Part of Speech


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Part of Speech

  1. 1. CLASS 6/L Translation Indonesia - English
  2. 2. What is Part of Speech ? Part of Speech is the common name for a word class - a category into which words are placed according to the work they do in a sentence.
  3. 3. Pronoun Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like:  Do you like the president? I don't like the president. The president is too pompous. With pronouns, we can say:  Do you like the president? I don't like him. He is too pompous.
  4. 4. Kind of Pronoun
  5. 5. Example : 1. You are the strangest child I have ever met. (Subject Pronoun) 2. Uni and Susan will meet us in the canteen. (Object Pronoun) 3. That umbrella is mine. (Possessive Pronoun) 4. I love myself. (Reflexive Pronoun)
  6. 6.  Interrogative pronouns : who, whose, whom, which, what  Relative pronouns : who, whose, which, that; whoever, whomever, whichever  Demonstrative pronouns : this, that, these, those  Indefinite pronouns : all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, many, neither, nobody, no one, none, one, others, some, somebody, someone, such
  7. 7. Adverb An adverb is a word that modifies or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, or other adverb. We make many adverbs by adding -ly to an adjective, for example:  quick (adjective) > quickly (adverb)  careful (adjective) > carefully (adverb)  beautiful (adjective) > beautifully (adverb)
  8. 8. Types of adverb  Adverb of Time : after, later, recently, during, soon  Adverb of Place : abroad, anywhere, here, at home  Adverb of Manner : carefully, correctly, fast, loudly  Adverb of Frequency : always, never, often, rarely
  9. 9. Positions of an Adverb  When an adverb modifies a verb, there are usually 3 possible positions within the sentence or clause: 1. FRONT - before subject e.g : now, I will read a book 2. MID - between subject + verb e.g : I often read books 3. END - after verb/object e.g : I read book loudly
  10. 10.  When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, it usually goes in front of the word that it modifies, for example: 1. It was terribly funny * terribly = adverb ; funny = adjective 2. He works really fast * really = adverb ; fast = adverb
  11. 11. Adjective  Adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or pronoun.  Position of Adjective:  Before noun : I love a beautiful girl  After noun : I love a girl beautiful  Subject Complement :You are beautiful  Object Complement :You make me happy  Verb-Adjective : Please, keep silent!
  12. 12. Degree Of Comparison  Positive Degree example: Tiara is as beautiful as Mitha  Comparative Degree example: Soeharto was longer on the power than Soekarno was as + Adj + as more + Adj + than or Adj-er + than
  13. 13.  Superlative Degree example: Prima is the smartest student in his class the most + Adj or the + ADJ-est
  14. 14. Verb  Verbs are sometimes described as "action words“. Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action.  But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, state of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state. Example : action (Ram plays football.) state (Anthony seems kind.)
  15. 15. Verb Category 1. HELPING VERBS (Auxiliary Verbs) * Primary Helping Verbs : used mainly to change the tense or voice of the main verb, and in making questions and negatives. be = to make continuous tenses, and the passive voice do = to make simple tenses, and questions and negatives have = to make perfect tenses e.g : I have finished my homework. He speaks faster than she does. *Modal Helping Verbs : can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought to. e.g : John may arrive late
  16. 16. 2. MAIN VERBS (Lexical Verbs) * Transitive and Intransitive Verbs A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died He has arrived * Linking Verbs A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs). e.g : Tara is beautiful. That sounds interesting.
  17. 17.  Regular and Irregular verbs Regular and Irregular verbs have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. look, looked, looked work, worked, worked For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart. buy, bought, bought cut, cut, cut do, did, done
  18. 18. Noun The simple definition, Noun is : a person, place or thing. some examples:  Person : man, woman, teacher, John, Mary  Place : home, office, town, countryside, America  Thing : table, car, banana, money, dog, monkey
  19. 19. Position in Sentence  Nouns often come after a determiner example : the doctor, this word, my house  Nouns often come after one or more adjectives Example : a great relief, a peaceful afternoon, my brown and white house
  20. 20. Countable Nouns  Countable nouns are things that we can count. It can be singular or plural: My dog is playing. (singular) My dogs are hungry. (plural)  When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it: I want an orange. Where is my bottle?  When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone: I like oranges. Bottles can break.  We can use some, any, a few and many with countable nouns I need some bottles
  21. 21. Uncountable Nouns  Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc. that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them.  For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself.  Here are some more uncountable nouns: music, art, love, happiness advice, information, news furniture, luggage rice, sugar, butter, water electricity, gas, power money, currency
  22. 22. Proper Nouns (Names)  A proper noun is the special word (or name) that we use for a person, place or organization, like John, Marie, London, France or Sony.
  23. 23. Prepositions  A preposition is a word governing, and usually coming in front of, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element.  There are many prepositions, including : about, above, across, as, at, before, behind, below, in, inside, into, like, near, next, etc.
  24. 24. Preposition Rule A preposition is followed by a "noun". It is never followed by a verb. But, If we want to follow a preposition by a verb, we must use the "-ing" form. Example : The food is on the table She lives in Japan I ate before coming
  25. 25. Conjunction A conjunction connects words, phrases, and clauses. There are 3 kinds of Conjuctions : 1. Coordinate conjunctions : FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) 2. Correlative conjunctions : both-and, either-or, neither-nor, not only-but also. 3. Subordinate conjunctions : although, because, since, unless, where, while, etc.
  26. 26. Interjection  An interjection is a word that expresses feeling or emotion; usually it is followed by an exclamation mark.  Examples: Oh! Ah! Wow! Darn! Gosh! Ow! Ouch! Yippee! Hooray! Boo! Whew!
  27. 27. Some example..
  28. 28. THANK YOU……