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Unit 3 academic

  1. 1. Unit 3 - Academic The Executive Branch
  2. 2. Day 3.1: What is the basic makeup of the branch according to Article II? <ul><li>Bell Ringer: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Take 3 minutes to go over Chapter 13. </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Ringer </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Go over quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul>
  3. 3. Day 3.2: How did our earliest presidents shape the office? <ul><li>Bell Ringer </li></ul><ul><li>What are the various titles the president holds? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is currently the vice-president, Secretary of State and Defense? </li></ul><ul><li>Name a check the legislative and judicial branch has over the executive. </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda: </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Ringer </li></ul><ul><li>Finish earlier notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading – cover Presidents Washington through, but not including Jackson. </li></ul><ul><li>In you notes, write down 3 important accomplishments of each prez and three things that support if they are weak or strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion. </li></ul>
  4. 4. I. Presidency
  5. 5. A. Constitutional Qualifications for Presidency <ul><li>Article II, Sec. 1, and : the president must be- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>native born </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resident for 14 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal “Requirements”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i. White, Male, Protestant (except one) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ii. All manner of professions, but mostly political ones (former state governors, for example) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Article II, Sec 1: term: four years </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment 22: re - elected once, can serve less than 1/2 of the previous term </li></ul><ul><li>Amendment 25: If the president dies, resigns or is impeached and convicted, the following will be president: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vice president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet in order formed: State </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. B. Duties <ul><li>Head of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage domestic affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workings of the federal government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The president can issue - executive orders: binding force of law upon federal agencies but do not require congressional approval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commander-in-Chief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of the Union – propose legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal judges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambassadors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Head State – As head of state, presidents often perform many ceremonial functions, which usually result in favorable press coverage. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Head of Party <ul><ul><li>a. The Bonds of Party - The psychological bond of being in the president’s party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slippage in Party Support - P residents cannot always count on party support, especially on controversial issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading the Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents can offer party candidates support and punishment by withholding favors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential coattails occur when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president’s party because they support the president. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. C. Character or Manner of Ruling <ul><li>Passive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass the blame to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like a lot of info </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes most decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the blame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy wonk (likes to read and know a lot) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislikes the presidency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted it out of reluctance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hates the “limelight” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially introverted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loves “pomp and circumstance.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys attention of the presidency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially extroverted. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. D. Washington <ul><li>Established precedents </li></ul><ul><li>Dignity and honor of the presidency. </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy of federal government and executive branch (Whiskey Rebellion). </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign affairs – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrality Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace with Jay’s Treaty with Britain </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. E. Adams and Jefferson <ul><li>Adams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected by the House of Representatives because no one received a majority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in a strong federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose constructionist – build on the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed the Alien and Sedition Acts to silence critics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>a. Popular among people </li></ul><ul><li>b. Strict constructionist – do only what the Constitution says. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Slashed the size of the government – fiscally conservative </li></ul><ul><li>d. Liberal when it came to rights. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Made the LA Purchase reluctantly </li></ul><ul><li>f. Sent navy to fight pirates in north of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>g. Embargo Act made him unpopular. </li></ul>
  11. 11. F. General Trends <ul><li>Presidents become unpopular over their term (usually). </li></ul><ul><li>Politicians become more moderate overtime (usually). </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives on Presidential Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the 50’s & 60’s a powerful President was perceived as good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the 70’s on, presidential power was checked and distrusted by the public. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Jackson - Democrat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Carolina says no to higher tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President threatens to invade SC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress compromises with lower tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court says it is unconstitutional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President says “who cares” and removes them anyway. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Says no to 2 nd Bank of the USA, over Congress’s objection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vetoes more bills than all previous presidents combined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tyler - Whig </li></ul><ul><li>a. Called “His Accidency” </li></ul><ul><li>b. Congress thinks he is a joke. </li></ul><ul><li>c. He vetoes many laws so his Cabinet quits and the Whig party kicks him out. </li></ul><ul><li>Polk - Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>a. Controls all decisions of Mexican War </li></ul><ul><li>b. Is jealous of his generals (they are Whigs) </li></ul><ul><li>c. Works so hard he gets sick and cannot run again. </li></ul>G. Manifest Destiny Presidents
  13. 13. H. Abraham Lincoln - Republican <ul><li>Led us during Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended habeas corpus. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrests government officials who want to secede to South. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrests reporters who sympathize with the South. </li></ul><ul><li>Declares martial law in some places. </li></ul><ul><li>Raises military without permission from Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Figures he can do it because the country is mostly Republican. </li></ul>
  14. 14. I. Weak Presidents <ul><li>Andrew Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern, racist, and democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would not reconstruct the South the way Congress wanted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeached, but not removed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ulysses S. Grant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War hero. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed to reconstruct the South or protect blacks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trusted corrupt friends too much. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. J. Modern Presidents <ul><li>Teddy Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food and Drug inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panama Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. FDR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Deal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected to four terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Truman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used atom bomb to finish WWII. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought as underdog to win election in 1948. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued the New Deal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent troops to fight North Korean communists. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought back troops from Korea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful, prosperous era. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to ignore Civil Rights, but had to send troops to Little Rock to protect black students who attended white school. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kennedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Frontier – help poor, lower taxes, space program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs – failed to provide air support for Cubans that were invading communist island. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blockaded island to stop nuclear weapons from going in or out. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets agree to take back weapons if we do the same in Turkey. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We promise to leave Cuba alone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinated in Dallas. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>7. Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continues Kennedy's programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs Civil Rights bill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates “Great Society” to help poor, working class, young, and elderly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wins 1964 election by landslide, but is then bogged down by Vietnam. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8. Nixon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulls us out of Vietnam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes peace with China and USSR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers up Watergate scandal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resigns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9. Ford – pardons Nixon and is unable to bring the nation together politically or economically. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Carter – Southern governor that is an outsider. Bad economy and Americans taken hostage in Iran bogs him down. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>11. Reagan </li></ul><ul><li>a. Brings hope to America – “Have pride in yourself.” </li></ul><ul><li>b. Get things done without evil government. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Cuts taxes and spends bug on military to scare USSR. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Clinton </li></ul><ul><li>a. Balances budget. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Reforms welfare to work. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Tax deductions to lower and middle class. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Increases spending to education and crime fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Impeached because he lied under oath about Lewinsky affair, but not removed. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bureaucracy <ul><li>White House Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Servants </li></ul><ul><li>Major Agencies </li></ul>
  20. 20. White House Staff <ul><li>Close advisors, researchers, organize schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>Most work in Executive Office Building. </li></ul><ul><li>Closest work in West Wing. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of Staff, Press Secretary, Counsel, Communications Director. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cabinet <ul><li>13 Departments </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Justice – Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><li>Homeland Security </li></ul>
  22. 22. Civil Servants <ul><li>Use to be Patronage or Spoils System (knew people to get job). </li></ul><ul><li>Pendleton Act eliminated patronage and made way for Civil Service System. </li></ul><ul><li>System= jobs, pay, and promotion depend upon testing, seniority, and professionalism. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impartiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit Promotions </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Major Agencies <ul><li>CIA </li></ul><ul><li>NSA </li></ul><ul><li>FBI </li></ul><ul><li>IRS </li></ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><li>INS </li></ul>
  24. 24. Running the Government: The Chief Executive <ul><li>The Vice President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically just “waits” for things to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent presidents have given their VPs important jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential advisors, not in Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is made up of the top executives of the Federal Departments, confirmed by the Senate </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Running the Government: The Chief Executive
  26. 26. Running the Government: The Chief Executive <ul><li>The Executive Office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of several policymaking and advisory bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three principle groups: NSC, CEA, OMB </li></ul></ul>Figure 13.1
  27. 27. Running the Government: The Chief Executive <ul><li>The White House Staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief aides and staff for the president - some are more for the White House than the president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents rely on their information and effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The First Lady </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No official government position, but many get involved politically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent ones focus on a single issue </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Running the Government: The Chief Executive <ul><li>Principal Offices in the White House (Figure 13.2) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Introduction <ul><li>Classic conception of bureaucracy (Max Weber) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical authority structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses task specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate on the merit principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behave with impersonality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A well-organized machine with lots of working parts. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Bureaucrats <ul><li>Some Bureaucratic Myths and Realities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans dislike bureaucrats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracies are growing bigger each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most federal bureaucrats work in Washington, D.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracies are ineffective, inefficient and always mired in red tape. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Bureaucrats <ul><li>Growth in Civilian Government Employees (Figure 15.1) </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Bureaucrats
  33. 33. The Bureaucrats <ul><li>Who They Are and How They Got There </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Service: From Patronage to Protection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patronage: Job given for political reasons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Service: System of hiring and promotion based on merit and nonpartisanship (Pendleton Civil Service Act). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merit Principle: Entrance exams and promotion ratings to find people with talent and skill. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Personnel Management: The federal office in charge of most of the government’s hiring. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Bureaucrats <ul><li>Who They Are and How They Got There </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Other Route to Federal Jobs: Recruiting from the Plum Book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lists the very top jobs available for Presidential appointment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents work to find capable people to fill the positions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some plum jobs (ambassadorships) are patronage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their most important trait is transience. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. How Bureaucracies Are Organized <ul><li>The Cabinet Departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 Cabinet departments headed by a secretary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Justice headed by Attorney General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each has its own budget, staff and policy areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status as a cabinet department can be controversial. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. How Bureaucracies Are Organized <ul><li>Organization of the Executive Branch (Figure 15.3) </li></ul>
  37. 37. How Bureaucracies Are Organized <ul><li>Organization of the Department of the Interior (Figure 15.4) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Understanding Bureaucracies <ul><li>Bureaucracy and Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents Try to Control the Bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint the right people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issue executive orders. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tinker with the agency’s budget. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganize an agency. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Understanding Bureaucracies <ul><li>Bureaucracy and Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress Tries to Control the Bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence presidential appointments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tinker with the agency’s budget. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold hearings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rewrite the legislation or make it more detailed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Understanding Bureaucracies <ul><li>Bureaucracy and Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Triangles and Issue Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Triangles: A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exist independently of each other. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are tough, but not impossible, to get rid of. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some argue they are being replaced by wider issue networks that focus on more policies. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Understanding Bureaucracies Figure 15.5
  42. 42. Understanding Bureaucracies <ul><li>Bureaucracy and the Scope of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many state that this is an example of a government out of control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, the size of the bureaucracy has shrunk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some agencies don’t have enough resources to do what they are expected to do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only carry out the policies, Congress and the president decide what needs to be done. </li></ul></ul>