What is Part of Speech ?
Part of Speech is the common name for a
word class - a category into which words
are placed according to the work they do in
Pronouns are small words that take the
place of a noun.
If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot
of nouns. We would have to say things like:
Do you like the president? I don't like the president. The
president is too pompous.
With pronouns, we can say:
Do you like the president? I don't like him. He is too
1. You are the strangest child I have ever met.
2. Uni and Susan will meet us in the canteen.
3. That umbrella is mine. (Possessive Pronoun)
4. I love myself. (Reflexive Pronoun)
An adverb is a word that modifies or qualifies the
meaning of a verb, adjective, or other adverb.
We make many adverbs by adding -ly to an adjective,
quick (adjective) > quickly (adverb)
careful (adjective) > carefully (adverb)
beautiful (adjective) > beautifully (adverb)
Types of adverb
Adverb of Time : after, later, recently, during, soon
Adverb of Place : abroad, anywhere, here, at home
Adverb of Manner : carefully, correctly, fast, loudly
Adverb of Frequency : always, never, often, rarely
Positions of an Adverb
When an adverb modifies a verb, there are
usually 3 possible positions within the
sentence or clause:
1. FRONT - before subject
e.g : now, I will read a book
2. MID - between subject + verb
e.g : I often read books
3. END - after verb/object
e.g : I read book loudly
When an adverb modifies an adjective or
another adverb, it usually goes in front of the word
that it modifies, for example:
1. It was terribly funny
* terribly = adverb ; funny = adjective
2. He works really fast
* really = adverb ; fast = adverb
Adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or
Position of Adjective:
Before noun : I love a beautiful girl
After noun : I love a girl beautiful
Subject Complement :You are beautiful
Object Complement :You make me happy
Verb-Adjective : Please, keep silent!
Degree Of Comparison
example: Tiara is as beautiful as Mitha
example: Soeharto was longer on the power
than Soekarno was
as + Adj + as
more + Adj + than or Adj-er + than
example: Prima is the smartest student in
the most + Adj or the + ADJ-est
Verbs are sometimes described as "action
words“. Many verbs give the idea of action, of
"doing" something. For example, words
like run, fight, do and work all convey action.
But some verbs do not give the idea of action;
they give the idea of existence, state of
"being". For example, verbs like be, exist,
seem and belong all convey state. Example :
action (Ram plays football.)
state (Anthony seems kind.)
1. HELPING VERBS (Auxiliary Verbs)
* Primary Helping Verbs : used mainly to change the tense or
voice of the main verb, and in making questions and
be = to make continuous tenses, and the passive voice
do = to make simple tenses, and questions and
have = to make perfect tenses
e.g : I have finished my homework.
He speaks faster than she does.
*Modal Helping Verbs : can, could, may, might, will,
would, shall, should, must, ought to.
e.g : John may arrive late
2. MAIN VERBS (Lexical
* Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed
An intransitive verb does not have a direct object:
He has arrived
* Linking Verbs
A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It
"links" the subject to what is said about the subject.
Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all
intransitive verbs are linking verbs). e.g :
Tara is beautiful.
That sounds interesting.
Regular and Irregular verbs
Regular and Irregular verbs have different endings for their past tense and
past participle forms.
For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always
the same: -ed.
look, looked, looked
work, worked, worked
For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is
variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart.
buy, bought, bought
cut, cut, cut
do, did, done
The simple definition, Noun is : a person, place or
Person : man, woman, teacher, John, Mary
Place : home, office, town, countryside,
Thing : table, car, banana, money, dog,
Position in Sentence
Nouns often come after a determiner
example : the doctor, this word, my house
Nouns often come after one or more adjectives
Example : a great relief, a
peaceful afternoon, my brown and
Countable nouns are things that we can count. It can be singular or
My dog is playing. (singular)
My dogs are hungry. (plural)
When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word
like a/the/my/this with it:
I want an orange.
Where is my bottle?
When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:
I like oranges.
Bottles can break.
We can use some, any, a few and many with countable nouns
I need some bottles
Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc.
that we cannot divide into separate elements. We
cannot "count" them.
For example, we cannot count "milk". We can
count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we
cannot count "milk" itself.
Here are some more uncountable nouns:
music, art, love, happiness
advice, information, news
rice, sugar, butter, water
electricity, gas, power
Proper Nouns (Names)
A proper noun is the special word (or name)
that we use for a person, place or
organization, like John, Marie, London, France
A preposition is a word governing, and
usually coming in front of, a noun or
pronoun and expressing a relation to another
word or element.
There are many prepositions, including :
about, above, across, as, at, before, behind,
below, in, inside, into, like, near, next, etc.
A preposition is followed by a "noun". It is
never followed by a verb. But, If we want to
follow a preposition by a verb, we must use the
The food is on the table
She lives in Japan
I ate before coming
A conjunction connects words, phrases, and
There are 3 kinds of Conjuctions :
1. Coordinate conjunctions : FANBOYS (for,
and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
2. Correlative conjunctions : both-and, either-or,
neither-nor, not only-but also.
3. Subordinate conjunctions : although,
because, since, unless, where, while, etc.
An interjection is a word that expresses feeling
or emotion; usually it is followed by an
Examples: Oh! Ah! Wow! Darn! Gosh!
Ow! Ouch! Yippee! Hooray! Boo! Whew!