of more international SUFFERS FROM ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING where. Thus, the new wisdom is to develop trade than e.g. the service production of the DUE TO THE CLOSURE OF ITS SHIPYARD specialised competencies. The single com- large cities. This observation may run con- INDUSTRY. TODAY THE CITY IS TRYING TO pany may specialise. However, more viable trary to a general impression that the largest synergy and strength will be developed if cities are the most internationalised. At least FEBRUARY 1999). THE OTHER HEADLINE IS specialised competencies are developed in in the case of Denmark, Illeris’ observation ABOUT BRANDING A NEW SCOTTISH IDENTITY regional networks of specialists, suppliers, is supported by the fact that, during the WORLDWIDE. IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE specialised education and labour markets, 1970s and 1980s, manual production firms WALT DISNEY COMPANY LTD., “SCOTLAND much of which is nested in tacit abilities have to a large extent have become subcon- THE BRAND”, IN 1999, ARRANGED AN INTER- and competencies that are difficult to codify tractors, integrated in international chains ACTIVE EXHIBITION IN A FLORIDA THEME and hence, difficult to copy elsewhere. of production. This new wisdom has given rise to a con- To the extent that towns and smaller cities TRADE ORGANISATIONS WITH THE OBJECTIVE cern about searching for regional identities, become international, they are becoming OF DEVELOPING A UNIFORM APPROACH TO since closely related to the economic iden- generators of local regional development SELLING SCOTLAND OVERSEAS. A KEY GOAL tity of a region are competencies that are rather than just mediators of regional devel- IS TO REPLACE THE HUMBLE BACKWARD- especially embedded in the region. This is opment spreading from the large centres. LOOKING IMAGE OF KILT-AND-BAGPIPE why the branding of regional identities has This new role of the cities lays the ground- SCOTLAND WITH AN IMAGE FOCUSING ON become an integral element of current work for establishing a new urban-rural regional policy-making. partnership in which the cities are given “RISE AS PHOENIX FROM THE ASHES”, I.E. TO FIND A NEW IDENTITY (THE EXPRESS, 24 PARK TO SHOW RECENT SCOTTISH ACHIEVEMENTS. SCOTLAND THE BRAND WAS FORMED IN 1994 BY THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT AND SCOTTISH ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE, MEDICINE AND DESIGN (THE SUNDAY TIMES, 16 responsibilities for regional development. MAY 1999). In his critique of the growth centre model, Sven Illeris suggests that urban systems Formerly, towns and smaller cities usually develop in two tiers rather than as one competed in their role as centres in the mono-hierarchical system. The one tier local hierarchies. Now, it seems more rea- consists of the largest cities. They are the sonable for cities to co-operate in their role centres for business service, administration as “subcontractor” on the world market. and some special branches of high technol- Cities embracing complementary urban ogy. The other tier consists of towns and functions may co-operate as one larger smaller cities usually dominated by manual “city”. And they may co-operate on the production. Illeris makes the interesting establishment of labour-market facilities, observation that, in some respects, the education, and specialised business services smaller cities rather than the large cities in order to build up competencies that are have become global, since manual produc- needed in the region but which are too spe-
  22. 22. cialised for each city to establish on its own. special development programmes to achieve This strategy for building regional compet- more radical changes. At EU and national encies via urban networking has become the levels, development programmes of this key model for regional development, as sug- kind have to be carefully prepared and gested by the ESDP. jointly contracted by the regions and the superior regional policy body. Following the ideas of the ESDP and the above-mentioned observations on regional It is beyond the scope of this article to make policies, it should be considered: detailed propositions about the EU regional policy. However, following the above-men- • Cultural Symbol: The Meaning of the Text“. Graham, B. (ed.), Modern Europe. Place, Culture, Identity. three strands as mentioned below. Similar approaches have been introduced into the research programme of the European Spatial working. Planning Observatory Network (ESPON) Accordingly, special attention and programmes closely related to the upgrading of EU’s should be focused on inter-urban development. • That crucial development potential is connected with systems of cities suited for polycentric net- Ashworth G.J.: ”The Conserved European City as that regional policies be subdivided into with cities developing international relations and reference list. up, it should be recommended in general lagging behind. Articles in the present report are not included in this for a match between top-down and bottom- core regions and not just focus on the regions • perspective, the role of cities and the need development potentials outside the European REFERENCES tioned ideas of stressing the development include a broader amount of the regions with • That the perspective of regional policies should regional policy. Local regional development policies should focus on the enhancement of regional competencies via goal- London: Arnold 1998. oriented learning processes facilitated by networks Bailey B. & L. de Propris: “EU Structural Funds, of urban and regional actors and made visible by Regional Capabilities and Enlargement“, paper presented at the RSA International Conference, Aix-en- launching interpretations of the regional identity. At the EU and national levels, regional policy should be subdivided into three strands: Provence, May 2002 ( Cavazos R.J.: Metropolitan Income Growth and In regional policies, the interplay between 1. The first strand should focus on the top-down framework conditions and bot- establishment of framework conditions de Certeau, M.: The Practice of Everyday Life. tom-up actions has become an organising for the development of polycentric Berkeley: University of California Press 1984. principle (e.g. the partnership principle). urban systems in regions with sufficient Geographies of Development and Underdevelopment Accordingly, the ability of regions to match local milieu for urban networking and Historical Geographies of Modernisation“, B. regional policy measures has become crucial (“potential polycentric development Graham (ed.): Modern Europe. Place, Culture, Identity. (Bailey and Propris 2002). Only regions regions”); Convergence. London: Ashgate 2001. Dunford M.: “Economies in Space and Time: Economic London: Arnold 1998. European Commission: The European Spatial with an institutional milieu above a certain Development Perspective ESDP. Luxembourg 1999. threshold capacity are able to take action Gerner, K.: Centraleuropas Historie. Stockholm: Natur and to co-ordinate local agents, firms and “well-fare” type of assistance to regions Staun J.: Mellem Kantiansk Patriotisme og Politisk decision-makers in joint strategies and ini- where the institutional milieu is general- Romantik, Ph.D. thesis, Copenhagen University, tiatives. These regions should be in focus ly too weak to build strategies for Department of Political Science, Copenhagen 2002. for strategic investments in framework con- regional development from below ditions for establishing polycentric networks (“peripheral regions”); och Kultur 1997. Poulsen H.K.: Cranach, Exhibition catalogue, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen 2002. 2. The second strand should focus on the strong enough to guide the development of their region. 3. Finally, the third strand should focus on the provision of development contracts Left behind are regions with institutional with regions restructuring their economic milieus that are below the threshold. Such base and in which the institutional regions are in need of more traditional wel- milieu is part of the restructuring process fare assistance. and hence not suited to handle the problems (“restructuring regions in crisis”). Finally, regions suffering structural crises so profound that institutions and firms have become part of the problem might need
  23. 23. PAGES 022-023 / GLOBALISATION
  24. 24. GLOBALISATION The processes of globalisation occur everywhere. However, what are their consequences for European cities? Many people have pointed to the effects on world cities such as New York and Tokyo. However, most Europeans live in cities of quite another character, better described as medium-sized regional centres. This chapter examines the dynamics of European cities and the role of cities in the global age. What challenges does globalisation create for spatial planning? What advantages do European cities have that make it possible to avoid many of the negative consequences of globalisation? What role can Europe’s large and small cities adopt in regional development? And what does the concept of globalisation actually mean - and is this phenomenon new at all?
