I N             N D  O                   -         +B    +                       - G +                       -            ...
2
C N      I I    N D       -  O N          +I     +                  -  +   B O            -     G                3
IONIC RADII          Zeff                  -+                      4
MONOATOMIC CATIONSLOW IONIZATION ENERGY ELEMENTS   ELECTROPOSTIVE ELEMENTS LOSE SOME OR ALL      OF THEIR VALENCE ELECTRON...
MONOATOMIC ANIONS  ELECTRONEGATIVE ELEMENTS GAIN ELECTRONSNUMBER GAINED IS AMOUNT NEEDED TO FILLVALENCE ORBITALS ....HIGHE...
IONIC COMPOUNDSELECTROPOSITIVE ELEMENT TRANSFERS OR LOSESELECTRON(S) TO THE ELECTRONEGATIVE ELEMENT  METAL LOSES ELECTRON(...
8
NDS                BO          ENT   V   ALCO                    9
TRANSFER ELECTRONS FROM HIGHER EIONIC        ORBITALS TO LOWER E ORBITALSBONDS:          USUALLY: METAL + NON-METAL       ...
POLAR COVALENT BONDS                          MEASURE OF ATOM’S ABILITY TOELECTRONEGATIVITY (χ): ATTRACT BONDING ELECTRONS...
IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING, IDENTIFY THE MORE POLARBOND AND INDICATE THE DIRECTION OF THE DIPOLE.        REMEMBER: χ INCREAS...
PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF       LEWIS      VALENCE SHELL ELECTRONS     SYMBOLS:                   SHOWS OUTERMOST ELECT...
F        F      F    F     F   F       F     FNONBONDING PAIRS                    BONDING PAIR  (LONE PAIRS)TO DETERMINE L...
GUIDES FOR DETERMINING LEWIS STRUCTURES OF   SYSTEMS OBEYING THE OCTET (DUET) RULE⇒ DETERMINE ER, VE, SP, & LP⇒ DRAW MOLEC...
DRAW LEWIS STRUCTURES FOR:       ER =CH4    VE =       SP =       LP =      ER =H2O      VE =      SP =      LP =         ...
DRAW LEWIS STRUCTURES FOR:       ER =F2     VE =       SP =       LP =      ER =HCl      VE =      SP =      LP =         ...
DRAW LEWIS STRUCTURES FOR:       ER =                  F   P   FPF3    VE =       SP =                      F       LP =  ...
WHAT IS THE LEWIS STRUCTURE OF O2?ER = 8 x # O ATOMS     16 ELECTRONS NEEDEDVE = 2 O ATOMS x 6 e- PER ATOM                ...
BOND ORDER:   NUMBER OF SHARED ELECTRON PAIRS       C C    BO = 1 OR SINGLE BOND       C C    BO = 2 OR DOUBLE BOND       ...
MOLECULARSTRUCTURE   VSEPR    21
VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION              VS E P RELECTRON REGIONS OR GROUPS OF NEGATIVE CHARGE      AROUND AN AT...
What does it mean to hybridize?• Hybridization is the “chemistry word” for  promoting electrons to an empty orbital     36...
Hybridization Summary Table                               Total e-   Shared   Lone Geometry      Hybridization            ...
Hybridization Summary Table                              Total e-   Shared   Lone Geometry     Hybridization              ...
Hybridization Summary Table                              Total e-   Shared   Lone Geometry     Hybridization              ...
THE “MOLECULAR SHAPE” ANALYSIS INCLUDES:  DETERMINE NUMBER OF ELECTRON GROUPS  DETERMINE APPLICABLE SHAPE  NAME THE SHAPEO...
WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF THE FOLLOWING:       F        P                P           F   TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL           F        ...
MORE THAN 4 ELECTRON REGIONS?    5 = TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL                       6 = OCTAHEDRAL                            ...
LARGE MOLECULES?   DIFFERENT REGIONS!LINEARTRIGONAL PLANARTETRAHEDRAL                          CAEFFINE                   ...
BOND ORDER (AGAIN)!        F   F        INTERNUCLEAR AXIS          σ BOND            ELECTRON DENSITYNODAL PLANE          ...
HYBRIDIZATION RULESONLY FORM IN MOLECULES; NOT ATOMSONLY MIX NON-DEGENERATE ORBITALS MOLECULES   COVALENTLY BONDED POLYATO...
VALENCE BOND THEORY LOCALIZES BONDING ELECTRONS      DIFFICULT TO EXPLAIN RESONANCEMOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY DELOCALIZES Π ...
34
L I                 A L    E T                -                                 N             +M        +                 ...
Metallic Bonding• With atoms of the same metallic element• Delocalized electron clouds caused by  metallic atoms being so ...
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Bondingnew

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Bondingnew

  1. 1. I N N D O - +B + - G + - 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. C N I I N D - O N +I + - + B O - G 3
  4. 4. IONIC RADII Zeff -+ 4
  5. 5. MONOATOMIC CATIONSLOW IONIZATION ENERGY ELEMENTS ELECTROPOSTIVE ELEMENTS LOSE SOME OR ALL OF THEIR VALENCE ELECTRONS⇒LOSE HIGHEST n QUANTUM NUMBER FIRST TRANSITION ELEMENTS: HIGHEST ns FIRST; THEN d Na: [Ne]3s1 Na1+: [Ne] Ca: [Ar]4s2 Ca2+: [Ar] Fe2+ : [Ar]3d6 Fe: [Ar]3d64s2 Fe3+ : [Ar]3d5⇒LOSE HIGHEST SUBLEVEL (l ) FIRST Sn2+: [Kr]4d105s2 Sn: [Kr]4d 5s 5p 10 2 2 Sn4+: [Kr]4d10REMINDER: CATION RADIUS < ATOM RADIUS 5
  6. 6. MONOATOMIC ANIONS ELECTRONEGATIVE ELEMENTS GAIN ELECTRONSNUMBER GAINED IS AMOUNT NEEDED TO FILLVALENCE ORBITALS ....HIGHEST p SUBLEVEL O: [He]2s22p4 O2-: [He]2s22p6 O2-: [Ne]I: [Kr]4d105s25p5 I1- : [Kr]4d105s25p6 I1- : [Xe]TO HELP REMEMBER MONOATOMIC ANION CHARGE: GROUP NUMBER - EIGHT …….OR EIGHTEEN - GROUP NUMBER REMINDER: ANION RADIUS > ATOM RADIUS 6
  7. 7. IONIC COMPOUNDSELECTROPOSITIVE ELEMENT TRANSFERS OR LOSESELECTRON(S) TO THE ELECTRONEGATIVE ELEMENT METAL LOSES ELECTRON(S) TO NON-METAL NaF CaF2 FeF3 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. NDS BO ENT V ALCO 9
  10. 10. TRANSFER ELECTRONS FROM HIGHER EIONIC ORBITALS TO LOWER E ORBITALSBONDS: USUALLY: METAL + NON-METAL NOT INDIVIDUAL MOLECULES SPHERICAL, NON-DIRECTIONAL CHARGE NaCl MgF2 BaO SHARING OF ELECTRONSCOVALENT USUALLY: BETWEEN NON-METALS BONDS DIRECTIONAL BONDS INDIVIDUAL MOLECULES CO CO2 C2H5OH 10
  11. 11. POLAR COVALENT BONDS MEASURE OF ATOM’S ABILITY TOELECTRONEGATIVITY (χ): ATTRACT BONDING ELECTRONS NON-POLAR COVALENT BOND:∆χ = 0 H2, Cl2, O2 POLAR COVALENT BOND: ∆χ > 0 HCl, H2O, ICl BOND DIPOLE δ+ H . ... δ− Cl BOND POLARITY INCREASES AS ∆χ INCREASES χ = 2.1 = 0.9 χ = 3.0 ∆χ ROUGH RULE: ∆χ > 1.8, BOND IS CLASSIFIED AS IONIC METAL + NON-METAL = IONIC NON-METAL + NON-METAL = COVALENT 11
  12. 12. IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING, IDENTIFY THE MORE POLARBOND AND INDICATE THE DIRECTION OF THE DIPOLE. REMEMBER: χ INCREASES UP A GROUP AND ACROSS THE PERIOD P-F IS MORE POLARP-F OR S-F χS > χP DIPOLE TOWARDS F ∆χ P-F > ∆χ S-FN-F OR P-F P-F IS MORE POLAR χN > χP DIPOLE TOWARDS FC-H OR O-H χO > χC O-H MORE POLAR IONIC DIPOLE TOWARDS OAl-Cl OR Si-Cl χSi > χAl Al-Cl MORE POLAR DIPOLE TOWARDS Cl 12
  13. 13. PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF LEWIS VALENCE SHELL ELECTRONS SYMBOLS: SHOWS OUTERMOST ELECTRONS IN 4 “ORBITALS” FOLLOWING HUND’S RULE C DUET H HeLi Be B C N O F NeNa Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar OCTET 13
  14. 14. F F F F F F F FNONBONDING PAIRS BONDING PAIR (LONE PAIRS)TO DETERMINE LEWIS STRUCTURES, YOU NEED:ELECTRONS REQUIRED: ER = 8 x NON-H ATOMS + 2 x H ATOMSVALENCE ELECTRONS AVAILABLE VE = Σ(VALENCE ELECTRONS IN ALL ATOMS)SHARED PAIRS (NUMBER OF BONDS) SP = ½ (ER-VE) LONE PAIRS = ½ (VE) - SP 14
  15. 15. GUIDES FOR DETERMINING LEWIS STRUCTURES OF SYSTEMS OBEYING THE OCTET (DUET) RULE⇒ DETERMINE ER, VE, SP, & LP⇒ DRAW MOLECULE WITH SINGLE BONDS UNLESS NOTED: FIRST ATOM IS CENTRAL ADD OTHER BONDS TO SATISFY SP ADD LONE PAIRS TO SATISFY OCTET(S) ON MOST ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOMS FIRSTWORTH NOTING:H ATOMS CAN ONLY HAVE 1 BOND (TERMINAL ATOMS)HALOGENS: 1 BOND UNLESS CENTRAL ATOM 15
  16. 16. DRAW LEWIS STRUCTURES FOR: ER =CH4 VE = SP = LP = ER =H2O VE = SP = LP = 16
  17. 17. DRAW LEWIS STRUCTURES FOR: ER =F2 VE = SP = LP = ER =HCl VE = SP = LP = 17
  18. 18. DRAW LEWIS STRUCTURES FOR: ER = F P FPF3 VE = SP = F LP = ER =NH3 VE = SP = LP = 18
  19. 19. WHAT IS THE LEWIS STRUCTURE OF O2?ER = 8 x # O ATOMS 16 ELECTRONS NEEDEDVE = 2 O ATOMS x 6 e- PER ATOM O O 12 ELECTRONS AVAILABLESP = ½(ER-VE) = ½ (16-12) LONE PAIRS = ½ (VE) - SP 2 SHARED PAIRS 2 BONDS ½ (12) - 2 =4 =WHAT IS THE LEWIS STRUCTURE OF C2H2?ER = 2 x 8 e- + 2 x 2 e- 20 e-VE = 2 C ATOMS x 4 e- + 2 H ATOMS x 1 e- 10e-SP = 1/2 (20 e- - 10e-) H C C H 5 SHARED PAIRS 19
  20. 20. BOND ORDER: NUMBER OF SHARED ELECTRON PAIRS C C BO = 1 OR SINGLE BOND C C BO = 2 OR DOUBLE BOND C C BO = 3 OR TRIPLE BONDBOND STRENGTH OF A SPECIFIC BOND INCREASES AND BOND LENGTH DECREASES AS BOND ORDER INCREASES STRENGTH C O < C O< C O 358 799 1058 kJ/MOLE LENGTH C O >C O >C O 1.43 1.23 1.13 Ao 20
  21. 21. MOLECULARSTRUCTURE VSEPR 21
  22. 22. VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION VS E P RELECTRON REGIONS OR GROUPS OF NEGATIVE CHARGE AROUND AN ATOM REPEL ON ANOTHER ATTAIN POSITION TO MINIMIZE REPULSION 1 ELECTRON GROUP OR ELECTRON REGION IS A: LONE PAIR SINGLE BOND DOUBLE BOND TRIPLE BOND THE MOLECULAR SHAPE IS DETERMINED USING THESE ELECTRON GROUPS 22
  23. 23. What does it mean to hybridize?• Hybridization is the “chemistry word” for promoting electrons to an empty orbital 36 26 2 4 5 3 1 7 1 7 58 48The #2 “s” electron becomes a “p” and #5 “p” becomes a “s”! 23
