Attention Based Economies - the Economic Value of Google Scholar and Co. Prof. Hendrik Speck University of Applied Science...
1. Libraries, Archives, Online Media  2. Google Business Model 3. Google Book Search / Google Scholar 4.  Commercializatio...
Libraries, Archives, and Online Media
1 User (Reader and Online) 2 Content (Authors and Publisher) 3 Libraries (Private/Public/Scientific) 4 Google (Scholar and...
Media Usage Media Usage in Minutes per Day. United States. 1999-2009 Source:  Veronis, Suhler & Associates.  Communication...
Internet Home video Video games Television Radio Movies Books  Magazines  Newspapers Audio  Media Usage Media Usage in Hou...
Search Engine Usage Xxx libraries vs internet vs search engines Organization: Decentralized Global Access Bandwidth Constr...
Search Engine Usage Xxx libraries vs internet vs search engines Content: Dynamic Flexible Updatable Linkage: Full-text Net...
Google Business Model
Search Engine History Google Inc. 1999
23.4 % Search Engine Market WebHits. July 2001 (Germany) O THERS 11.9 % 16.9 % 7.4 % 1.2 % AOL Suche  0.9%  Dino  0.8%  Ab...
42.7 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2002 (Germany) O THERS 9.0 % 9.7 % 1.1 % 1.2 % Dino  0.5% reisevista.de  0.4...
62.2 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2003 (Germany) O THERS 7.3 % 9.2 % 1.3 % 1.4 % 3.4 % 2.5 % 1.7 % 1.6 % 4.4 %...
73.0 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2004 (Germany) O THERS 5.3 % 6.1 % 1.1 % 1.3 % fireball.de  0.7% Web.de dire...
78.0 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2005 (Germany) O THERS 4.8 % 5.9 % 4.8 % 1.6 % Lycos  0.8%  Meta.Ger  0.7%  ...
84.0 % Search Engine Market WebHits. March 2006 (Germany) O THERS 4.4 % 4.4 % 4.8 % 2.4 % Lycos 0.6% Altavista  0.5%  T-On...
86.8 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2007   (Germany) O THERS 2.6 % 3.3 % 3.7 % 1.9 % Lycos 0.6%  WEB.DE 0.5%  su...
89.2 % Search Engine Market WebHits. March 2008   (Germany) O THERS 2.3 % 3.2 % 3.2 % 2.1 % AOL 0.8% ask.com 0.4%  arcor.d...
Click Share Percentage. AOL and WebHits. July 2006 (Germany) Search Engine Market Source: AOL   Research.  500k User Queri...
Clicks per Month for “Hotel Berlin”. AOL and WebHits. July 2006 (Germany) Search Engine Market Source: AOL   Research.  50...
Growth Rates Change vs. Year Ago. comScore. February 2006 (United States) 49% 42% 36% 9% 11% Jan-05 Feb-05 Mar-05 Apr-05 M...
Search Engine Industry Daily Search Queries in China in Million/Day. iResearch. 2002 to 2010.  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 20...
Search Engine Industry Growth Rate of Daily Search Queries. iResearch. 2002 to 2010. (China) 133.2% 236.7% 44.0% 2004 115....
1 Search/Advanced Search 2 Spell Checker 3 Translation 4 Stock Quotes 5 Street Maps 6 Calculator 7 Currency Conversion 8 D...
9 Phone Book 10 Travel Information 11 Cached Links 12 Movie Information 13 Music Information 14 Weather 15 Questions and A...
Anatomy of a Business Model  Product Diversification of Google Inc. Checkout Chrome, Pack, Android IGoogle, Tool-  bar, No...
Anatomy of a Business Model  Strategic Objectives Payment Browser, Applications, Phones, Interfaces, Standardisation Perso...
1 Subscription/Fee 2 Direct Placement 3 Pay for Inclusion (PFI) 4 Merchandising 5 Advertisement (PPV/PPC/PPP) 6 Product Pl...
Search Engine Business Models. II/II 8 Affiliate Partnerships 9 Value Added Services (Audio/Video) 10 User Data 11 User Ge...
Google . Sources of Revenue in Thousand USD. 2003 - 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Google Web Sites 792,063 1,589,032 3,377...
Google . Sources of Revenue in Percent. 2003 - 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Google Web Sites 54% 50% 55% 60% 64% Google N...
Google Book Search / Google Scholar
Sources: Peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, pr...
Two Sources:  Library Project/  The Partner Program Viewing Options: Snippet view /  Preview /  Paid Full View Access Opti...
Google Book Search / Google Scholar Google Search. Life of a Tea Bush.
 
 
 
 
Commercialization of Attention
Search Result Page with Advertising. Google Adwords. Online Marketing
Keyword Estimates. Google AdWords. Source:  Google Adwords.  Available:  https://adwords.google.com Online Marketing
Popular Keywords. Google AdWords. United States. 2007 Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks  $/Day </li></ul><u...
Adwords. Most Clicks per Day in United States. 2006/2007/2009 Search Engine Usage Adwords. 2009 2009 <ul><li>jobs </li></u...
Most Expensive Keywords. Google AdWords. United States. 2007 and 2009. Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks  $...