  25. 25. PAGES 024-025 / GLOBALISATION / CHANGE AND CHOICE: ON GLOBALISATION CHANGE AND CHOICE: ON GLOBALISATION Henning Thomsen Globalisation is inescapable. The colossal and continuing economic integration of the world has repercussions on all aspects of urban life. It is a force to be reckoned with in the decades to come. But how did it develop and what challenges do European planners face? Within the last decade or two, the word globalisation has become one of the most powerful and pervasive concepts in use in the English language, or in most languages for that matter. For true to the very nature of what the word is describing, it seems to creep into every language un-translated, in its original and by now global form. Globalisation comes from the noun “globe”, which entered into common usage in the 15th century. Its etymological origin is in the Latin word “globus” meaning “spherical”, and globe means “something spherical or rounded” and refers to “spherical representations of the earth, a celestial body, or the heavens”. Spherical depictions of the earth in the form of a globe were used as early as the time of the ancient Greeks, the earliest in 150 BC. The earliest surviving terrestrial globe was made in Nuremberg in 1492 by Martin Behaim, a globe said to have influenced Christopher Columbus to attempt to sail west to the Orient.
  26. 26. IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM NORTH, SALFORD, MANCHESTER, The usage of words like “globalisation”, that the gap between rich and poor has ARCHITECT: DANIEL LIBESKIND. “globalise” and “globalising” in their contem- never been more evident than today: the porary meaning, however, is a fairly recent assets of the world’s top three billionaires phenomena dating back only to the 1960s. exceed the GNP of all of the 48 least devel- THE BUILDING HAS BEEN CREATED OUT OF THREE “SHARDS” OR PIECES OF A SHATTERED oped countries (population: 600 million). GLOBE TO REFLECT THE WAY WAR AND CONFLICT HAVE DEVASTATED OUR WORLD. THE Globalisation today has primarily come to But whether poor or rich, it seems beyond MUSEUM AS SUCH CONSTITUTES AN IMPOR- mean the colossal economic integration that doubt that the manifold implications of TANT CULTURAL ATTRACTION IN THE MIDST has taken place in the post-World War II globalisation are going to influence our OF A VAST URBAN REGENERATION AREA IN period. But globalisation is also at the heart everyday lives for decades to come. THE FORMER DOCKLANDS OF SALFORD, MANCHESTER. of a heated global debate about the implications of this increasing economic integradebate is: Has globalisation made the world Conquering the world - the development of globalisation a better place to live? According to the geographer John Rennie tion. The fundamental question in this Short, it is possible to identify at least three The protagonists of globalisation claim that major waves of globalisation that brought progress - economic, technological, politi- the world closer together. The first, he sug- cal, etc. - has improved the lives of millions gests, is the period from 1492 (Christopher and millions of people, allowing countries Columbus’ first voyage) until about 1865 and businesses to thrive and further con- (the end of the American Civil War), the tribute to the bettering of circumstances. second is the period between 1865 (the end of the American Civil War) and 1989 (the The critics of globalisation maintain that, end of the Cold War), and the third and even so, 30,000-35,000 children under five current period began in 1989. die every day of preventable diseases, and
  27. 27. PAGES 026-027 / GLOBALISATION / CHANGE AND CHOICE: ON GLOBALISATION The encounter between the Old and the most globalised period yet in history. New World in the 15th and 16th century, resulting from the voyages of explorers like Mass migration also contributed to this Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, globalisation. About 60 million Europeans Francisco Pizarro and others, bridged the migrated to the New World in the century hemispheric divide in a series of transac- after 1820. tions and exchanges of people, plants, animals and viruses that created a global world. The period 1914-1945 constitutes a rupture More probably than technological sophisti- of world wars and economic depression. cation, skilful organisation, or religious But as early as 1944, at the Bretton Woods devotion, it was the introduction of diseases Conference, the Allies created the economic from the Old World for which the indigen- framework that would shape most of the ous peoples had no immunity that made it second half of the 20th century and pave easy for the Europeans to gain control. The the way for increasing globalisation. Part of population of the New World dropped this agreement was the creation of three from approximately 54 million around supranational governing institutions, the 1490, to just over 5 million by 1650. This International Monetary Fund (IMF), the demographic catastrophe necessitated the World Bank, and the General Agreement import of slaves from Africa to work the on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), which in mines and estates. These dramatic popula- 1994 would evolve into the more binding THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM NORTH IS tion changes, along with economic exploita- World Trade Organization (WTO). All of AMERICAN ARCHITECT DANIEL LIBESKIND’S tion and cultural domination, characterised these institutions have been instrumental in the first period of globalisation. the development of globalisation as we IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM NORTH, SALFORD, MANCHESTER, 2002. ARCHITECT: DANIEL LIBESKIND. FIRST BUILDING COMPLETED IN THE UK. BORN OF SIMPLE YET EMPHATIC IMAGERY, THE ARCHITECTURE IS GROUNDED IN COMMON know it today. HUMAN EXPERIENCE, AND THUS IS TESTI- The second phase of globalisation, according MONY TO THE CONTINUING ABILITY OF ARCHI- to John Rennie Short, began after the TECTURE TO