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Consequences of farmers’
            interpretation of mastitis alerts


       Klaske Buma, Ruurd Jorritsma en Henk Hogeveen

Leerstoelgroep Bedrijfseconomie, Wageningen Universiteit
Departement Gezondheidszorg Landbouwhuisideren, Universiteit Utrecht
Automatic milking: Mean SCC ↑
• SCC = MANAGEMENT
  – Risk of IMI ↑ = Hygiene milking, housing
  – Detection of mastitis


• Common
• Expensive
• Frustration
Information from milking robot
• Sensor information
  – Conductivity
  – Colour
  – Milk production (24h)
  – Temperature (MQC 2)
  – SCC (optional)


• Algorithm → Udder health report
  – Potential cases of mastitis
Detection of mastitis by farmer



Check               Interpret         Check           Interpret         Check alert    Interpret       Take action
report              report            history         history           in the barn    check           •Take milk
• Conductivity      •Check history    alert           alert             •Check cow     •Mastitis?       sample
• Colour             alert and/or     •Milkquality    •Check alert in   •Check udder   •Take action!   •Treat mastitis
• Milk production    check alert in   •Milk visits     the barn         •Spurt and
  deviation          the barn                                            check milk
• Total number of                     •Conductivity
  alerts                               chart                            •CMT
• SCC (optional)
Objective
• Get insight in the decision model of a
  farmer to check on alerts from the report
Material and methods
• 7 farms, North Western part of The
  Netherlands

• 5 farms visits
  – Questionnaire
  – Interview
  – CMT of all alerts
  – Milksample and culturing clinical mastitis alerts
• Analysis of data
Check and interpret alertlist



Check                Interpret         Check           Interpret         Check alert    Interpret       Take action
report               report            history         history           in the barn    check           •Take milk
• Conductivity       •Check history    alert           alert             •Check cow     •Mastitis?       sample
• Colour              alert and/or     •Milkquality    •Check alert in   •Check udder   •Take action!   •Treat mastitis
• Milk production     check alert in   •Milk visits     the barn         •Spurt and
  deviation           the barn                                            check milk
• Total number of                      •Conductivity
  alerts                                chart                            •CMT
• SCC (optional)




       Quick glance
       10 times a day – 2 times a week
Check and interpret history alert



Check               Interpret         Check           Interpret         Check alert    Interpret         Take action
report              report            history         history           in the barn    check             •Take milk
• Conductivity      •Check history    alert           alert             •Check cow     •Mastitis? Take    sample
• Colour             alert and/or     •Milkquality    •Check alert in   •Check udder    action!          •Treat mastitis
• Milk production    check alert in   •Milk visits     the barn         •Spurt and
  deviation          the barn                                            check milk
• Total number of                     •Conductivity
  alerts                               chart                            •CMT
• SCC (optional)




    Only when alarming
    Definition of alarming varies between farmers
Check alert in the barn
• Only 3,5% of the alerts are checked by the
  farmer!
Alerts checked by farmer (n=15)

        20%




                       Clinical

  13%                  Subclinical

                       Negative
                 67%   CMT
Alerts checked by researcher

Overview of the checked mastitis alerts


                               Clinical
                               mastitis   Subclinical mastitis   Negative CMT   Total


Number of individual quarter
alerts                           30               47                 150        227



Number of repeated quarter
alerts                            9               81                 104        194
                                                                                        46%
Total                            39               128                254        421



                                  10%                                  60%
Checked clinical mastitis     26%

Unchecked clinical mastitis   74%




Subclinical mastitis          100%
Reasons to check (n=15)
• Combination of:
  – Milk production decrease alarming
  – Flakes/clots on milk filter
  – High conductivity
  – Failure in milking
  – History of teat damage
  – Earlier flakes/clots in milk
Reasons not to check (n=421)
•   No flakes/clots on milk filter        28%
•   Milk production decrease not alarming 19%
•   Repeatedly on list                    10%
•   No time                               10%
•   Conductivity level is not alarming    5%
•   Malfunctioning AMS                    4%
•   Other                                 24%
Eye openers
• Selection on milk production deviation (6/7)
• None of the farmers uses CMT for detection
  subclinical mastitis
• Broken sensor → lot of alerts → no repair
• Sensitivity <100% - 2 cases clinical mastitis
  without alert
Conclusions
                    60 % of alerts false positive
                    3% of alerts is checked by farmers
                    checked alerts are often clinical cases
                    74 % of clinical cases is missed
                    How bad is this?


