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Land Use Changes Associated to Highways

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This presentation summarizes the paper published in the proceedings of the 14th HKSTS International Conference. Transportation and Geography held in Hong Kong in December 2009.

In our proposal to help clarify which are the changes more related to highway construction, our aim is to analyse two areas in the same broad region (thus minimising social and cultural interferences), with the same data sources, and during the same period of time (further avoiding the distortion of different economic trends).

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Land Use Changes Associated to Highways

  1. 1. LAND USE CHANGES ASSOCIATED TO HIGHWAYS Henar Salas-Olmedo Soledad Nogués Esther González-González UNIVERSITY OF CANTABRIA GEURBAN – Urban and Spatial Planning Research Group
  2. 2. UNIVERSITY OF CANTABRIA GEURBAN – Urban and Spatial Research Group 1. The Land Use and Transport Relationship 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) 4. Conclusions and Further Research
  3. 3. 1. The Land Use and Transport Relationship Transport Land Use ACCESSIBILITY
  4. 4. 1. The Land Use and Transport Relationship Highways Land Use SHAPES requires
  5. 5. 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways Same timeline Different study areas Long term post-analysis Highway connected Trunk crossroad Multiple variables Land use changes Population Trends Households Activities Core-Periphery spatial pattern differences Highways Land Use SHAPES
  6. 6. Different study areas Highway connected Trunk crossroad Highways Land Use SHAPES
  7. 7. 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways Same timeline Long term post-analysis Data availability Data comparability Long term Census years 1981-1991-2001 Highways Land Use SHAPES
  8. 8. Multiple variables Land use changes Population Trends Households Activities 2. How To Identify Changes Associated To Highways Highways Land Use SHAPES Topic Sources Land Use Changes Land use maps Aerial and satellite imagery Planning applications Population trends Resident counts Households Household counts Type of dwelling counts Activities Commercial deals Industry of Employment
  9. 9. 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) London
  10. 10. One of the Sub-regional centres of the region 56,000 Ha. 286,866 persons The city of Doncaster is surrounded by some 12 market and coalfield towns, and about 50 small villages . LINCOLN POLICY AREA One of the Principal Urban Areas of the region 72,000 Ha. 64,443 persons The city of Lincoln is surrounded by settlements performing dormitory or local services functions . METROPOLITAN BOROUGH OF DONCASTER
  11. 11. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) Multiple variables Land use changes Population Trends Households Activities Input data Highways Land Use SHAPES Variable Source Spatial Unit Approved Planning applications Registry of the corresponding Local Authority, 1981, 1991 and 2001 Postcode, or street or settlement Residents ONS. Census Data, 1981-2001 Ward Households ONS. Census Data, 1981-2001 Ward Type of dwelling ONS. Census Data, 2001 Ward Industry of Employment ONS. Census Data, 1981-2001 Ward Commercial deals Focus Dataset 1981-2001 Postcode
  12. 12. DONCASTER 1/3 of the population and households are located in the core area 6.1 per cent of flats The city centre has increased its services and retail activities but it has not been able to attract or retain population, who can easily drive to the core area LINCOLN Near 50 per cent of the population and households are within Lincoln city 13.2 per cent of households are flats Lincoln city centre has been able to attract more people than its surroundings
  13. 13. Facts and figures 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) 1981 Doncaster Lincoln
  14. 14. DONCASTER Planning applications (PA) have a dispersed pattern CITY CENTRE 26.13 per cent of PA 18.92 per cent of PA to erect new buildings LINCOLN Highly concentrated spatial pattern of planning applications CITY CENTRE 41.53 per cent of PA 35.20 per cent of PA to erect new buildings 3. Case Study: Doncaster and Lincoln (UK) 2001 Doncaster Lincoln
  15. 15. DONCASTER Service activities concentrated in the city centre and Mexborough Deals related to industrial activities are placed near motorways and railways LINCOLN Higher proportion of commercial deals inside the city centre Almost inexistent deals related to industrial activities Mexborough
  16. 16. DONCASTER Evolution from a mining and industry based structure to a new service and transportation framework LINCOLN From an economy based on industry and the primary sector, to an employment structure where distribution, and catering and other services are the main activities.
  17. 17. Qualitative knowledge “ The motorway crossing is now the key element in Doncaster’s economy, which is focusing on transportation and logistics . However, there is a lack of properly skilled people that reduces the potential development of the area.” Andrew Gates Policy and Partnerships Officer of Doncaster Metropolitan Borough “ The strategy of Lincoln city is to offer some areas for compact development with facilities nearby, both for residential and activity use”. Zoe Staton Principal Planning Officer of City of Lincoln Council Interviews
  18. 18. 4. Conclusions and Further Research Transport is important for regional economy in both cases, but development also depends on their resources and the way they are able to manage them. At the local scale, highways are a factor for decentralization of both activities and population. This tendency is also influenced by local planning policies and the catchment area relationship with the main urban area Highways encourage car travelling , which reduces centralization and favours out-of-the-city development Conclusions
  19. 19. 4. Conclusions and Further Research Placing the starting point at the time when highways were built in the study area that contain this element will help to minimise background characteristics that condition further evolution An effort is being made to favour comparability between different places and data availability but boundary changes are a constant in United Kingdom Census data at the ward level, which makes comparison difficult over a long time period. Further research
  20. 20. Thank you Henar Salas-Olmedo, Soledad Nogués and Esther González-González Dpt. Geography, Urban and Spatial Planning School of Civil Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CANTABRIA - SPAIN www.grupospdi.unican.es/geurban [email_address]

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