SHAPE AND CREATE COMMUNITY. American Civil War. At this time the US constituted itself as a major world player Understanding the world - the challenges of globalisation along with the Europeans. This period of Economic integration thus is the prime pre- globalisation was characterised by growing requisite of globalisation. But the implica- political internationalisation and continuing tions of economic integration are felt in all and overwhelming economic globalisation. areas of society. Not least so in the city, where all of the challenges seem to con- The expansion of railway transportation verge. Thus in the future, urban planners and shipping in the second half of the must not only understand the structure of 1800s reinforced the economic integration. economic development, but must become The invention of the telegraph in the mid- multi-talented jugglers, able to balance 1800s (simultaneously by Samuel Morse in social, environmental, cultural, infrastruc- the US and Fothergill Cooke and tural, security, legislative, political and econ- Wheatstone in Great Britain) and the omic issues and challenges. adoption of the gold standard by most major nations by 1870 encouraged capital The following is an attempt to single out mobility, a force which has been a trade- some of the main challenges urban plan- mark of globalisation ever since. The ners are currently facing. It should be wealth and riches of Europe and the US noted that the four areas singled out below were further added to by the colonisation - the environmental, the social, the cul- of wide areas of Africa and Asia. tural and the political areas - do not constitute the full list of challenges, and that Even if the economic globalisation we are they are, in the true sense of globalisation, currently experiencing seems overwhelming, intertwined and strongly interdependent. many economists profess that the period from 1870 until 1914 is still by far the
  28. 28. Environmental challenges Social challenges Nowhere has humankind altered the envi- What has been termed as almost an ethic of ronment more than in cities. The ecological individual self-fulfilment and achievement is impact of cities today reaches far beyond arguably one of the most characteristic fea- their individual boundaries, and the growth tures of modern global society. Several schol- in cities during the last century has been a ars have outlined the immediate threats crucial source of environmental change. For thrown upon us by this individualisation: centuries before that cities may have domi- tradition, family, and even democracy - usual nated political life and high culture, but in and common strongholds in societies around the 20th century they became the common the world - are at risk. The immediate ques- habitat for the human species, an expansion tion facing the urban planner in the light of derived primarily from migration and pop- individualisation is obvious: should planning ulation growth. help individuals in their quest for self-fulfilment and commit itself to increasing indi- The urban impact extends far beyond the vidualisation, or should planning maintain city limits and into hinterlands, to down- its classical commitment to helping establish wind and downstream communities, and in a sense of community, which would mean some respects to the whole globe. The cru- countering excessive individualisation? cial challenges of providing water and energy, of garbage disposal, sewage system main- Another major trend with severe implica- tenance, and pollution control will occupy tions for the urban planner is the continu- planners for decades to come. And in the ing force of migration, both within and light of the massive growth of cities in poor between countries. This migratory trend has countries, we would do well, in a global implications for the make-up of societies sense, to remember that it took wealthy around the world and also involves funda- countries almost a century to organise par- mental political issues. The initial result of tially effective responses to the pollution migration is increasing multi-ethnicity. The effects of urbanisation. problems faced by the planner in the wake of this are to help establish surroundings The car is a good example of a 20th-centu- that allow both multiethnic and multicul- ry technology that has had enormous envi- tural cohabitation. ronmental (and social) consequences at both local and global levels. In 1910 there Weaving through practically all of the social were less than a million motor vehicles in challenges raised by globalisation is the very the world. By 1995 this number had obvious and undeniable problem of segrega- reached 777 million. Today cars are respon- tion. Segregation both within and between sible for about a fifth of the carbon dioxide nations comes in many different guises, but added to the atmosphere. Worldwide about poverty and lack of opportunity in most 1 to 2 percent of the land surface is taken cases constitute the primordial emblem of up by auto space (roads, parking lots, gas segregation. However, the scope of causes stations, etc.) matching (and overlapping) and the consequences of segregation are the space taken up by cities. Auto accidents much larger than this, and the dramatic and currently kill about 400,000 people annu- fundamental inequalities in the distribution ally. And surveys indicate that an American of wealth and opportunity cannot but raise adult spends roughly twice as much time issues concerning safety (personal and local) behind the wheel every day (72 minutes) as and security (communal and global). The average parents spend with their children. overall challenge inevitably becomes finding Examples of challenges created by automo- ways to make the benefits of globalisation bile technology are countless and will available to more people (everybody), and remain on the urban planning agenda for not only to a privileged few. This is a chal- decades. lenge in which planning has a privileged role to play.