Popular Keywords. Google AdWords. Germany. 2007 Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks  $/Day </li></ul><ul><li>...
Most Expensive Keywords. Google AdWords. Germany. 2007 Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks  $/Day </li></ul><...
Search Engine Usage Source: EyeScream Interactive.  Yahoo! Top 200 Search Words.  EyeScream Interactive. 1996, Available: ...
Most Popular Queries Search Engine Usage Source: Jansen, Bernhard J., Amanda Spink, Judy Bateman, and Tefko Saracevic.  Re...
Most Popular Queries Search Engine Usage Source: Spink, Amanda, Seda Ozmutlu, Huseyin Cenk Ozmutlu, and Bernhard. J. Janse...
Keyword Similarity. Top News Searches. Google, Yahoo, and AOL. 2007 Search Engine Usage Yahoo 2007 Source: Zeitgeist.  Sea...
Keyword Similarity. Top News Searches. Lycos and Ask Jeeves. 2007 Search Engine Usage Ask Jeeves 2007 Source: Lycos.  Top ...
Most Edited Pages. Wikipedia. January 2007 Search Engine Usage German Source:  Wikipedia Statistics.  Wikimedia Foundation...
1 Adwords / Adsense 2 Affiliate Fees / Book Sales 3 Subscription Services 4 Content Revenue Streams Google Book Search and...
Implications
507 m 2  per 1000 users 4.5 Employees  per 1,000 users 127.496€  Expenses for Information and Literature Acquisitions per ...
2005   1,101.7 Mio.  13.4€   2004   1,272.5 Mio.  15.4€ 2003   1,371.7 Mio.  16.7€ 2000   1,305,6 Mio.  15,9€ 1995   1,058...
Google . Sources of Revenue in Thousand USD. 2003 - 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Google Web Sites 792,063 1,589,032 3,377...
1 User (Open Access) 2 Content (Monetarization and Branding) 3 Libraries (Audience, Preservation, Mission) 4 Google (Reach...
1. Increased Funding 2. Revenue Participation 3. Open Source / Open Content 4. Network Concentric Model Creative Commons /...
End
Thank you for your attention. I will gladly answer your questions. Prof. Hendrik Speck  contact (at) hendrikspeck [dot] co...
License Information. You are free to share (to copy, distribute and transmit the work) and to remix (to adapt the work) un...
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Prof. Hendrik Speck - Attention Based Economies - the Economic Value of Google Scholar and Co.

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Prof. Hendrik Speck - Attention Based Economies - the Economic Value of Google Scholar and Co. 9th International Bielefeld Conference. February 3 – 5, 2009, Bielefeld, Germany, Libraries, Archives, Online Media, Google, Business Model, Google Book Search, Google Scholar, Commercialization of Attention, user, content, libraries, media usage, media consumption, Internet, Home video, Video games, Television, Radio, Movies, Books, Magazines, Newspapers, Audio, access, constraints, barriers, limitations, content, linkage, quality, google, search, market share, growth, functionality, product diversification, objectives, business models, revenue, google scholar, sources, features, ranking, commercialisation, attention, advertising, keyword advertising, adwords, adsense, popularity, price

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Prof. Hendrik Speck - Attention Based Economies - the Economic Value of Google Scholar and Co.

  1. 1. Attention Based Economies - the Economic Value of Google Scholar and Co. Prof. Hendrik Speck University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern 9 th International Bielefeld Conference. February 3 – 5, 2009. Bielefeld, Germany
  2. 2. 1. Libraries, Archives, Online Media 2. Google Business Model 3. Google Book Search / Google Scholar 4. Commercialization of Attention 5. Implications/Conclusion Introduction
  3. 3. Libraries, Archives, and Online Media
  4. 4. 1 User (Reader and Online) 2 Content (Authors and Publisher) 3 Libraries (Private/Public/Scientific) 4 Google (Scholar and Book Search) The Four Horsemen. Search Engine Industry
  5. 5. Media Usage Media Usage in Minutes per Day. United States. 1999-2009 Source: Veronis, Suhler & Associates. Communications Industry Forecast. 2006, Available: http://www.vss.com/pubs/pubs_home.html or http://ww2.wpp.com/WPPDocuments/WPP_AR_2005_What_we_think.pdf 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 * 2007 * 2008 * 2009 * Television 3h 54 4h 1 4h 5 4h 10 4h 14 4h 14 4h 14 4h 16 4h 16 4h 17 4h 17 Radio 2h 34 2h 35 2h 36 2h 43 2h 45 2h 42 2h 41 2h 40 2h 40 2h 42 2h 42 Newspapers 33.7 33 32.4 31.9 31.6 30.9 30.1 29.4 28.8 27.9 27.1 Audio 46.2 42.4 37.6 32.9 30.2 30.4 29.4 28.8 28.8 27.8 27.1 Internet 10.7 17.1 21.5 24.2 27 28.9 30.1 31.2 32.1 32.9 33.4 Magazines 22 22.2 20.9 20.5 19.9 20.4 20.4 20.1 20.1 20.1 19.9 Books 19.2 17.6 17.4 17.9 17.9 17.8 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 Video games 9.5 10.5 10.8 11.5 12.3 12.7 12.8 13.5 14.1 15.3 15.8 Home video 6.7 7.1 7.7 9.4 9.9 11 12.5 13.8 15 15.6 16.3 Movies 2.1 2 2.1 2.3 2.1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Interactive & Wireless – – – 0.7 1.2 1.8 2.5 3.1 4.3 5.3 6.9 Total 8h 59 9h 8 9h 12 9h 24 9h 30 9h 32 9h 32 9h 35 9h 38 9h 43 9h 44
  6. 6. Internet Home video Video games Television Radio Movies Books Magazines Newspapers Audio Media Usage Media Usage in Hours per Year. United States. 1999-2009 Source: Veronis, Suhler & Associates. Communications Industry Forecast. 2006, Available: http://www.vss.com/pubs/pubs_home.html or http://ww2.wpp.com/WPPDocuments/WPP_AR_2005_What_we_think.pdf -10 % -8 % -9 % +212 % +141 % +66 % -5 % -10 % -41 % -20 %
  7. 7. Search Engine Usage Xxx libraries vs internet vs search engines Organization: Decentralized Global Access Bandwidth Constraints Time Constraints: Time Required for Transmission Instant Access/ Retrieval Delay/ Content Type Access: Global Technological Barrier Fast Distribution Organization: Centralized Local Access Physical Limitations Time Constraints: Time Required for Search, Access, and Retrieval Retrieval Delay Access: Membership, Payments, Structure Social, Religious, Regional Barriers Censorship, Surveillance Libraries. Online Media. Comparison.
