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Unit 4 academic


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Unit 4 academic

  1. 1. Unit 4 – Legislative Branch - Congress
  2. 2. 1. Congress (legislative) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a whole: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coin Money </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declare War </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for navy and army </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate commerce. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No ex post facto laws or Bills of attainder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money bills must be introduced here. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CA has most </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA has 19 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each state has at least 1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>435 members </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected every two years. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Districts are large = only upper class could run for office. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. c. Senate <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper house – 100 members </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by state legislatures until 17 amendment in 1913 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six year terms – detached from people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1/3 of Senate up for election at a time – continuous body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advice and consent to the President. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. E. Congressional Members <ul><ul><li>About $160,000 a year plus pension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offices capital & in district, plus personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel allowances and franking privileges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often requires 10 to 14 hour days, lots of time away from the family, and lots of pressure from different people to “do the right thing.” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Representatives and Senators
  6. 6. Senator Bob Casey Jr. Senator Arlen Specter Congressmen Glenn GT Thompson
  7. 7. 2. Structure <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>435 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of House keeps order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nancy Pelosi is elected by majority. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President is President of Senate and casts tie breaking votes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore takes over occasionally – is senior member of the majority party. Senator William Byrd – 1952 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 3. Party Organization <ul><li>Each party elects a leader to plan what topics they will discuss. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority leader in charge of majority party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minority leader in charge of minority party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each party elects a whip to keep party members in line. Second in command. </li></ul><ul><li>Conference leader in charge of elections – third I n charge. </li></ul><ul><li>The party with the most people is called the majority and with the least is called the minority. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority leader decides what issues they will vote on and how to set up committees. In House, Speaker has final say. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 4. Business <ul><li>Each house has a manual or rule book. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House rules are long and complex to size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate book is shorter and there is more individuality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The parliamentarian makes sure the rules are followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Most members do not know all of the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are developed on behalf of constituents, lobbyists, party, or president. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills become laws and have to be passed by both houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint resolutions are shorter and become law, usually for the constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Other resolutions do not become law – they are just declarations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 5. Committees <ul><li>Lead by a chairperson – senior member of majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking member is the minority member with most seniority. </li></ul><ul><li>All committees are structured so the majority party holds more of the seats. </li></ul><ul><li>They decide what bills to review, when to meet, and what hearings to hold. </li></ul><ul><li>Each committee focuses on a specific topic like the military or science. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills “die” in committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Many bills are referred to subcommittee. </li></ul>
  11. 11. h. Policy <ul><ul><ul><li>Standing committees: Permanent committee. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint committees: few exist. Made of both houses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conference committees: create identical bills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select committees: temporary and for something special. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. i. Assignments <ul><ul><ul><li>Re-election and importance of committee are key. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freshmen members let party leadership know their interests. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support of the party leadership is key </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seniority is a big factor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance to party electorate is significant. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. j. Structure of Committees <ul><ul><ul><li>Chair is the best position. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chosen by seniority system unless there is conflict with leadership. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positions and committee assignments can change and are sometimes limited in term. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. k. Caucus <ul><ul><li>Group of members that share something in common. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place pressure on members to vote a certain way on bills that are important to them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better than lobbyists. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. l. Employees <ul><ul><li>In each members’ office is a personal staff and Chief of Staff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff of each committee track paperwork, schedule and hearings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies: CRS, GAO, CBO research special areas like the budget, auditing, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 6. History of the Congress 1789-1850 <ul><li>Meets first time in NYC in 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>Waited for new members to travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Hires clerks, sets up procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>NW territory established. </li></ul><ul><li>New states admitted (Vermont first). </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated domestic policy. </li></ul><ul><li>1802 – Judiciary Act passed that shapes other branch. </li></ul><ul><li>1812 – Declaration of War passed against Britain when asked for by President Madison. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists oppose it and the party dies due to “lack of patriotism.” </li></ul><ul><li>1820 – Missouri Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri became a slave state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maine becomes a free state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 36 – 30 line divides the nation between slave and free. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaveholder John Calhoun is against the bill, Henry Clay supports it. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>1824 – Speaker Henry Clay helps Congress choose John Q. Adams to be president, this angers A. Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson becomes president and fights Congress to be the strongest branch. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress attempts to override vetoes of president. </li></ul><ul><li>Whig controlled Congress leans nationalist. </li></ul><ul><li>1834 – Jackson is censured by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is most divisive issue and is sectional. </li></ul><ul><li>1836 – Gag rule is placed so no one can talk about slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise of 1850 passed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick Henry Clay designs it, Daniel Webster speaks on his behalf. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California becomes free state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular sovereignty allowed in Utah and New Mexico. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas paid for lost land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade abolished in DC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Act forces Northerners to help capture slaves. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 7. Civil War and Reconstruction <ul><li>1856 – Kansas-Nebraska Act is presented by Sen. Stephen Douglas in hopes of winning presidency. </li></ul><ul><li>1856 – Rep. Preston Brooks beats Sen. Charles Sumner with cane for insulting the South. </li></ul><ul><li>Both rewarded as heroes of their sections. </li></ul><ul><li>1861 – Congressman who do not show up are kicked out. </li></ul><ul><li>Post war – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson violates when he fires the Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Johnson is impeached by House, but not removed by Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans in Congress run the nation and reconstruct the South. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Sumner of the Senate and Representative Thaddeus Stevens lead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They want equality for blacks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction ends when Congressional investigation gives presidency to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes. He promises to pull troops out. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 8. Twentieth Century Congress <ul><li>Congress is disturbed by overreach of president from TR to Wilson. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationist Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge leads charge against League of Nations leading up to 1920. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson and White House are weakened. </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal Democrats take charge of Congress, support FDR from 1930-1945. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress is weakened. </li></ul><ul><li>House Un-American Activities Committee and Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations look for Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon gains fame in House, but McCarthy is eventually censured. </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy went too far and accused the Army of being communist. </li></ul><ul><li>Pork barrel spending skyrockets, especially with transportation bill in the 1950’s after the first Interstate Highway system was developed. </li></ul><ul><li>House investigates Watergate scandal, leads to Nixon’s investigation in the 1970’s. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 9. Reagan Era <ul><li>Senate investigates Iran-Contra scandal, where guns were traded for people. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate rejects Robert Bork for Supreme Court. </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans take back Congress in 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Newt Gingrich (R) and Bob Dole (R) declare a “Contract with America.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance the budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have term limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal to executive branch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whitewater Investigation in House spreads to Monica Lewinsky affair. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans are upset over $10 million spent. </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans lose seats steadily for years. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 10. How a Bill becomes a Law <ul><li>Congressman creates a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Goes to subcommittee. </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed, then killed or moved to floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Goes to committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat Step C. </li></ul><ul><li>Floor Debate occurs – decided by Majority Leaders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House is limited to five minute speeches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate may speak indefinitely (filibuster of 1957 over Civil Rights lasted over 24 hours). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May go to conference committee so bills are identical in both houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat Step F </li></ul><ul><li>President can… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs into law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto – Dies or goes back to Step F. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto – ignore it and it becomes law. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Congressional Elections <ul><li>Who Wins Elections? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incumbent: Those already holding office. </li></ul></ul>Figure 12.1
  23. 23. Congressional Elections <ul><li>The Advantages of Incumbents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to be visible to your voters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent trips home & newsletters are used. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit Claiming: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service to individuals in their district. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Casework: specifically helping constituents get what they think they have a right to. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pork Barrel: federal projects, grants, etc. made available in a congressional district or state. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Congressional Elections <ul><li>The Advantages of Incumbents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position Taking: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portray themselves as hard working, dedicated individuals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasionally take a partisan stand on an issue. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Opponents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most opponents are inexperienced in politics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most opponents are unorganized and underfunded. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign Spending: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challengers need to raise large sums to defeat an incumbent. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PACs give most of their money to incumbents. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does PAC money “buy” votes in Congress? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Congressional Elections <ul><li>The Role of Party Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most members represent the majority party in their district. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeating Incumbents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some incumbents face problems after a scandal or other complication in office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They may face redistricting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They may become a victim of a major political tidal wave. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Congressional Elections <ul><li>Open Seats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater likelihood of competition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stability and Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incumbents provide stability in Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in Congress occurs less frequently through elections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are term limits an answer? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Understanding Congress <ul><li>Congress and the Scope of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more policies Congress works on, the more ways they can serve their constituencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more programs that get created, the bigger government gets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody wants government programs cut, just not their programs. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Questions <ul><li>Who are bills made for and why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 116 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skip to Bill Referral on page 118. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What ways can a bill be referred and what is the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>What can a committee do with a bill? </li></ul><ul><li>Why doesn’t a bill go straight from committee to the floor? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is involved in calling a bill to the floor? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between debate in the House and Senate? </li></ul><ul><li>How do amendments impact the bill process? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a conference committee work to resolve differences and who sits on the committee? </li></ul>