  29. 29. PAGES 028-029 / GLOBALISATION / CHANGE AND CHOICE: ON GLOBALISATION THE BIG PICTURE - WHY WAR? Cultural challenges Culture also has a role to play in a continu- AUDIO-VISUAL EXHIBIT IN THE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM For many, the globalisation of culture is ing process of empowerment. In our day identical to the incessant spread of and age, consumption and culture seem to THE ATTACK ON THE WORLD TRADE CENTER American culture, ideas, products, entertain- be the prime vehicles for self-expression. IN NEW YORK ON 11 SEPTEMBER 2001 MADE ment, and politics, resulting in a homogeni- But whereas consumption favours the well- THE WESTERN WORLD REALISE WHAT sation of the cultures of the world. And it is to-do middle and upper classes, culture in AFRICAN, ASIAN AND LATIN AMERICAN PEO- certainly not untrue that the co-modifica- all its richness, from soccer to sado- PLE AND POLITICIANS HAVE KNOWN FOR tion of culture, be it sports, music, art, cine- masochism, has the ability to become inclu- YEARS: THAT GLOBALISATION IS INTIMATELY ma, or dance for that matter, seems to con- sive and empower both the less well-off and firm this view, evidenced by the growth and the marginalised. NORTH, SALFORD, MANCHESTER. TIED TO QUESTIONS OF CONFLICT AND SECURITY. IN THE BACKGROUND A DEPICTION OF THE INTRODUCTORY PAGE FROM THE power of the largely American run or ENGLISH-AMERICAN POLITICAL THINKER Americanised media and entertainment The identification and involvement of local THOMAS PAINE’S 1791 BOOK “THE RIGHTS OF industry of the late 20th century. cultural milieus in urban planning, the balancing of global trends and local customs, MAN”. But this view of culture is contested by and the involvement of all areas of society in other developments, in particular the the planning process will be even more growth of individualisation, information important in the future, if planning is to RIGHT: T-34 TANK. EXHIBITED IN THE IMPERIAL WAR technology, and communication, which continue to reflect the cultural richness of MUSEUM NORTH, SALFORD, MANCHESTER. together have facilitated the development of localities and the ideas of the people living heterogeneous cultural expressions. A look there. THE T-34 TANK, AN EXAMPLE OF A TRULY GLOBALISED PRODUCT, WAS DEVELOPED FOR at any urban area around the world is evi- THE SOVIET ARMED FORCES DURING THE dence of the simultaneous existence of both SECOND WORLD WAR. 50,000 TANKS WERE homogeneous (primarily Americanised) and Political challenges BUILT DURING THAT WAR AND MORE THAN heterogeneous cultural trends. Early on in the present phase of global- 12,000 AFTER, SOME OF WHICH WERE STILL USED IN THE WAR IN BOSNIA IN THE 1990S. THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS TRADE HAS BEEN ANOTHER OF THE CURRENTS SHAPING GLOBALISATION. isation, say the 1970s, many scholars In this light, culture is, it must be said, not believed that politics, and in particular the an unchanging, static container holding a nation-state, would lose its importance in a certain locality’s past. It is not simply the globalised world. This observation has been passive consumption of imported cultural pursued by most of the media in the last products. Culture, rather, is an ongoing and decade or so as well, implying that voters dynamic process that allows a locality to are increasingly distrusting of politicians, engage in a critical and productive exchange and sickened by politics. with the world.
  30. 30. But lately many of the more enlightened Amartya Sen was born in India, and educat- scholars have stressed the continuing rele- ed in Calcutta and Cambridge, UK, where Appadurai, A.: Modernity at Large - Cultural vance of both the nation-state and of politics. he is now Master of Trinity College. He has Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University The need for cooperation - locally, regionally, taught and lectured all over the world. of Minnesota Press 1996. and internationally - has possibly never been Thus, as almost an embodiment of global- more evident, and the need for strong public isation, he consistently contributes, as a participation in the governing of world issues scholar and as an individual, to the debate has never been more necessary. about the future development of global- BIBLIOGRAPHY Bauman, Z.: Globalisation - The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity Press 1998. Giddens, A.: Runaway World - How Globalisation is Reshaping our Lives. London: Profile Books 1999. isation. It seems fitting to let Professor Sen Halliday, F.: The World at 2000. Houndmills: Palgrave 2001. The continuing importance of democratic describe the penultimate challenge we face Hirst, P. & G. Thompson: Globalisation in Question - institutions and of democratic governance in the light of continuing globalisation: The International Economy and the Possibilities of promises to remain one of the major chal- Governance. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers 1996. lenges in our age of globalisation, and “[T]here is a basic need to recognise that indeed one where urban planning, a funda- despite the big contributions that a global London: Penguin Books 2000. mental form of participation in the public economy can undoubtedly make to global O’Rourke, K. H. & J. G. Williamson: Globalization and affairs of a locality, will have to develop prosperity, we also have to confront, at the History - The evolution of a nineteenth-century new, strong, and democratic habits. same time, the far-reaching manifestations McNeill, J.: Something New Under the Sun - an Environmental History of the Twentieth Century. of inequality between and within nations. atlantic economy. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press 1999. Sen, A.: Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2001. Short, J. R.: Global Dimensions - Space, Place and the Contemporary World. London: Reaktion Books 2001. Stiglitz, J.: Globalization and its Discontents. London: Allen Lane 2002. The real debate associated with global- Postscript isation is, ultimately, not about the efficien- In 1998 the Nobel Prize in economics was cy of markets, nor about the importance of awarded to Amartya Sen for his contribu- modern technology. The real debate, rather, tions to welfare economics. The Swedish is about inequality of power, for which Academy of Sciences in particular wanted there is much less tolerance now than in the to commend Professor Sen for his clarifica- world that emerged at the end of the tions of “the conditions which permit Second World War.” aggregation of individual values into collec- (The Observer Sunday, June 25, 2000) tive decisions, and the conditions which permit rules for collective decision making that are consistent with a sphere of rights for the individual”. In passing, this is a proposition that would seem as relevant for a research program on urban planning as it has proven to be for economics.