  8. 8. Search Engine Usage Xxx libraries vs internet vs search engines Content: Dynamic Flexible Updatable Linkage: Full-text Network Quality: No Editorial Filter Content Mixed/ Media Competency Cheap Content: Static Fixed Outdated Linkage: Keyword Only Low Linkage Quality: Content Selection Quality Content Expensive Libraries. Online Media. Comparison.
  9. 9. Google Business Model
  10. 10. Search Engine History Google Inc. 1999
  11. 11. 23.4 % Search Engine Market WebHits. July 2001 (Germany) O THERS 11.9 % 16.9 % 7.4 % 1.2 % AOL Suche 0.9% Dino 0.8% Abacho 0.7% alltheweb.com 0.7% www.search.ch 0.5% AOL Netfind 0.4% AOL Search 0.4% Excite 0.4% excite.com 0.3% Hotbot 0.3% goto.com 0.2% acoon.de 0.2% 6.1 % 8.7 % 4.5 % 1.5 % 7.1 % 5.5 % 5.8 % Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. July 2001, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html
  12. 12. 42.7 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2002 (Germany) O THERS 9.0 % 9.7 % 1.1 % 1.2 % Dino 0.5% reisevista.de 0.4% Abacho 0.3% AOL Search 0.3% www.search.ch 0.3% alltheweb.com 0.3% Hotbot 0.2% directhit.com 0.1% ixquick.com 0.1% excite.com 0.1% 5.0 % 8.5 % 3.8 % 1.7 % 3.8 % 5.5 % 3.9 % 4.1 % Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. February 2002, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html
  13. 13. 62.2 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2003 (Germany) O THERS 7.3 % 9.2 % 1.3 % 1.4 % 3.4 % 2.5 % 1.7 % 1.6 % 4.4 % 2.7 % Directory 2.3 % Bellnet 0.6% www.search.ch 0.5% AllesKlar 0.4% DMOZ 0.3% AOL Search 0.2% Dino 0.2% Austronaut 0.2% die-reise.de 0.2% netscape.de/suche 0.2% alltheweb.com 0.2% Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. February 2003, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html
  14. 14. 73.0 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2004 (Germany) O THERS 5.3 % 6.1 % 1.1 % 1.3 % fireball.de 0.7% Web.de directory 0.6% AllesKlar 0.5% Bellnet 0.5% DMOZ 0.3% suche.freenet.de 0.2% search.bluewin.ch 0.2% search.com 0.2% netscape.de/suche 0.2% www.search.ch 0.2% 2.4 % 2.4 % 2.1 % 1.3 % 5.0 % Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. February 2004, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html
  15. 15. 78.0 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2005 (Germany) O THERS 4.8 % 5.9 % 4.8 % 1.6 % Lycos 0.8% Meta.Ger 0.7% Altavista 0.6% Web.de Directory 0.5% fireball.de 0.5% DMOZ 0.2% www.search.ch 0.2% suche.freenet.de 0.2% search.com 0.2% Bellnet 0.2% AllesKlar 0.2% 2.4 % 1.8 % Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. February 2005, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html
  16. 16. 84.0 % Search Engine Market WebHits. March 2006 (Germany) O THERS 4.4 % 4.4 % 4.8 % 2.4 % Lycos 0.6% Altavista 0.5% T-Online 0.5% WEB.DE 0.4% suche.freenet.de 0.4% Meta.Ger 0.3% AllesKlar 0.3% arcor.de 0.3% Web.de directory0.2% search.com 0.2% fireball.de 0.2% DMOZ 0.1% Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. March 2006, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html
  17. 17. 86.8 % Search Engine Market WebHits. February 2007 (Germany) O THERS 2.6 % 3.3 % 3.7 % 1.9 % Lycos 0.6% WEB.DE 0.5% suche.freenet.de 0.3% arcor.de 0.3% Altavista 0.3% Meta.Ger 0.2% AllesKlar 0.2% search.com 0.2% fireball.de 0.2% WEB.DE Verz. 0.2% DMOZ 0.1% ask.com 0.1% Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. February 2007, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html 1.7 %
  18. 18. 89.2 % Search Engine Market WebHits. March 2008 (Germany) O THERS 2.3 % 3.2 % 3.2 % 2.1 % AOL 0.8% ask.com 0.4% arcor.de 0.2% WEB.DE 0.2% suche.freenet.de 0.2% Lycos 0.2% AllesKlar 0.2% Altavista 0.2% Meta.Ger 0.1% search.com 0.1% Flix.de 0.1% Fireball.de 0.1% DMOZ 0.1% Source: WebHits.de. Web Barometer. March 2008, Available: http://www.webhits.de/deutsch/webstats.html
  19. 19. Click Share Percentage. AOL and WebHits. July 2006 (Germany) Search Engine Market Source: AOL Research. 500k User Queries Sampled Over 3 Months. Available: http://research.aol.com/pmwiki/pmwiki.php Others Total 1. 36.20% 1.73% 1.56% 2.79% 42.29% 2. 10.20% 0.49% 0.44% 0.79% 11.92% 3. 7.22% 0.35% 0.31% 0.56% 8.44% 4. 5.15% 0.25% 0.22% 0.40% 6.02% 5. 4.15% 0.20% 0.18% 0.32% 4.85% 6. 3.41% 0.16% 0.15% 0.26% 3.98% 7. 2.88% 0.14% 0.12% 0.22% 3.37% 8. 2.55% 0.12% 0.11% 0.20% 2.98% 9. 2.41% 0.12% 0.10% 0.19% 2.82% 10. 2.54% 0.12% 0.11% 0.20% 2.97% >10. 8.87% 0.42% 0.38% 0.68% 10.36%