Check               Interpret         Check           Interpret         Check alert    Interpret      Take action
report              report            history         history           in the barn    check          •Take milk
• Conductivity      •Check history    alert           alert             •Check cow     •Alarming?      sample
• Colour             alert and/or     •Milkquality    •Check alert in   •Check udder    Take action   •Treat mastitis
• Milk production    check alert in   •Milk visits     the barn         •Spurt and
  deviation          the barn                                            check milk
• Total number of                     •Conductivity
  alerts                               chart                            •CMT
• SCC (optional)
Thank you for your attention

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Consequences of farmers' interpretation of mastitis alerts in automatic milking

  • 1. Consequences of farmers’ interpretation of mastitis alerts Klaske Buma, Ruurd Jorritsma en Henk Hogeveen Leerstoelgroep Bedrijfseconomie, Wageningen Universiteit Departement Gezondheidszorg Landbouwhuisideren, Universiteit Utrecht
  • 2. Automatic milking: Mean SCC ↑ • SCC = MANAGEMENT – Risk of IMI ↑ = Hygiene milking, housing – Detection of mastitis • Common • Expensive • Frustration
  • 3. Information from milking robot • Sensor information – Conductivity – Colour – Milk production (24h) – Temperature (MQC 2) – SCC (optional) • Algorithm → Udder health report – Potential cases of mastitis
  • 4. Detection of mastitis by farmer Check Interpret Check Interpret Check alert Interpret Take action report report history history in the barn check •Take milk • Conductivity •Check history alert alert •Check cow •Mastitis? sample • Colour alert and/or •Milkquality •Check alert in •Check udder •Take action! •Treat mastitis • Milk production check alert in •Milk visits the barn •Spurt and deviation the barn check milk • Total number of •Conductivity alerts chart •CMT • SCC (optional)
  • 5. Objective • Get insight in the decision model of a farmer to check on alerts from the report
  • 6. Material and methods • 7 farms, North Western part of The Netherlands • 5 farms visits – Questionnaire – Interview – CMT of all alerts – Milksample and culturing clinical mastitis alerts • Analysis of data
  • 7. Check and interpret alertlist Check Interpret Check Interpret Check alert Interpret Take action report report history history in the barn check •Take milk • Conductivity •Check history alert alert •Check cow •Mastitis? sample • Colour alert and/or •Milkquality •Check alert in •Check udder •Take action! •Treat mastitis • Milk production check alert in •Milk visits the barn •Spurt and deviation the barn check milk • Total number of •Conductivity alerts chart •CMT • SCC (optional) Quick glance 10 times a day – 2 times a week
  • 8. Check and interpret history alert Check Interpret Check Interpret Check alert Interpret Take action report report history history in the barn check •Take milk • Conductivity •Check history alert alert •Check cow •Mastitis? Take sample • Colour alert and/or •Milkquality •Check alert in •Check udder action! •Treat mastitis • Milk production check alert in •Milk visits the barn •Spurt and deviation the barn check milk • Total number of •Conductivity alerts chart •CMT • SCC (optional) Only when alarming Definition of alarming varies between farmers
  • 9. Check alert in the barn • Only 3,5% of the alerts are checked by the farmer!
  • 10. Alerts checked by farmer (n=15) 20% Clinical 13% Subclinical Negative 67% CMT
  • 11. Alerts checked by researcher Overview of the checked mastitis alerts Clinical mastitis Subclinical mastitis Negative CMT Total Number of individual quarter alerts 30 47 150 227 Number of repeated quarter alerts 9 81 104 194 46% Total 39 128 254 421 10% 60%
  • 12. Checked clinical mastitis 26% Unchecked clinical mastitis 74% Subclinical mastitis 100%
  • 13. Reasons to check (n=15) • Combination of: – Milk production decrease alarming – Flakes/clots on milk filter – High conductivity – Failure in milking – History of teat damage – Earlier flakes/clots in milk
  • 14. Reasons not to check (n=421) • No flakes/clots on milk filter 28% • Milk production decrease not alarming 19% • Repeatedly on list 10% • No time 10% • Conductivity level is not alarming 5% • Malfunctioning AMS 4% • Other 24%
  • 15. Eye openers • Selection on milk production deviation (6/7) • None of the farmers uses CMT for detection subclinical mastitis • Broken sensor → lot of alerts → no repair • Sensitivity <100% - 2 cases clinical mastitis without alert
  • 16. Conclusions 60 % of alerts false positive 3% of alerts is checked by farmers checked alerts are often clinical cases 74 % of clinical cases is missed How bad is this? Check Interpret Check Interpret Check alert Interpret Take action report report history history in the barn check •Take milk • Conductivity •Check history alert alert •Check cow •Alarming? sample • Colour alert and/or •Milkquality •Check alert in •Check udder Take action •Treat mastitis • Milk production check alert in •Milk visits the barn •Spurt and deviation the barn check milk • Total number of •Conductivity alerts chart •CMT • SCC (optional)
  • 17. Thank you for your attention