  31. 31. PAGES 030-031 / GLOBALISATION / IS GROWTH IN CITIES CONTAGIOUS? IS GROWTH IN CITIES CONTAGIOUS? HOW CITIES AND TOWNS INFLUENCE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Sven Illeris The cities of Europe are not tied up in national hierarchies but are part of multifarious networks with an infinite number of cities in different regions. With globalisation, the cities’ relationships to each other and to regions have become complex and multifaceted. The author examines the significance of cities for regional development. While many would maintain that economic growth in larger cities always spreads to other regions, using European examples, the author demonstrates a more varied picture; a chequered mosaic where it can be difficult to find cohesion between various causes. The author claims that both large cities and small towns contribute to regional development significantly, although in very different ways. He argues that competition between cities should be regulated, so that many types of city, and thus regions, can be secured positive development. What is the role of cities in regional economic development, primarily in terms of number of jobs? We shall consider two aspects: the role of cities in the development of regions outside the local area, and the role of cities in the development of their own region. Before starting, it must be stressed that the article will only deal with this question in the Western world, in particular in the European Union. In other parts of the world, conditions and processes are different. The national dynamo? It is often assumed that it is possible to improve a region’s economic development by selecting a city (or “centre”) elsewhere for promotion. The desired effect is that growth in the “centre” will spread to the neighbouring regions. But is this necessarily so? Can we improve a country’s economic development by developing its capital (or main economic centre) and then assume that it will pull with it the development of
  32. 32. SECTION OF AALBORG SEEN FROM THE AIR, OVERLOOKING the whole country? Is it true that the only thus spreading growth impulses. Instead of THE UNIVERSITY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY chance of any country - given the increasing trying to promote growth everywhere, the global competition - is to allocate all total impact of a targeted effort will be big- resources to the development of its capital? ger if a “strategic” sector is selected, from COMPANIES. AN EXAMPLE OF INTERNATIONALLY ORIENTED where there is a maximum of spread effect. MANUFACTURING IS THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY IN AALBORG (160,000 This idea seems to be intuitively captivat- INHABITANTS), NETWORKING CLOSELY WITH ing. At least, it has often been put forward This idea was later extended to regional AALBORG UNIVERSITY AND WITH as a self-evident truth. But it has also been development and used to argue in favour of argued in a more scientific way, based on a the selection of “growth centres”, cities from theory suggested by the French economist where spread effects could increase the econ- Perroux (1955). omic development of neighbouring regions. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FIRMS IN THE REGION. In the 1960s, this notion was widely acceptHe did not originally consider regional ed, and growth centres were selected to work questions, but the relationships between the as dynamos in many countries. But in the sectors of an economy. If a sector, or even 1970s these policies were largely abandoned. only a large company, grows, it will buy Since the 1990s, the growth centre idea has more inputs (raw materials, semi-manufac- been revived. It is important to consider the tured goods, machines, services etc.) from various arguments behind the changing other sectors, which then will experience assessment of growth centre policies. growth; they, in turn, will buy more from still other sectors, etc. The originally First of all, the growth centres of the 1960s expanding sector will typically be innovative very rarely lead to the anticipated results in and demand creative inputs. And its prod- neighbouring regions. This is not necessar- ucts - sold elsewhere in the economy - will ily an argument against the theory, since the be better or cheaper than previous products, ineffectual ways in which growth centres
  33. 33. PAGES 032-033 / GLOBALISATION / IS GROWTH IN CITIES CONTAGIOUS? FIGURE 1 TOTAL CAPITALS TOURIST REGIONS OTHER CITIES (>200,000 POP.) OTHER REGIONS FIGURE 1. were selected in the 1960s constituted a the capitals have consistently higher growth ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH FOR 1955-2000 IN SOUTH- watering down of the idea. Due to local rates than the more peripheral regions. But political pressures, too many centres were in France, Spain (with 2 main centres), often selected so that only absurdly few Norway, and Sweden, the opposite is the resources could be allocated to each. case. In Italy (2 main centres), the results ERN EUROPE AND IRELAND (GREECE, ITALY FROM NAPLES AND SOUTHWARD, SPAIN, PORTUGAL, IRELAND). fluctuate within sub-periods. There are good Perhaps one could verify the theory, not by reasons for all these findings, but the growth OF POPULATION FOR 1955-2000 IN THREE looking at the effect of the too common centre theory is not really supported. PARTS OF WESTERN EUROPE FOR VARIOUS small selected growth centres described CLASSES OF CITIES AND REGIONS: CAPITALS above, but by looking at the spread effect One could also look for empirical support (AND OTHER MAIN CENTRES) INCLUDING from national capitals or main economic of the argument of the importance - in the THEIR COMMUTING REGIONS; OTHER CITIES centres? Following the logics of the theory, context of international competition - of WITH OVER 200,000 INHABITANTS; OLD INDUS- this effect should be stronger in the neigh- large national capitals or main economic bouring regions with declining effects as one centres. Do countries with a dominant capi- moves farther away. Of course, many other tal city show higher growth rates than coun- - E.G. FRENCH DÉPARTEMENTS OR DANISH factors - some of which are impossible to tries with more polycentric urban systems? COUNTIES). measure in a quantitative way - have an Again, national growth rates depend on FIGURES 1-3 SHOW ANNUAL GROWTH RATES TRIAL AREAS; TOURIST AREAS; AND OTHER AREAS. (THE FOUR LATTER TYPES OF AREAS ARE ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS AT NUTS 3 LEVEL impact on regional economic development. many other factors; we can only look for a UNTIL ABOUT 1970, BIG CITIES EVERYWHERE However, a hint may be obtained by meas- hint. However, there is not the slightest HAD HIGHER GROWTH RATES THAN SMALLER uring development in zones 100-250 km indication that countries with the former TOWNS