Unit 5 judicial branch


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Unit 5 judicial branch

  1. 1. Unit 5 - Judicial Branch
  2. 2. Basic Structure <ul><li>Established by Article III. </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to hear civil (lawsuits) and criminal law. </li></ul><ul><li>State courts have judicial system. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases flow in hierarchical system (bottom to top). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hierarchy 94 District or Inferior Courts in major cities. Courts of Appeal Supreme Court
  4. 4. Cases flow in hierarchical system (top to bottom). <ul><li>Federal district judges are in major cities throughout the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases may be appealed or re-heard by a US Court of appeals known as appellate jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases may then be heard by the Supreme Court (SCOTUS) </li></ul><ul><li>Some cases can be taken directly to SCOTUS = Original Jurisdiction </li></ul>
  5. 5. Supreme Court <ul><li>Located in D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>8 associate justices and 1 Chief Justice sit on the court. </li></ul><ul><li>Justices are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Justices sit on the bench until resignation or death or impeachment/removal. </li></ul><ul><li>It has the final say whether the law should be followed or if laws are unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>9 justices vote on a case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winning side writes a majority opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing side writes a dissenting opinion. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. History of the Court <ul><li>First met in 1790. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not receive its own building until 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortest description in constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Court would change with population and law. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 90% of cases are not heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases must “catch” the interest of one of the justices, and three others must agree to hear it. </li></ul><ul><li>Hearings are off limit to photographing and videotaping to separate the court from public influence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rights and Liberties <ul><li>Civil Rights = positive acts the government protects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech - Symbolic speech protected. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libel – written, malicious lie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slander – spoken, malicious lie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedition – crime of attempting to overthrow the government. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly – guarantee of association. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion – Free exercise clause and establishment clause. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th amendment = due process for people of all races </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De jure segregation is unconstitutional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action is used, quotas are illegal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights apply if you are jus soli or jus sanguinis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberties = protections against government acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 th amendment – warrants, probable cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 th amendment – cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. J. Disallowed <ul><li>Ex post facto laws – after the fact </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Attainder – Punishes a person without trial </li></ul><ul><li>Double jeopardy – tried for same crime twice </li></ul><ul><li>Monica smells </li></ul>
  9. 9. II. Cases and Justices
  10. 10. 1790-1800 <ul><li>High turnover rate for justices. </li></ul><ul><li>Had to act as Supreme, Appeals, and District court. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress was slow to organize the judicial branch. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Marshall Court (1801-1835) <ul><li>Chief Justice John Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>Federalist (loose constructionist)– strong central gov’t loosely based on constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury v. Madison established judicial review (court can declare laws unconstitutional). </li></ul><ul><li>Federal law is greater than state law. </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts must be honored. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Taney Court (1836-1864) <ul><li>Passive court. </li></ul><ul><li>Strict constructionist (only do what the constitution says). </li></ul><ul><li>Dredd Scott v. Sanford = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks could not sue for freedom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property rights cannot be taken away. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 1864 - 1910 <ul><li>Passive Court </li></ul><ul><li>Plessey v. Ferguson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plessey sues because he is not allowed to ride in white passenger car. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court declares segregation is okay as long as it is “separate yet equal.” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 1910 - 1930 <ul><li>Pro-business </li></ul><ul><li>Former President Taft becomes Chief Justice for awhile. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules many laws unconstitutional… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum wage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child labor laws. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 1930-1953 <ul><li>Court filled with Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>FDR tries to speed up the process by adding more justices, Congress refuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese sue to get out of internment. </li></ul><ul><li>Court rules in times of war gov’t can do things for “safety and security.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Warren Court (1953-68) <ul><li>Gov. Earl Warren of CA becomes new Chief Justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown had to walk to inferior colored school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order to desegregate has no timeline, takes twenty years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights of the accused reaffirmed under Miranda v. Arizona. </li></ul><ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They make birth control illegal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Court decides that is a private matter between doctor and woman. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Burger Court (1969-86) <ul><li>Court had determined there is a loose right to privacy because the gov’t has to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get a warrant to search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay to seize property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Continued to follow Griswold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roe v. Wade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion illegal in most states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another private matter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Rehnquist Court (1986-2001) <ul><li>Texas v. Johnson clears way for flag burning under freedom of speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodomy laws unconstitutional under right to privacy – Lawrence and Garner v. Texas (2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Hustler v. Farewell clears even vulgar speech if it is political. </li></ul>
  19. 19. III. Crimes and Sources of Law
  20. 20. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>Violating the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorant of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishable. </li></ul><ul><li>Misdemeanors – minor crime punishable by… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short prison term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prison for at least 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Civil Law (suing) <ul><li>Your responsibilities to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Just compensation is due. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial/contract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyer does not pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seller does not provide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negligence: Suffered loss due to someone else’s carelessness. </li></ul><ul><li>Libel (write)/ slander (say): maliciously and knowingly state something. </li></ul><ul><li>Titles to land: eminent domain : seized property must be paid for. </li></ul><ul><li>family matters (children or marriage) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sources of Law (where we get it) <ul><li>Constitution – Supreme law of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory – law made by legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Case – Set by precedents or traditions of courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Common – cultural traits, accepted behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative – laws made by agencies of the government. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Civil Rights and Liberties <ul><li>Civil Rights = positive acts the government protects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th amendment = due process for people of all races </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De jure segregation is unconstitutional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action is used, quotas are illegal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights apply if you are jus soli or jus sanguinis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberties = protections against government acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 th amendment – warrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 th amendment – cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Trial Procedure
  25. 25. Opening Statement <ul><li>Suspect maybe indicted to a grand jury. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect is arrested, Miranda Rights are read. </li></ul><ul><li>Arraigned, and bail is set. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to jury can be waived for bench trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of position at beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>First statement is given by those that initiate the case. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government (district attorney or prosecutor) makes indictment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must prove beyond a reasonable doubt. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must provide a preponderance of evidence (greater amount). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense or defendant then presents. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Examination <ul><li>First the initiator presents evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence can be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct – witness, forensics, confession, weapon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumstantial – opinion, connection between defendant and crime with no physical proof. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are not allowed to ask leading questions (guide the witness). </li></ul><ul><li>Defense can issue an objection and stop the question. </li></ul><ul><li>Judge can sustain (agree) or overrule (disagree). </li></ul><ul><li>Defense may cross-examine. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Examination continued <ul><li>Defense may treat witnesses as hostile (treat them harshly to break them). </li></ul><ul><li>Decency may be questioned (if the person is honest and decent enough). </li></ul><ul><li>The gov’t/plaintiff may then rest and the defense calls their witnesses or evidence. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conclusion <ul><li>Both sides give closing arguments. </li></ul><ul><li>Judge gives the jury a charge or reminder of their duties. </li></ul><ul><li>Jury deliberates until there is a unanimous (criminal) or majority (civil) verdict. </li></ul><ul><li>They may be sequestered (asked to stay in hotel until decision is made). </li></ul><ul><li>If no decision is made, then there is a hung jury. </li></ul><ul><li>A mistrial is declared and the case has to be retried. </li></ul>