Introduction Each generation of computers is characterized by major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. Read about each generation and the developments that led to the current devices that we use today.
First Generation (1940-1956) The First Generation of Computer was built using Vacuum Tube and magnetic drums for memory as major Component.
The main feature of first generation : Used Vacuum tubes. Very large size, unreliable and slower than other generation. Most data were entered in the form of Punch card. Produce a lot of Heat. They were difficulty of maintenance .
Second Generation (1956-1963) This Computer used Transistor and Diodes instead of vacuum tubes as Main electronic Components.
The main feature of second generation : Use transistor and diodes. Smaller in Size than first generation. Produce less amount of Heat than first generation. Machine dependent High level Language. More Reliable, efficient , Higher accuracy than 1st Generation computers.
Third Generation (1964-1971) The Computer which used IC are called Third Generation of Computer. An IC Contain 100 of Electronic Component Eg: Transistor, Capacitors , registers etc.
The main feature of third generation : IC were Used. Processing Speed Increase to Nanosecond. Monitor, Keyboard were Introduce as data output and Input Devices respectively. More reliable and better performance . Computer become Portable. Operating System were used. The size of Computer rapidly decrease Compare to Second Generation Computer.
Fourth Generation (1971-till now) Fourth Generation Computer used Large Scale Integrated (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI). Accommodate 1000s of Component are in Single Chip. The Microprocessor used in these Computers.
The main feature of fourth generation : Computers are highly reliable. The Operating Speed increase to Picoseconds and MIPS (Million of Instruction Per Second). Micro Computer were Introduced. Magnetic Disk and Optical Instrument device Become Common for a Mass. Hard and sophisticated programs are used.
Word processing and e-mail system were introduced Multi-processing, Multi-media and multi-tasking is Possible. Smallest Computer Called Desktop, Laptop and Palmtop were introduced. Eg: IBM-PC, DEC 10, IBM 4341, IBM System/370, BURROUGHS B7700, HP3000, Apple 2, Apple Macintosh, Cray X-MP.
Fifth Generation (Present, future) This Computer are set Under Development. The Computer Which will use AI (Artificial Intelligence ) and use Bio- Chip as memory device Created by User are called fifth generation .
The main feature of fifth generation : They will be Intelligent. They will be Capable of Parallel Processing. Because of use of Super Conductor Material like Bio- Chip speed will be very high. Large Subset of Natural Language like English, Japanese etc will be used and make more user friendly.