AND RURAL AREAS. IN THE 1970S, THE from the capital and zones over 250 km type of urban systems - such as the United away. Of course, this will only be possible in Kingdom, France, or Denmark - have high- countries where distances from the capitals er competitiveness than countries of the lat- GROWTH IS AGAIN CONCENTRATED IN THE are large enough. One can try to do this in ter type, such as the United States, CAPITALS. OLD INDUSTRIAL AREAS WITH LOW western European countries (except Germany, or Switzerland. GROWTH RATES AND MEDITERRANEAN Germany, which has several main economic TOURIST AREAS WITH HIGH GROWTH RATES centres) over the period 1955-2000, by Even the theoretical construction of the ARE ALSO EXCEPTIONS. measuring changes in the population, as growth centre notion is questionable. The these correlate well with employment. The theory rests on the assumption that the following results appear: In the United chain effects between sectors in an economy Kingdom and Finland, the regions nearer to are analogous with chain effects between GROWTH CURVES CONVERGED. SINCE THEN, ALL CURVES RUN CLOSE TO THE AVERAGE, EXCEPT IN NORTHERN EUROPE, WHERE
  34. 34. FIGURE 2 CAPITALS OTHER CITIES (>200,000 POP.) OLD INDUSTRIAL REGIONS TOTAL OTHER REGIONS FIGURE 3 CAPITALS TOTAL OTHER CITIES (>200,000 POP.) OTHER REGIONS FIGURE 2. neighbouring regions. It is a fact that a urbanisation, large cities showed the highest ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH FOR 1955-2000 IN CEN- growing sector buys inputs from certain rates of growth. There were, and still are, TRAL EUROPE (ITALY FROM ROME AND NORTHWARD, FRANCE, SWITZERLAND, AUSTRIA, WESTERN GERMANY, other sectors, but the beneficial spread of many reasons for this: DENMARK, THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM, UNITED growth impulses to adjacent regions is • A large labour market is an advantage for KINGDOM). merely an assumption that seems to be both supply and demand, so workers and FIGURE 3. without much substance. Geographically, employers prefer to locate where there is a ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH FOR 1955-2000 IN NORTH- the chain effects outside a sector’s own large labour market. In particular, the size ERN EUROPE (FINLAND, SWEDEN, NORWAY, ICELAND). region are so dispersed that they do not pull of the markets for highly qualified person- growth in any particular geographical direc- nel has become more and more important. tion. In spite of the intuitive attractiveness • In order to enhance their attractiveness, of the growth centre theory, it must be con- especially to highly educated people, big cluded that neither empirical, nor theoreti- cities offer amenities such as cultural cal arguments give much support to it. services. • In a big city, the costs of supplying goods and services are minimized due to Regional effects a large local market and good transport What about the role of cities in the devel- facilities to distant national and interna- opment of their own region? Here, we are tional markets. on firmer ground: they must contribute to • It is also cheaper and easier for firms to it. 1,000 new jobs in a city are 1,000 new obtain inputs. In particular, this is the jobs in the region, too. case with information and knowledge inputs, which are becoming increasingly But does this necessarily point to a policy of important. Though information can supporting the growth of big cities? Are increasingly be obtained electronically, they likely to grow more - and induce more face-to-face meetings with people in pub- growth in their region - than medium-sized lic administration, interest organisations, or small towns? media, research institutions, consultancy firms, etc. remain important - and they From the beginning of the industrial revo- are concentrated in capitals and other lution until the 1960s, there was no doubt main urban centres. about the answer. In this period of rapid
  35. 35. PAGES 034-035 / GLOBALISATION / IS GROWTH IN CITIES CONTAGIOUS? 1,400,000 INHABITANTS (COPENHAGEN, CONTIGUOUSLY BUILT-UP AREA) MUNICIPALITIES WITH 150,000 - 300,000 INHABITANTS 14% 15% MUNICIPALITIES WITH 25,000 - 100,000 INHABITANTS 19% MUNICIPALITIES WHOSE BIGGEST TOWN HAS 5,000 - 20,000 INHABITANTS 22% MUNICIPALITIES WHOSE BIGGEST TOWN HAS LESS THAN 5,000 INHABITANTS 22% DENMARK TOTAL TABLE 1. EXPORTS AS A PROPORTION OF TOTAL TURNOVER IN 1998 BY SIZE-CLASSES OF DANISH MUNICIPALITIES. 18% • Firms also have advantages connected with So there are forces which now pull in the a location in the same agglomeration as opposite direction to the forces mentioned other firms in the same or related sectors. above of geographical concentration: DENMARK HAS RELATIVELY LARGE EXPORTS Both co-operation networks and inspira- • Manufacturing has shifted away from big OF FOOD. BUT EVEN IF AGRICULTURE, FISHING tion from competition stimulate them to cities to medium-sized and small towns, AND MANUFACTURING OF FOOD AND BEVER- increase their competitiveness. Such clus- where there are lower costs and more sta- AGES ARE EXCLUDED FROM THE CALCULA- ters are often formed in big cities. TION, THE PROPORTIONS ONLY CHANGE TO 13% IN COPENHAGEN AND 20% IN THE 5,000-20,000 BRACKET. ble labour. • Regional and local services - e.g. educaSo overwhelming were the advantages of tion, health, and social services - have big-city locations and the associated super- expanded tremendously, especially in the ior growth rates that urbanisation theories 1970s. Medium-sized and small towns bestowed the status of a law of nature to the benefited relatively more than big cities notion that firms will naturally move to (while rural areas often lost their few ser- urban centres. It was even thought to be reinforced in the second half of the 20th vices, shops and primary schools). • Clusters - like those within big cities - century, when the importance of qualifica- also exist in specialized industrial districts tions and knowledge increased, and when outside big cities. Strong cultural tradi- sectors over-represented in big cities, such tions of entrepreneurship, innovation, as consultants and high-tech industries, and networking make some of them very grew more than any other sectors. competitive. • Car ownership, air travel, TV and Therefore, it came as a shock when, in the telecommunications have made life in 1970s, it was observed that the real world small towns less isolated than previously, did not behave as predicted by the theories both for firms and for families, and (see Figures 1-3). increased their attractiveness, relative to big cities. This has been especially impor- The figures describe the overall pattern. The tant for areas with pleasant climates (“sun reality behind the pattern is a rather unstable belts”), beautiful landscapes, and exciting mosaic (which has also been observed in urban environments. They have attracted North America since 1970): Some big cities qualified people who again attract firms - grow, while others do not. Some small towns or set up their own. But dull or even and rural areas grow, while others do not. uncomfortable environments are left And some areas grow in some periods and behind, and the extremely low population not in others. Copenhagen stagnated in the densities in northern Scandinavia seem to 1970s and 1980s, only to recover vigorously hamper the creation of sufficiently strong in the 1990s - when, for instance, growth in local networks and labour markets. Paris was below the French average. The move of manufacturing out of the It may be added that if regional economic biggest cities means that capitals or main development is measured in terms of GDP centres are not particularly important for per capita, we also observe a convergence international competition. International towards the average (Sørensen 1997). trade primarily deals with agricultural and
  36. 36. manufactured products. Big cities do, of REFERENCES problems are - one cannot expect much course, compete internationally for certain spread of effort to other regions or the types of activities and investments, which whole country. Ellis, S., Hirmis, A. & Spilsbury, M: How London Works. require highly qualified staff, good interna- London: Kogan Page 2002. tional accessibility, and excellent amenities. In recent years, it has been broadly recog- Perspective ESDP. Luxembourg 1999. But the importance of this competition has nized that, as far as possible, local and Hansen, N.: “Are Very Large Cities Successful?”, Inter- been exaggerated in the public debate. regional governments should carry out European Commission: European Spatial Development national Regional Science Review, 24, 2001, pp. 344-359. Apart from serving themselves, metropoli- development policies, as these are better Roskilde: Roskilde University, Department of Geogra- tan centres primarily produce services for than national or European authorities at phy and International Development Studies 1994. their own countries. They do export some taking local problems and potentials into sance”, Cahiers de l’Institut des Sciences Economiques services, but services are internationally far account. The observation of an unstable Appliquées, Série D, no 8, Paris, 1955. less traded than manufacturing goods (ser- mosaic pattern supports this argument. Sørensen, C. (ed): Empirical Evidence of Regional vices internationalise primarily through for- Illeris, S: Essays on Regional Development in Europe. Perroux, F. : “Note sur la notion de pôle de crois- Growth: The Centre-Periphery Discussion. Copenhagen: Ministry of the Interior 1997. eign direct investment, creating affiliates in However, the devolution of development foreign countries or acquiring existing local policies has led to a reinforcement of the firms there). Thus, even in London, a sur- century-old competition between cities. vey in 1998 found that other countries con- Previous competition between European stituted the main market area for only 9% countries, now regulated by the EU, to of employment (Ellis et al 2002). some degree continues, although now dis- International trade is more important for guised as competition between cities. There smaller towns, where the bulk of manufac- are positive aspects of this competition, and turing industries are now located. Medium- it inspires actors to do their best. However, sized and small towns show a variety of spe- while we accept that competition between cialisations, some serving their local sur- companies is in the general interest, compe- roundings, others primarily selling manu- tition between cities is different. Cities are factured goods or special services to the rest local societies, whose citizens have lives and of the world. Accordingly, their compe- resources that cannot be allowed to be writ- tences and identities are very different. ten off in the same way as losing compa- Table 1 shows an - admittedly crude - cal- nies. National and EU authorities must culation of the export share of the produc- establish rules of the game which ensure tion of different sizes of Danish towns. that economically weak cities and regions have sufficient resources to be able to com- To conclude: Since the 1970s, the long pete against strong ones. term development of all size-classes of big cities, small towns and rural areas in the It is also in the general interest that cities Western world is close to the average, and towns in the same region cooperate to though with much individual variation and complement each other wherever possible, considerable short-term instability. in order to reach the best possible results for Development today is influenced by the the region as a whole. This is exactly the high number of factors influencing the loca- purpose in the proposed EU European tion of economic activities and pulling Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP). development in different directions. Policy conclusions The observation of overall average growth rates in all classes of cities and towns does not mean that there is no need for policies to promote regional economic development. There are still cities and regions with too few jobs and too low incomes. However, efforts must be made where the
  37. 37. PAGES 036-037 / GLOBALISATION / GLOBALISATION IS AFFECTED BY LOCAL FACTORS GLOBALISATION IS AFFECTED BY LOCAL FACTORS SHIFTS IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STATE, REGION, AND CITY Hans Thor Andersen One of the many changes normally ascribed to globalisation is that cities and regions today create still closer cross-border networks. Even if there is nothing new about this as such, it is relevant to observe what this means for the single locality. This article argues that globalisation must not be understood as an infringing process leaving us powerless. The meaning of globalisation depends on local conditions, and European cities have special conditions and, therefore, special opportunities. The cities and regions of Europe constitute a close-knit system of economic and political relationships built up over more than one thousand years. Cities and regions are the nodes of society in terms of economy, social relationships, culture, and politics. With the advent of nationalism 300 years ago, another model was taking shape. Localities became subordinate to the state, which was given a centralised and uniform code of practice. Communication between the cities of a country was improved, leading to more division of labour and new opportunities for development. Thus, the nation-state provides the political and administrative infrastructure for the development of the national territory and constitutes, therefore, a significant basis for economic growth (Lefebvre 1991). With the fall of the Iron Curtain, the European territory changed dramatically. The importance of the states has diminished in tandem with a growing number of organisations becoming more important for
