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CU06997 Fluid dynamics
Hydraulic structures
13.1 Hydraulic structures (page 430)
13.2 Thin plate weirs (page 430-440)
13.3 Long based weirs (page 440-445)
13.4 Flumes (page 445-452) Just read
13.5 Spillways (page 452-465) Just read
1
Weir?? What?? Why??
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir
• Regulation
• Overflow
• Flow measuring
• Sometimes it is just a obstacle
• Thin plate (sharp crested) weirs [korte overlaat]
• Long based (broad crested) weirs [lange overlaat]
1
Free or submerged flow
Volkomen of onvolkomen overlaat
• Free flow (volkomen)
If the water level downstream changes,
the water level upstream does not change
• Submerged flow (onvolkomen / verdronken)
If the water level downstream changes,
the water level upstream also changes
• http://vimeo.com/16847389
1
Thin plate (sharp-crested) weirs
Free flow
Water level upstream >> Water level downstream
Use specific energy=total head measured from the crest2
Formula’s Thin plate weirs
There are a lot of different formula’s which try to be
as accurate as possible.
Most important to remember is that in the formula’s
water level and total head (specific energy) is
measured from the crest and the formula’s can only be
used with free flow (volkomen)
Next slides some examples, you will find more in the
book.
2
Basic formula 𝑄 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝐵 ∙ 𝐻
3
2
Q = discharge overflow [m3/s]
m = runoff coefficient [m1/2/s]
B = Width crest overflow [m]
H = Head at overflow [m]
measured from top crest!!
H
Total head
2
Ad

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Cu06997 lecture 11_hydraulic_structures

  • 1. CU06997 Fluid dynamics Hydraulic structures 13.1 Hydraulic structures (page 430) 13.2 Thin plate weirs (page 430-440) 13.3 Long based weirs (page 440-445) 13.4 Flumes (page 445-452) Just read 13.5 Spillways (page 452-465) Just read 1
  • 2. Weir?? What?? Why?? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir • Regulation • Overflow • Flow measuring • Sometimes it is just a obstacle • Thin plate (sharp crested) weirs [korte overlaat] • Long based (broad crested) weirs [lange overlaat] 1
  • 3. Free or submerged flow Volkomen of onvolkomen overlaat • Free flow (volkomen) If the water level downstream changes, the water level upstream does not change • Submerged flow (onvolkomen / verdronken) If the water level downstream changes, the water level upstream also changes • http://vimeo.com/16847389 1
  • 4. Thin plate (sharp-crested) weirs Free flow Water level upstream >> Water level downstream Use specific energy=total head measured from the crest2
  • 5. Formula’s Thin plate weirs There are a lot of different formula’s which try to be as accurate as possible. Most important to remember is that in the formula’s water level and total head (specific energy) is measured from the crest and the formula’s can only be used with free flow (volkomen) Next slides some examples, you will find more in the book. 2
  • 6. Basic formula 𝑄 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝐵 ∙ 𝐻 3 2 Q = discharge overflow [m3/s] m = runoff coefficient [m1/2/s] B = Width crest overflow [m] H = Head at overflow [m] measured from top crest!! H Total head 2
  • 7. Thin-plate Rehbock weir 2 324,0 78,1 HB d h Q        Free weir flow Crest weir Rehbock weir 2
  • 8. Discharge measurement weirs 2 3 86,1 HbQ  rHqv  2 8,2 2 1 tan46,1 2 5  Hqv mhHaHdHb 40,0,2,3,3  rH  25,0h 2
  • 10. Long based (broad crested) weirs [Lange overlaat] Most of the time these weirs are not meant for measuring discharge. More for regulating purposes or just because there is a object in the river which act as long based weir Free flow (volkomen) and submerged (onvolkomen) flow can occur 3
  • 11. Submerged flow [onvolkomen] Free flow [volkomen] Total Head or Energy line H Total Head or Energy line H Super critical flow Hydraulic Jump Bottom eddy Long-based (broad-crested) weirs 3
  • 12. Remarks • When the flow downstream is supercritical it is always a free flow at the weir • If the water level downstream is lower than 2/3 H , it is a free flow. • If the water level downstream is higher than 2/3 H, it is a submerged flow. • With free flow, the water level at the end of the crest is 2/3 H. • H and water level are measured from the top of the crest. H is measured upstream of the weir 3
  • 13. Submerged broad crested weir flow )(2 33 hHghBcq olv  col=discharge coefficient submerged broad crested weir [1] B = width weir h3 = water level downstream Total Head or Energy line H Submerged broad crested weir [onvolkomen lange overlaat] Bottom eddy 3
  • 14. Free flow broad crested weir 2 3 HBcq vv  Cv=discharge coefficient free flow broad crested weir [m1/2/s] B = width weir h3 = water level downstream Total Head or Energy line H Free flow broad crested weir [volkomen lange overlaat] Super critical flow Hydraulic Jump 3
  • 15. Partially filled Culvert acts as a broad crested weir 4 DownstreamUpstream Cross-section Length Culvert Flow velocity
  • 16. Partially filled Culvert acts as a broad crested weir 4 • The bed level of the culvert is the crest level • The width of the culvert is the width of the crest (B) • The water level (h3) and total head (H) are measured from the bed level of the culvert. • If the water level (h3) downstream is lower than 2/3 H , it is a free flow. • If the water level (h3) downstream is higher than 2/3 H, it is a submerged flow. • When submerged flow : tot olc  1 