  20. 20. Clicks per Month for “Hotel Berlin”. AOL and WebHits. July 2006 (Germany) Search Engine Market Source: AOL Research. 500k User Queries Sampled Over 3 Months. Available: http://research.aol.com/pmwiki/pmwiki.php Others Total 1. 66,812 3,200 2,888 5,151 78,051 2. 18.832 902 814 1,452 22,000 3. 13,334 639 576 1,028 15,577 4. 9,511 456 411 733 11,111 5. 7,662 367 331 591 8,951 6. 6,288 301 272 485 7,346 7. 5,324 255 230 411 6,220 8. 4,708 225 203 363 5,500 9. 4,455 213 193 344 5,205 10. 4,692 225 203 362 5,481 >10. 16,367 784 707 1,262 19,121
  21. 21. Growth Rates Change vs. Year Ago. comScore. February 2006 (United States) 49% 42% 36% 9% 11% Jan-05 Feb-05 Mar-05 Apr-05 May-05 Jun-05 Jul-05 Aug-05 Sep-05 Okt-05 Nov-05 Dec-05 Jan-06 46% 30% 28% 22% 26% 20% 12% 5% Source: comScore. Search Query Annual Growth Rates. February 2006, Available: http://www.comscore.com/cms/displaycontent.asp?id=764&suffix=pdf Search Engine Industry
  22. 22. Search Engine Industry Daily Search Queries in China in Million/Day. iResearch. 2002 to 2010. 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 24 80.8 188.4 406.5 729 1050 1,440 1,890 2,400 Source: iResearch. China Internet Search Market Report. 2005. Available: http://english.iresearch.com.cn/downloadfile.asp?id=404
  23. 23. Search Engine Industry Growth Rate of Daily Search Queries. iResearch. 2002 to 2010. (China) 133.2% 236.7% 44.0% 2004 115.8% 79.3% 37.1% 31.3% 27% Source: iResearch. China Internet Search Market Report. 2005. Available: http://english.iresearch.com.cn/downloadfile.asp?id=404 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2003
  24. 24. 1 Search/Advanced Search 2 Spell Checker 3 Translation 4 Stock Quotes 5 Street Maps 6 Calculator 7 Currency Conversion 8 Definitions Search Functionality. Google Web Search I/II Search Engine Industry
  25. 25. 9 Phone Book 10 Travel Information 11 Cached Links 12 Movie Information 13 Music Information 14 Weather 15 Questions and Answers 16 Search by Number Search Functionality. Google Web Search II/II Search Engine Industry
  26. 26. Anatomy of a Business Model Product Diversification of Google Inc. Checkout Chrome, Pack, Android IGoogle, Tool- bar, Note- book, Health, Finance, RSS, Docs, Cal Web Images, News, Products, Blogs, Movies Summer of Code Mobile, Local, SMS Blog, Talk, Groups, Orkut, Video, Picasa, Youtube, Book, Scholar Earth, Maps, Sketchup ( )
  27. 27. Anatomy of a Business Model Strategic Objectives Payment Browser, Applications, Phones, Interfaces, Standardisation Personalisation Search Advanced Search Recruitment and Standardisation Mobile and Localisation Content, Communication and Social Graph Mapping Checkout Chrome, Pack, Android IGoogle, Tool- bar, Note- book, Health, Finance, RSS, Docs, Cal Web Images, News, Products, Blogs, Movies Summer of Code Mobile, Local, SMS Blog, Talk, Groups, Orkut, Video, Picasa, Youtube, Book, Scholar Earth, Maps, Sketchup ( )
  28. 28. 1 Subscription/Fee 2 Direct Placement 3 Pay for Inclusion (PFI) 4 Merchandising 5 Advertisement (PPV/PPC/PPP) 6 Product Placement 7 Advertising/Partner Networks Search Engine Business Models. I/II Search Engine Industry
  29. 29. Search Engine Business Models. II/II 8 Affiliate Partnerships 9 Value Added Services (Audio/Video) 10 User Data 11 User Generated Content/Web 2.0 12 Premium Services 13 Consulting/Research 14 Licenses/Search Appliances Search Engine Industry
  30. 30. Google . Sources of Revenue in Thousand USD. 2003 - 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Google Web Sites 792,063 1,589,032 3,377,060 6,332,797 10,624,700 Google Network Sites 628,600 1,554,256 2,687,942 4,159,831 5,787,900 Advertising Total 1,420,663 3,143,288 6,065,002 10,492,628 16,412,600 Licensing 45,271 45,935 73,558 112,289 181,400 Revenues Total 1,465,934 3,189,223 6,138,560 10,604,917 16,594,000 Search Engine Industry Source: Google. Annual Report 2005. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. March 16, 2006, Form 10-K, Available: http://investor.google.com/pdf/2005_Google_AnnualReport.pdf and Google. Annual Report 2006. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. March 1, 2007, Form 10-K, Available: http://investor.google.com/pdf/2006_Google_AnnualReport.pdf and Google. Annual Report 2007. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 15, 2008. Available: http://investor.google.com/documents/2007_Google_AnnualReport.html
  31. 31. Google . Sources of Revenue in Percent. 2003 - 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Google Web Sites 54% 50% 55% 60% 64% Google Network Sites 43% 49% 44% 39% 35% Advertising Total 97% 99% 99% 99% 99% Licensing 3% 1% 1% 1% 1% Search Engine Industry Source: Google. Annual Report 2005. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. March 16, 2006, Form 10-K, Available: http://investor.google.com/pdf/2005_Google_AnnualReport.pdf and Google. Annual Report 2006. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. March 1, 2007, Form 10-K, Available: http://investor.google.com/pdf/2006_Google_AnnualReport.pdf and Google. Annual Report 2007. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 15, 2008. Available: http://investor.google.com/documents/2007_Google_AnnualReport.html
  32. 32. Google Book Search / Google Scholar
  33. 33. Sources: Peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations. Features: Find papers, abstracts and citations Locate the complete paper through libraries or online Ranking: According to relevance: full text of article, author, publication in which the article appears, and citations in other scholarly literature Google Scholar
  34. 34. Two Sources: Library Project/ The Partner Program Viewing Options: Snippet view / Preview / Paid Full View Access Options: Online Access / Buying or borrowing actual books / Library and university access Three types of books: In-copyright and in-print books / In-copyright but out-of-print books / Out-of-copyright books Google Book Search
  35. 35. Google Book Search / Google Scholar Google Search. Life of a Tea Bush.
  36. 40. Commercialization of Attention
  37. 41. Search Result Page with Advertising. Google Adwords. Online Marketing
  38. 42. Keyword Estimates. Google AdWords. Source: Google Adwords. Available: https://adwords.google.com Online Marketing
  39. 43. Popular Keywords. Google AdWords. United States. 2007 Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks $/Day </li></ul><ul><li>ebay $1.00 265,674 $266,690 </li></ul><ul><li>free $2.29 187,163 $429,450 </li></ul><ul><li>new $2.45 152,781 $373,860 </li></ul><ul><li>hotel $2.72 125,360 $340,790 </li></ul><ul><li>travel $2.83 121,034 $342,030 </li></ul><ul><li>hotels $3.80 106,302 $404,150 </li></ul><ul><li>jobs $1.79 96,668 $172,930 </li></ul><ul><li>car $5.17 93,365 $482,550 </li></ul><ul><li>insurance $15.83 92,830 $1,469,380 </li></ul><ul><li>music $1.12 60,839 $68,410 </li></ul><ul><li>porn $0.76 59,806 $45,520 </li></ul><ul><li>beach $3.52 59,768 $210,250 </li></ul><ul><li>camera $1.53 55,899 $85,570 </li></ul><ul><li>cars $2.05 53,269 $109,150 </li></ul><ul><li>pictures $0.77 49,520 $38,250 </li></ul>
  40. 44. Adwords. Most Clicks per Day in United States. 2006/2007/2009 Search Engine Usage Adwords. 2009 2009 <ul><li>jobs </li></ul><ul><li>travel </li></ul><ul><li>car </li></ul><ul><li>insurance </li></ul><ul><li>music </li></ul><ul><li>cars </li></ul><ul><li>beach </li></ul><ul><li>camera </li></ul><ul><li>porn </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul>2006 <ul><li>ebay </li></ul><ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul><ul><li>hotel </li></ul><ul><li>travel </li></ul><ul><li>hotels </li></ul><ul><li>jobs </li></ul><ul><li>car </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>music </li></ul>Adwords. 2006 Adwords. 2007 2006 <ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul><ul><li>hotel </li></ul><ul><li>software </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>video </li></ul><ul><li>music </li></ul><ul><li>porno </li></ul><ul><li>women </li></ul><ul><li>girls </li></ul>
  41. 45. Most Expensive Keywords. Google AdWords. United States. 2007 and 2009. Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks $/Day </li></ul><ul><li>school consolidation loans $72.02 1 $90 </li></ul><ul><li>student loan debt consolidation $68.44 18 $1,270 </li></ul><ul><li>education loan consolidation $65.45 10 $640 </li></ul><ul><li>fort worth dwi $64.72 7 $470 </li></ul><ul><li>college loan consolidation $63.66 21 $1,320 </li></ul><ul><li>mesothelioma $63.42 209 $13,230 </li></ul><ul><li>texas mesothelioma $63.17 3 $190 </li></ul><ul><li>new york mesothelioma $63.08 1 $70 </li></ul><ul><li>epithelioid mesothelioma $63.02 0 $20 </li></ul><ul><li>student loans consolidation $62.78 16 $1,030 </li></ul><ul><li>mesothelioma attorneys $62.63 4 $250 </li></ul><ul><li>malignant mesothelioma $61.51 5 $320 </li></ul><ul><li>california mesothelioma $61.05 2 $110 </li></ul><ul><li>college consolidation $60.50 13 $780 </li></ul><ul><li>consolidation college $60.50 13 $780 </li></ul>
  42. 46. Popular Keywords. Google AdWords. Germany. 2007 Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks $/Day </li></ul><ul><li>ebay $0.71 110,183 $78,250 </li></ul><ul><li>Möbel $1.03 40,660 $41,750 </li></ul><ul><li>Sport $1.31 36,025 $47,100 </li></ul><ul><li>free $2.29 34,372 $78,570 </li></ul><ul><li>Auto $3.86 34,254 $132,310 </li></ul><ul><li>Motorrad $0.95 30,888 $29,300 </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel $2.72 28,781 $78,350 </li></ul><ul><li>Telefonbuch $0.15 27,783 $4,240 </li></ul><ul><li>Modellbau $0.53 23,450 $12,530 </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin $1.52 22,455 $34,200 </li></ul><ul><li>Kinder $1.02 22,126 $22,590 </li></ul><ul><li>Google $3.60 22,029 $79,240 </li></ul><ul><li>Computer $2.61 21,775 $56,900 </li></ul><ul><li>Tv $1.09 21,745 $23,640 </li></ul><ul><li>Handy $1.54 21,307 $32,870 </li></ul>
  43. 47. Most Expensive Keywords. Google AdWords. Germany. 2007 Online Marketing <ul><li>No. Keywords CPC Clicks $/Day </li></ul><ul><li>Auto Insurance $33.40 1,336 $44,620 </li></ul><ul><li>Detektei Hamburg $31.52 1 $30 </li></ul><ul><li>insurance quotes $30.64 2,766 $84,770 </li></ul><ul><li>Detektiv Hamburg $28.06 0 $20 </li></ul><ul><li>quotes $26.68 2,924 $78,030 </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Kredit $26.35 7 $200 </li></ul><ul><li>Detektei Stuttgart $24.85 0 $8 </li></ul><ul><li>Detektei Düsseldorf $24.09 0 $9 </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit City $21.85 1,753 $38,300 </li></ul><ul><li>Unterwäsche $17.79 2,049 $36,450 </li></ul><ul><li>mortgages $17.23 236 $4,070 </li></ul><ul><li>Private Krankenversicherungen $16.93 8 $130 </li></ul><ul><li>Detektiv Berlin $16.60 1 $20 </li></ul><ul><li>Winzip $16.32 461 $7,540 </li></ul><ul><li>Citibank Kredit $15.95 3 $60 </li></ul>
  44. 48. Search Engine Usage Source: EyeScream Interactive. Yahoo! Top 200 Search Words. EyeScream Interactive. 1996, Available: http://www.eyescream.com/yahootop200.html and EyeScream Interactive. Dogpile Top 200 Search Words. EyeScream Interactive. July 1997. Available: http://www.adz.net/top200/dogpiletop200.htm 1997 <ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>nude </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul><ul><li>software </li></ul><ul><li>mars </li></ul><ul><li>university </li></ul><ul><li>xxx </li></ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul>Dogpile Filt. (1997) 1996 <ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul><ul><li>xxx </li></ul><ul><li>playboy </li></ul><ul><li>netscape software </li></ul><ul><li>nude </li></ul><ul><li>porno </li></ul><ul><li>games </li></ul><ul><li>porn </li></ul><ul><li>weather </li></ul>Yahoo (1996) Most Popular Search Queries. Yahoo and Dogpile Original/Filtered 1997 <ul><li>of </li></ul><ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>the </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>nude </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>for </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul><ul><li>software </li></ul>Dogpile (1997)
  45. 49. Most Popular Queries Search Engine Usage Source: Jansen, Bernhard J., Amanda Spink, Judy Bateman, and Tefko Saracevic. Real Life Information Retrieval: a Study of User Queries on the Web. SIGIR Forum, Vol. 32. No. 1., pp. 5 -17., Available: http://jimjansen.tripod.com/academic/pubs/sigirforum98/forum98.pdf ; Spink, Amanda, Deitmar Wolfram, Bernard Jansen, and Tefko Saracevic. Searching The Web: The Public and Their Queries. 2001. Available: http://jimjansen.tripod.com/academic/pubs/jasist2001/jasist2001.pdf ; Silverstein, Craig, Monika Henzinger, Hannes Marais, and Michael Moricz. Analysis of a Very Large AltaVista Query Log. SRC Technical note #1998-14. Available: http://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/DEC/SRC/technical-notes/abstracts/src-tn-1998-014.html ; 1998 <ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>applet (Robot) </li></ul><ul><li>porno </li></ul><ul><li>mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul><ul><li>warez </li></ul><ul><li>yahoo </li></ul><ul><li>playboy </li></ul><ul><li>xxx </li></ul><ul><li>hotmail </li></ul>AltaVista (1998) 1997 <ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>nude </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul><ul><li>university </li></ul><ul><li>pics </li></ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul><ul><li>adult </li></ul><ul><li>women </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul>Excite (1997) 1997 <ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>nude </li></ul><ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul><ul><li>university </li></ul><ul><li>women </li></ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul><ul><li>gay </li></ul><ul><li>girls </li></ul>Excite (1997)
  46. 50. Most Popular Queries Search Engine Usage Source: Spink, Amanda, Seda Ozmutlu, Huseyin Cenk Ozmutlu, and Bernhard. J. Jansen. U.S. versus European Web searching trends. SIGIR Forum. 2002, 36(2), Available: http://www.acm.org/sigs/sigir/forum/F2002/spink.pdf and Jansen, Bernhard. J. and Amanda Spink. An Analysis of Web Searching by European AlltheWeb.com Users. Information Processing and Management. 2005, 41(2), pp. 361-381, Available: http://sky.fit.qut.edu.au/~spinkah/IPM-EuropeanSearching.pdf 2001 <ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>download </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul><ul><li>uk </li></ul><ul><li>nude </li></ul><ul><li>mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>hotel </li></ul><ul><li>windows </li></ul><ul><li>pics </li></ul>Fast (2001) 2002 <ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>download </li></ul><ul><li>software </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>windows </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul><ul><li>hotel </li></ul><ul><li>mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>video </li></ul>AlltheWeb (2002) 2001 <ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul><ul><li>christmas </li></ul><ul><li>nude </li></ul><ul><li>pictures </li></ul><ul><li>new </li></ul><ul><li>pics </li></ul><ul><li>music </li></ul><ul><li>games </li></ul><ul><li>stories </li></ul>Excite (2001)
  47. 51. Keyword Similarity. Top News Searches. Google, Yahoo, and AOL. 2007 Search Engine Usage Yahoo 2007 Source: Zeitgeist. Search Patterns, Trends, and Surprises. Google. Available: http://www.google.com/intl/en/press/zeitgeist.html ; Yahoo. Yahoo! 2007 Top Trends in Search. Yahoo. Available: http://buzz.yahoo.com/toptrends2007/ and AOL. AOL 2007 Year End Hot Searches. AOL. News Searches. Available: http://about-search.aol.com/hotsearches2007/news.html AOL 2007 2007 Google 2007 2007 2007 <ul><li>American Idol </li></ul><ul><li>Youtube </li></ul><ul><li>Britney Spears </li></ul><ul><li>2007 Cricket World </li></ul><ul><li>Cup </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Benoit </li></ul><ul><li>Iphone </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Nicole Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Hilton </li></ul><ul><li>Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Vanessa Hudgens </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Benoit </li></ul><ul><li>Phentermine </li></ul><ul><li>Pet Food Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Tech </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Juanita Bynum </li></ul><ul><li>Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Don Imus </li></ul><ul><li>Saddam Hussein </li></ul><ul><li>Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>President George W. </li></ul><ul><li>Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Oil and Gas Prices </li></ul><ul><li>Barack Obama </li></ul><ul><li>Hillary R. Clinton </li></ul><ul><li>San Diego Fires </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Tech </li></ul>
  48. 52. Keyword Similarity. Top News Searches. Lycos and Ask Jeeves. 2007 Search Engine Usage Ask Jeeves 2007 Source: Lycos. Top Films, TV Shows, and News Stories of 2007. Lycos. December 12, 2007, Available: http://50.lycos.com/121207.asp Lycos 2007 2007 2007 <ul><li>Saddam Hussein </li></ul><ul><li>Iran Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Debut of iPhone </li></ul><ul><li>Al Jazeera </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Prices </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Vick Dog- Fighting Scandal </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>xxx </li></ul>
  49. 53. Most Edited Pages. Wikipedia. January 2007 Search Engine Usage German Source: Wikipedia Statistics. Wikimedia Foundation. November 2006, Available: http://stats.wikimedia.org/EN/Sitemap.htm French Fre nch English German Eng lish <ul><li>George W. Bush </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul><ul><li>RuneScape </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Katrina </li></ul><ul><li>Wii </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Anarchism </li></ul><ul><li>2006 FIFA World Cup </li></ul><ul><li>September 11, 2001 attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Clinton </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Britney Spears </li></ul><ul><li>Février 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Décembre 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Algérie </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Rose-Croix </li></ul><ul><li>Rugby à XIII </li></ul><ul><li>Coupe du monde de football de 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Ségolène Royal </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Québec </li></ul><ul><li>The Beatles </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolas Sarkozy </li></ul><ul><li>Témoins de Jéhovah </li></ul><ul><li>Montréal </li></ul><ul><li>Friedrich Nietzsche </li></ul><ul><li>Arles </li></ul><ul><li>Zinedine Zidane </li></ul><ul><li>François Mitterrand </li></ul><ul><li>Deutschland </li></ul><ul><li>Nekrolog 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Nekrolog 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus von Nazaret </li></ul><ul><li>Libanonkrieg 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Türkei </li></ul><ul><li>Zeugen Jehovas </li></ul><ul><li>Die Simpsons (Figuren) </li></ul><ul><li>Kroatien </li></ul><ul><li>Figuren der Harry-Potter-Romane </li></ul><ul><li>Schweiz </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Österreich </li></ul><ul><li>Zweiter Weltkrieg </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-Strike </li></ul><ul><li>Rammstein </li></ul><ul><li>Europäische Union </li></ul>
  50. 54. 1 Adwords / Adsense 2 Affiliate Fees / Book Sales 3 Subscription Services 4 Content Revenue Streams Google Book Search and Google Scholar
  51. 55. Implications
  52. 56. 507 m 2 per 1000 users 4.5 Employees per 1,000 users 127.496€ Expenses for Information and Literature Acquisitions per 1,000 users 25% Electronic Archives 73.9 Business Hours per Week Bibliotheksindex. Libraries Source: Bibliotheksindex (BIX). 2007. http://www.bix-bibliotheksindex.de/
  53. 57. 2005 1,101.7 Mio. 13.4€ 2004 1,272.5 Mio. 15.4€ 2003 1,371.7 Mio. 16.7€ 2000 1,305,6 Mio. 15,9€ 1995 1,058.3 Mio. 13,0€ Library Spending per Year and Citizen Libraries in Germany. Source: Statistisches Bundesamt. Kulturfinanzbericht 2008. September 2008, Available: http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/kulturfinanzbericht_2008.pdf, Statistisches Bundesamt. 2005: Kulturausgaben der öffentlichen Hand bei 8 Milliarden Euro Press Release. No. 296. July 20, 2006. Available: http://www.destatis.de/jetspeed/portal/cms/Sites/destatis/Internet/DE/Presse/pm/ 2006/07/PD06__296__216,templateId=renderPrint.psml, and Statistisches Bundesamt. 2003: Kulturausgaben der öffentlichen Hand bei 8,2 Milliarden Euro. Press Release. No. 201 May 5, 2004, Available: http://www.destatis.de/jetspeed/portal/cms/Sites/destatis/ Internet/DE/Presse/pm/2004/05/PD04__201__213,templateId=renderPrint.psml
  54. 58. Google . Sources of Revenue in Thousand USD. 2003 - 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Google Web Sites 792,063 1,589,032 3,377,060 6,332,797 10,624,700 Google Network Sites 628,600 1,554,256 2,687,942 4,159,831 5,787,900 Advertising Total 1,420,663 3,143,288 6,065,002 10,492,628 16,412,600 Licensing 45,271 45,935 73,558 112,289 181,400 Revenues Total 1,465,934 3,189,223 6,138,560 10,604,917 16,594,000 Search Engine Industry Source: Google. Annual Report 2005. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. March 16, 2006, Form 10-K, Available: http://investor.google.com/pdf/2005_Google_AnnualReport.pdf and Google. Annual Report 2006. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. March 1, 2007, Form 10-K, Available: http://investor.google.com/pdf/2006_Google_AnnualReport.pdf and Google. Annual Report 2007. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 15, 2008. Available: http://investor.google.com/documents/2007_Google_AnnualReport.html
  55. 59. 1 User (Open Access) 2 Content (Monetarization and Branding) 3 Libraries (Audience, Preservation, Mission) 4 Google (Reach and Advertising) Players and Interests Search Engine Industry
  56. 60. 1. Increased Funding 2. Revenue Participation 3. Open Source / Open Content 4. Network Concentric Model Creative Commons / Net Review Attention as Currency Outlook
  57. 61. End
  58. 62. Thank you for your attention. I will gladly answer your questions. Prof. Hendrik Speck contact (at) hendrikspeck [dot] com University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern Information Architecture Lab Amerikastrasse 1 66482 Zweibrücken Tel: +49 6332 914 360 Skype: hendrikspeck Conclusion Contact Information
  59. 63. License Information. You are free to share (to copy, distribute and transmit the work) and to remix (to adapt the work) under the following conditions: Attribution. (You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work) Share Alike. (If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license.) Conclusion Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported. License Information.

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