  38. 38. INTENSITY OF LIGHT COMBINES POPULATION European integration. In particular the EU, Europe, we are still lacking a thorough DENSITY AND AFFLUENCE; WESTERN EUROPE with its single market, has become the debate on the division of labour and AND NORTH AMERICA, AS WELL AS JAPAN dominant non-nation-state actor and responsibilities between the local, regional, increasingly performs the overall, national and national levels. AND EASTERN CHINA, STAND OUT CLEARLY. THERE IS ALMOST A SURFACE COVERAGE CREATED BY A CLOSE, COHERENT URBAN SYS- planning and co-ordinating functions TEM, WHEREAS THE CITIES IN LARGE PARTS regarding economic and commercial rela- OF SIBERIA, AFRICA AND CENTRAL ASIA CON- tionships. At the same time, local and The cities of globalisation STITUTE ISOLATED ENCLAVES. regional authorities have acquired increasing The cities apparently most affected by responsibility for commercial and employ- globalisation are world cities such as Los ment development and, thus, also for the Angeles, Mumbay, Mexico City, and Lagos. welfare of the population. These cities are inhabited by populations the size of medium-sized states. And growth The globalisation debate of the past decade will continue for the next decades, although has focused on the reduced possibilities of not in the large cities of North America the state to control development. The (Hall & Pfeiffer 2000). Their significance impotence of the state is claimed to be the will also exceed the weight according to the reason for the increase in economic, social, size of their populations, as they are busi- and political differences. In addition, the ness markets and national or continental large cities have been singled out as the centres. These large cities, or world cities “new”, central commercial and political (Friedmann & Wolff 1982), are in a league unit, even though it is intrinsically impossi- of their own; they constitute the control ble to distinguish a city from its region on centres of the global economy but, addi- the basis of economic or social processes. In tionally, most often also contain the most spite of the past decades of marked decen- important political organisations as well as tralisation across almost all of western cultural and educational establishments.
  39. 39. PAGES 038-039 / GLOBALISATION / GLOBALISATION IS AFFECTED BY LOCAL FACTORS The world cities are today characterised by parts of the population are some of the a number of trends that may become reality methods. Conversely, the socially mar- also for minor cities and city regions: ginalised congregate in ghetto-like settlements in the periphery of the city or in 1. New industrial structure. In the world cities, particularly two kinds of business run-down neighbourhoods abandoned by the middle class a long time ago. sectors have crystallised as being important. On the one hand, this applies to However, most Europeans do not live in the finance and insurance sectors, strate- world cities but in medium-sized and minor gic corporate management, and the busi- cities. These minor urban communities will ness service sector, such as law firms, not become centres of the global economy telecommunications or computer ser- and its hierarchy of decisions. Their poten- vices, and, on the other hand, an array tial must be found somewhere else. One of sectors servicing the former, including possibility is the service sector and niche building and construction, restaurants, industries in which special skills and know- entertainment and security services. ledge may ensure competitiveness. These new industrial structures are Knowledge industries are regarded as the replacing manufacturing industries and, only realistic way of ensuring that welfare partly, the public sector. develops steadily in the future. This demands large, long-term investment in 2. Social polarisation. Global megacities are education and research. However, money experiencing a growing gap between a alone is not sufficient; social structures and well-educated group of high-wage earn- cultural relationships must be adapted to ers and a group of unskilled workers on the new conditions, e.g. by acceptance of minimum wages. The well-educated new norms and attitudes as well as openness group performs management functions, towards the new and the different. In par- MINIATURE FROM THE HAMBURG BY-LAW, HAMBURGER is employed in transnational corpora- ticular, this is a challenge to older industrial STADTRECHT, 1497 (DETAIL). tions, international organisations, cities, which have seen de-industrialisation financing and business services. This take place over the past decades. THROUGHOUT HISTORY, CITIES AND REGIONS HAVE CREATED CROSS-BORDER NETWORKS. group is “outsourcing” increasing num- THE TOWNS OF THE HANSEATIC LEAGUE, bers of household chores - childcare, WHICH TOTALLY DOMINATED TRADE IN cleaning, cooking, gardening - which, in Local politics in a global era MEDIEVAL NORTHERN EUROPE, ARE A STRIK- turn, are performed by the other group, Globalisation is not only an economic ING EXAMPLE OF URBAN IMPORTANCE not infrequently immigrants or other process of change but also entails changes BEFORE THE AGE OF THE NATION-STATES. people with a marginal status in the and restructuring of the political system. DEPICTED ARE HANSEATIC SHIPS MOORING labour market. Again, this has clear consequences at local ALONGSIDE THE QUAY IN HAMBURG. level in cities of all sizes. Everywhere, the 3. Physical restructuring. The physical requirement to increase competitiveness is environment of the world cities is con- leading to marked changes of local political stantly being transformed to be able to prioritisation, strategies and institutional match global competition. New office structures (Mayer 1995). blocks, shopping centres, hotels and luxury housing are added. In addition, the In almost all Western countries, local poli- relatively large social inequalities tics have become more important to indus- enhance the spatial division. In the large trial policy. The reason for this strengthen- cities of Asia, Latin America, and Africa, ing of the local level is the competition social inequalities have created outright from outside. In many countries, state rela- physical barriers, which keep unwanted tionships with regions and cities are what groups out of the realms of the social can be termed horizontal. Instead of hierar- elite. Fences, private security guards, and chical structures, co-operation between, and the establishment of secluded neigh- integration of, local actors now often take bourhoods intended for the affluent on the responsibility for economic policies.