Early inspirations for american government


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Early inspirations for american government

  1. 1. Who inspired the early Americans that formed our government and how so?<br />Early Inspirations for American Government<br />
  2. 2. Ancient Greece: What was ancient democracy?<br />
  3. 3. What influenced Greece?<br />Dominated by mountains, valleys & small plains<br />Small communities due to little arable soil<br />Difficult to communicate <br />Had to sail to colonize, trade.<br />So…Athens could develop its own unique democracy!<br />
  4. 4. With so many independent states within Greece, what did they have in common?<br />A common language <br />A common heritage of myths<br />The worship of the gods.<br />Important because, Athens thought all of the Greeks should “share” its democracy!<br />
  5. 5. Athenian democracy…<br />Lasted about 140 to 200 years<br />Helped inspire Colonial America.<br />Had flaws that America's founding fathers would take into account. <br />Democracy comes from demos meaning "people" and kratos meaning "rule."<br />
  6. 6. How did democracy develop? <br />Draco and wealthy nobility used harsh punishments to control people.<br />After Draco’s death, Salon…<br />Abolished enslavement of Athenian citizens.<br />Created an assembly where all free, native born males over 18 could vote on all of the laws.<br />Got rid of severe punishments<br />
  7. 7. Created 10 artificial tribes.<br /> Each tribe chose 50 members to serve in the Council of 500.<br /> The Council made an agenda for the assembly.<br />10 generals were chosen by lot to be executives. <br />Dangerous members of society could be ostracized (voted into exile)<br />Later, Clisthenes…<br />
  8. 8. Wealthy and powerful still controlled society by making passionate speeches and swaying the emotional, uneducated masses. <br />Athens waged a successful war with all the Greeks against Persia.<br />Democracy gave Athenians a patriotic sense of arrogance and designed a system to advance their own interests at the expense of other Greeks. <br />Sparta and other city-states fought Athens, which would not concede and was destroyed. <br />Democracy failed and was weak due to…<br />
  9. 9. Roman Republic: What is the difference between democracy and republic?<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Formation of the Republic<br />Removed cruel kings, so they did not want a monarchy anymore. <br />Conquered Ertuscans and had too much land and people.<br />Used representative government to make laws…<br />Since democracy would be to inefficient.<br />Small group of people chosen and elected made laws.<br />
  12. 12. Senate:<br />Comes from sense(means old men).<br />300 patricians (wealthy) who serve for life(eventually reform brought other types of people).<br />Power resided there through debate. <br />American Senate is made up of older, wealthier citizens and their lengthy debate can hold up laws. <br />
  13. 13. Assemblies: <br />Citizens voted by tribes (districts of the city)<br />Elected officers<br />Tribunes power of veto over law.<br />Two consuls ruled at once over the Senate and as Commanders-in-Chief of the military.<br />Assemblies <br />Exist for soldiers, the poor and other groups of people<br />Which in turn made laws for themselves <br />Had their own place in the lawmaking process for the entire city.<br />
  14. 14. E. Modern ideals of campaigning came from Roman politician Cicero…<br />Have plenty of followers<br />Call everyone by name (so they think you care)<br />Make promises, never say no (so they don’t get mad)<br />Campaign in all parts of Rome (so everyone thinks their important)<br />
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  16. 16. What caused the republic to fail?<br />As Rome conquered more territory, more salves were acquired.<br />Slaves “took” the work of the poor.<br />A larger military was needed, so privileges and benefits were given to new soldiers. <br />The poor and military gave their support to whoever offered them the most gain.<br />Julius Caesar did so, briefly seizing control until his assassination in the Senate. <br />His grand-nephew and adopted son, Octavian (Augustus), stepped into his place and became the first “Caesar” or emperor.<br />The Senate and Assemblies did not have enough power to check the rulers, nor was there a clear civilian control over the military. <br />
  17. 17. English Constitutionalism: What is Constitutionalism and how did it attempt to fix the idea of a republic? <br />
  18. 18. Monarchy and Constitutionalism<br />France develops into an absolute rule, based on “divine right of kings.”<br />Across the English Channel, King John of England isn’t allowed to bully nobles by the document, Magna Carta (1215)<br />Advisers (Parliament) eventually are consulted to avoid tax revolt. <br />England erupts into Civil War (1642 -1651) when Charles I dismisses Parliament for not raising taxes.<br />Puritan Parliament declares Charles a criminal.<br />
  19. 19. Constitutionalism Results…<br />Puritan Roundheads wins over Cavaliers and Oliver Cromwell is new brutal leader. <br />Charles I is decapitated.<br />People decide Puritan rule is too rough.<br />New king is brought back to rule, but powers are limited.<br />No troops in the home.<br />No taxing without Parliament.<br />No secret arrests. <br />
  20. 20. Eventually the English people decide the new Royals are not Protestant enough.<br />William (Dutch) and wife Mary (English) are invited to take thrown and agree to the following:<br />Parliament control of taxes.<br />The right to petition the king.<br />No standing army was to be used against the people.<br />Protestants had the right to bear arms.<br />Freedom of Speech and Debates.<br />Freedom to elect members of Parliament.<br />All future monarchs had to be Protestant. <br />Additional Changes…<br />