Consciousness and Drugs
Consciousness•   Selective Attention       o   Focusing/conscious awareness on a particular           stimulus       o   “...
“Finished files are the result of years of scientific study combined with the experience of years.”
“Finished files are the result of years of scientific study combined with the experience of years.”
Sleep•   Circadian rhythm       o   Cyclical biological process revolving around daily           cycles of light and dark ...
Sleep Stages
Sleep•   Sleep patterns       o   Infants sleep 2/3 of every day; Adults sleep about 1/3•   Sleep deprivation       o   Re...
Sleep•   Common sleep disorders       o   Insomnia       o   Narcolepsy       o   Sleep apnea       o   Night terrors     ...
Sleep•   Insomnia       o   Chronic inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or feel fully           rested       o   Affect...
Sleep•   Narcolepsy       o   Excessive daytime sleepiness and/or sudden, uncontrollable           lapses into sleep durin...
Sleep•   Sleep apnea       o   Repeatedly choking and gasping during sleep       o   Can occur 300-500 times per night, of...
Sleep•   Lifestyle changes that can help sleep apnea       o   Lose weight. Even a small amount of weight loss can open   ...
Sleep•   Night terrors       o   Sit up in bed with terrified screams and thrashing around       o   Ends abruptly with no...
Sleep•   Sleepeating       o   Individual is unaware of their behavior       o   Roaming the house, particularly the kitch...
Sleep•   Sleepeating       o   Often a symptom of a larger underlying issue       o   High correlation with eating disorde...
Altered States•   More altered states of consciousness       o   Meditation       o   Hypnosis       o   Drug-induced states
Drugs•   Definitions       o   Tolerance       o   Dependence            •   Physical and psychological       o   Withdrawal
Drugs•   Depressants       o   Alcohol, barbiturates/tranquilizers, morphine/heroin           (opiates)       o   Creates ...
Modules 5 and 7 PowerPoint Slides
Modules 5 and 7 PowerPoint Slides
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Modules 5 and 7 PowerPoint Slides

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Modules 5 and 7 PowerPoint Slides

  1. 1. Consciousness and Drugs
  2. 2. Consciousness• Selective Attention o Focusing/conscious awareness on a particular stimulus o “Cocktail party phenomenon”• Selective Inattention o “Inattentional blindness” (or, ‘gorillas in the midst’) o We also divert our attention from information that (while relevant) might be emotionally upsetting
  3. 3. “Finished files are the result of years of scientific study combined with the experience of years.”
  4. 4. “Finished files are the result of years of scientific study combined with the experience of years.”
  5. 5. Sleep• Circadian rhythm o Cyclical biological process revolving around daily cycles of light and dark o During periods of darkness, pineal gland produces sleep-inducing hormones (melatonin) that diminish during the day
  6. 6. Sleep Stages
  7. 7. Sleep• Sleep patterns o Infants sleep 2/3 of every day; Adults sleep about 1/3• Sleep deprivation o Reduces functioning of immune system and concentration o Increases production of stress hormones (cortisol) which create body fat o Rats deprived of sleep die after two weeks
  8. 8. Sleep• Common sleep disorders o Insomnia o Narcolepsy o Sleep apnea o Night terrors o Sleepwalking, sleepeating o Teeth grinding
  9. 9. Sleep• Insomnia o Chronic inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or feel fully rested o Affects ~6% of men and ~15% of women o “Treatments” • Many sleeping pills significantly disrupts sleep patterns • Modify sleep schedule • Maintain exercise regime, relax half an hour before bed, avoid bright lights        
  10. 10. Sleep• Narcolepsy o Excessive daytime sleepiness and/or sudden, uncontrollable lapses into sleep during the day o Sudden loss of muscle tone, can lead to collapse, and REM sleep o Currently no known cure
  11. 11. Sleep• Sleep apnea o Repeatedly choking and gasping during sleep o Can occur 300-500 times per night, often with no recollection of waking up o Disrupts sleep rhythms, less time in deep restorative sleep (lack of REM sleep) o Treatments  Surgery to remove sagging or excess tissue in throat  Pressurized oxygen mask (CPAP) to keep airway open
  12. 12. Sleep• Lifestyle changes that can help sleep apnea o Lose weight. Even a small amount of weight loss can open up throat and improve apnea symptoms o Quit smoking. Smoking increases inflammation and fluid retention in throat and upper airway o Avoid alcohol, sleeping pills, and sedatives as they relax muscles in the throat and interfere with breathing o Maintain regular sleep hours.  Apnea episodes decrease with plenty of sleep.
  13. 13. Sleep• Night terrors o Sit up in bed with terrified screams and thrashing around o Ends abruptly with no recollection of what happened o Usually occurs during Stage 4 sleep  Note: nightmares occur during REM sleep o Typically affects children  As we grow older and spend less time in Stage 4 sleep, night terrors diminish
  14. 14. Sleep• Sleepeating o Individual is unaware of their behavior o Roaming the house, particularly the kitchen, eating large quantities of food (as well as non-food items) o Food consumed tend to be high in sugar/fat  Odd combinations (potato chips with peanut butter, butter and hot dogs) o Affects ~1-3% of population
  15. 15. Sleep• Sleepeating o Often a symptom of a larger underlying issue o High correlation with eating disorders and other anxiety disorders o Treatments  Stress management  Therapy  Limit caffeine and alcohol consumption  Benzodiazapines (to reduce motor function at night)
  16. 16. Altered States• More altered states of consciousness o Meditation o Hypnosis o Drug-induced states
  17. 17. Drugs• Definitions o Tolerance o Dependence • Physical and psychological o Withdrawal
  18. 18. Drugs• Depressants o Alcohol, barbiturates/tranquilizers, morphine/heroin (opiates) o Creates disinhibition, slows neural processing, interferes processing of STM to LTM• Stimulants o Methamphetamine, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy o Temporarily excite neural activity• Hallucinogens o LSD, marijuana o Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images

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