  24. 24. Hybridization Summary Table Total e- Shared Lone Geometry Hybridization Angle Sketch pairs pairs pairs Linear sp 2 2 0 Trigonal sp2 3 3 0 Planar Bent sp2 3 2 1 Linear sp2 3 1 2Tetrahedral sp3 4 4 0 Trigonal sp3 4 3 1 Pyramidal sp3Bent Angular 4 2 2 sp3 Linear 4 1 3
  25. 25. Hybridization Summary Table Total e- Shared Lone Geometry Hybridization Angles Sketch pairs pairs pairs Trigonal sp3d 5 5 0bipyramidal See-Saw sp3d 5 4 1 T-shaped sp3d 5 3 2 Linear sp3d 5 2 3 Linear sp3d 5 1 4
  26. 26. Hybridization Summary Table Total e- Shared Lone Geometry Hybridization Angles Sketch pairs pairs pairs sp3d2ocatahedral 6 6 0 Square sp3d2 6 5 1pyramidal Square sp3d2 6 4 2 planar sp3d2 T-shaped 6 3 3 sp3d2 Linear 6 2 4 sp3d2 Linear 6 1 5
  27. 27. THE “MOLECULAR SHAPE” ANALYSIS INCLUDES: DETERMINE NUMBER OF ELECTRON GROUPS DETERMINE APPLICABLE SHAPE NAME THE SHAPEOBEY OCTET RULE: 2, 3, OR 4 ELECTRON GROUPS o 180 LINEAR o 120 109 o TRIGONAL PLANER TETRAHEDRAL 27
  28. 28. WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF THE FOLLOWING: F P P F TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL F F ~109 o BOND ANGLE PF3 F F H TETRAHEDRAL CH4 H C C H 109 o BOND ANGLE H H HH O BENT O O O OO ~120 o BOND ANGLE O3 28
  29. 29. MORE THAN 4 ELECTRON REGIONS? 5 = TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL 6 = OCTAHEDRAL 29
  30. 30. LARGE MOLECULES? DIFFERENT REGIONS!LINEARTRIGONAL PLANARTETRAHEDRAL CAEFFINE 30
  31. 31. BOND ORDER (AGAIN)! F F INTERNUCLEAR AXIS σ BOND ELECTRON DENSITYNODAL PLANE Π BOND EVERY BOND CONTAINS 1 σ BONDMULTIPLE BONDS CONTAIN 1 σ BOND + Π BONDS SINGLE BOND = σ BOND F F DOUBLE BOND = 1 σ BOND + 1 Π BOND O O TRIPLE BOND = 1 σ BOND + 2 Π BONDSH C C H 31
  32. 32. HYBRIDIZATION RULESONLY FORM IN MOLECULES; NOT ATOMSONLY MIX NON-DEGENERATE ORBITALS MOLECULES COVALENTLY BONDED POLYATOMICREQUIRES ENERGY INPUT OR pp sp, spd BUT NOT ss H C O sp2 sp3 1 σ C-C H C O H 1 σ C-H O 4 σ BONDS C- 1 σ C-O 3σ H O C H OTHER p O ORBITAL IS H C O C IN Π BOND O H H 32
  33. 33. VALENCE BOND THEORY LOCALIZES BONDING ELECTRONS DIFFICULT TO EXPLAIN RESONANCEMOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY DELOCALIZES Π ELECTRONS C C FREEDOM TO MOVE FREEDOM TO SPREAD 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. L I A L E T - N +M + - I C+ N D - B O 35
  36. 36. Metallic Bonding• With atoms of the same metallic element• Delocalized electron clouds caused by metallic atoms being so physically close to each other• Known as a “sea of electrons”• Reason why metals are such good conductors 36

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