A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
POWERLINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION
APPLICATION OF SCADA IN SUBSTATION CONTROL
POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED
400 KV S/S, SWITCHING STATION,
12.6 KM MILESTONE ON SHAMSABAD ROAD,
Power Grid: At a glance
Awards & Achievements
Transmission/ subtransmission projects
Research & developments Activities
Part A : “SWITCHYARD PROTECTION”
• Single line diagram
Other Switchyard Equipments
PART B : POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION
PART C : APPLICATION OF SCADA IN POWER GRID
What is scada?
Architecture & Functionality
POWER GRID AT A GLANCE
POWERGRID, the Central Transmission Utility (CTU) of the country, is engaged in
power transmission business with the mandate for planning, co-ordination,
supervision and control over complete inter-State transmission system.
POWERGRID, as on July 2009, owns and operates about 71,600 circuit kilometers
of transmission lines at 800/765 kV, 400 kV, 220 kV & 132 kV EHVAC & +500 kV HVDC
levels and 122 sub-stations with transformation capacity of about 81,200 MVA.
This gigantic transmission network, spread over length and breadth of the
country, is consistently maintained at an availability of over 99%.
About 45% of total power generated in the country is wheeled through this
Recognizing the role of POWERGRID in the overall development of transmission
and power sector, Govt. of India has conferred NAVRATNA upon status to
POWERGRID in May` 08.
POWERGRID has continuously meet the challenging targets set under
Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Ministry of Power.
AWARDS & ACHIEVEMENTS
Memorandum of undertaking rating of the Company has consistently been in
the highest bracket (“Excellent”) since signing of its first MoU with Ministry of
Power in 1993-94.
“MoU Excellence Award” for year 2006-07 for being amongst the top ten PSUs.
(past six occasions continuously since 2003-04).
Three National Awards for meritorious performance (for system availability and early
completion of project for the year 2007-08).
All India Organization of Employers Industrial Relations award 2007-08.
IEEMA Power Awards 2009 for “Excellence in Power Transmission”.
“The First DSIJ Awards 2009”
PAS 99:2006 Integrated Management System (IMS)
ISO 9001:2008 (Quality)
ISO 14001:2004 (Environment)
(Occupational Health & Safety Management System)
SA 8000:2008 (Social Accountability Standard , Quality mgt.)
Transmission /Sub-Transmission Projects
Consultancy assignments in Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Nigeria and Dubai .
Assignment of a 200km long 220kV line in Afghanistan commissioned in
Jan` 2009 .
The implementing agency for 230kV transmission project in Myanmar .
A proposed under-sea interconnection with Sri Lanka .
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
Upgradation of transmission lines
:Use of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation
:High temperature endurance conductors
:Development of pole type tower structure for 400 KV transmission lines.
Transmission highways using higher transmission voltage levels, i.e. 765 kV EHV AC
and ±500 kV HVDC .
Development of high capacity ±800kV, 6000MW HVDC transmission system and
1200kV Ultra High Voltage (UHVAC) super grid.
The mission of the corporation is establishment and operation of regional and national
power grids to facilitate transfer of electric power within and across the regions with
reliability, security and economy, on sound commercial principles.
POWERGRID is committed to:
a)establish and maintain an efficient and effective "national grid " with due
regard to time, cost, technology, and value additions.
b)sustainable development through conservation of natural resources and
adopting environment friendly technology on principle of avoidance,
minimization and mitigation.
c)ensure safe, occupational hazard free and healthy work environment, to the
satisfaction of stake holders in all areas of its activities and shall endeavor to
continually improve its management systems and practices in conformity to
legal and regulatory provisions.
A Circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to
protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short
circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting
continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.
All circuit breakers have common features in their operation, although
details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and
type of the circuit breaker.
Once a fault is detected, contacts within the circuit breaker must open to
interrupt the circuit.
Small circuit breakers may be manually operated; larger units
have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy
to the springs.
Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc
: Lengthening / deflection of the arc
: Intensive cooling (in jet chambers)
: Division into partial arcs
: Zero point quenching
: Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits
High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by
the medium used to extinguish the arc
A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect
the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning.
Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for power system protection since the
The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage
terminal and a ground terminal.
Current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases
PICTURES OF SURGE DIVERTER (LIGHTNING ARRESTOR)
• Disconnector or Isolator switch is
used to make sure that an electrical
circuit can be completely de-energised
for service or maintenance.
• Isolator is an off-load device.
Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT), Capacitance
Coupled Voltage Transformer(CCVT)
o To step down extra high voltage signals and provide
a low voltage .
o For measurement or to operate a protective relay.
There are several types of reactors used in power
current limiting reactor
reactor in neutral to earth connection
reactor in harmonic filters
smoothing reactor in hvdc systems.
OTHER SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS
. BUS BAR
. EARTHING SWITCH
. CURRENT TRANSFORMER
. SHUNT CAPACITANCE
. SERIES CAPACITOR
. MARSHALLING KIOSKS
. STATION EARTHING SYSTEM
. NEUTRAL GROUNDING EQUIPMENTS
. POWER CABLES
. CONTROL CABLES
PLCC is mainly used for telecommunication, tele-protection and tele-monitoring
between electrical substations through power lines at high voltages, such as 110 kv,
220 kv, 400 kv.
System the communication is established through the power line.
The audio frequency is carried by a carrier frequency and the range of
carrier frequency is from 50 kHz to 500 kHz. The
The voice signal is converted/compressed into the 300 Hz to 4000 Hz range.
It is known as :-
Power line Digital Subscriber Line (PDSL)
power line telecom (PLT)
power line networking (PLN)
Broadband over Power Lines (BPL)
LINE TRAP (WAVE TRAP)
Connected in series with the power (transmission) line.
It blocks the high frequency carrier waves (24 KHz to 500 KHz) and let
power waves (50 Hz - 60 Hz) to pass through.
It is basically an inductor of rating in Milli henry (approx 1 milli Henry
for 220 KV 1250 Amp.).
It has three main components:-
1. Main coil.
2. Tuning Device.
3. Lightning Arrestor.
WHAT IS SCADA ?
SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data
It is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the
It is a purely software package that is positioned on top
of hardware to which it is interfaced. ( via Programmable
Logic Controllers(PLCs)) .
ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONALITY
:: SCADA systems are indispensable in the operation and control of
interconnected Power systems.
:: SCADA requires two-way communication channels between the
Master Control Centre and Remote Control Centre.
The SCADA systems are arranged to perform the following tasks.
Data Collection (Data Acquisition)
Data transmission (telemetry)
Scanning, Indication, Monitoring, Logging.
Control and indication.
Ensure sequential events.
Data presentation, display, reporting
Execution of operating, commands: on/off,raise/lower.
Network supervision, alarms and report any uncommon
change of state.
SCADA AUTOMATION FOR SUBSTATION
2.control & indication
3.data collection, recording, display
5.monitoring & control
6.operation of devices with predetermined time
SWITCHGEAR AND PROTECTION
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
FUNDAMENTALS OF PWER SYSTEM PROTECT
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR