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Traditional embroideries of india


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traditional embroideries of india

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Traditional embroideries of india

  1. 1. TRADITIONAL Embroideries OF INDIA 6/11/2017 Hema Upadhayay Dept of clothing and textiles
  2. 2. Introduction Embroidery is the art of using stitches as a decorative feature in their own right by embellishing fabric or other material with design stitches in strands of threads or yarns using a needle. Embroidery may also incorporate other material such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quilts and sequins (Namrata & Naik, 2008) 6/11/2017
  3. 3. Kashida of Kashmir • Kashida, the other name of Kashmir embroidery is broadly been encouraged by the beautiful natural environment of the valley. • The embroidery is quite popular due to its color, texture, design and technique. • The very embroidery is in turn revealed in shawls as well as in cottage industry performed by the very members of families of Srinagar. • Kashmiri embroidery is particularly practiced by men of the families and is a total commercial craft. 6/11/2017
  4. 4. Stitches used •Satin stitch, •Chain stitch • Stem stitch. •Darning • Herringbone •Zalakdo, •Vatachik • Talibar. •One of the most intriguing features of the embroidery is the very fact that it is made of single thread thus offering a flat appearance to the design. •The satin stitch has been endorsed for covering larger surface without even pulling the cloth. It has quite become the variation of both short and long stitch. 6/11/2017
  5. 5. •The importance of this style is that the entire pattern is created through usage of one or two embroidery stitch styles. •Wool and cotton is the very base cloth used. More often, they are available in some shades of white or some similar light shade. Several times, pastel colors are even used. •The colors of motifs are drawn from flowers, creepers and chinar leaves, mango etc. • There are bird motifs seen on the shawls ranging from parrot to woodpeckers and kingfishers and floral motifs such as lily, lotus, iris, saffron flower etc. •Some of the other interesting designs are inspired from grapes, cherries, almonds and apples, to name a few. 6/11/2017
  6. 6. • Chain is mainly used only at inferior places, however not on expensive piece of work. The true Indian customer does set a great store displaying the same fitness on quite both sides for making even the wrong side vary from right. • Kashida embroidery is particularly used commonly on fabrics like white, green, purple, blue, yellow and black. • This embroidery does increase the elegance of Kashmir shawls, sarees and other dress materials 6/11/2017
  7. 7. Kashmiri ari-work embroidery on a ‘phiren’ (smock) yoke
  8. 8. • The influence of Muslim culture can be seen in this industry in that the animals and human figures are not seen in Kashmir embroidery. • But few old pieces depicting hunting scene popularly known as ‘Shikargah’ are available in Museums of Srinagar. The displayed pieces have embroidered borders using bands of marching soldiers and separate panels showing horse riders. • Several forms of cones that existed in Indo-Persian art around seventeenth and eighteenth century emerged into Kashmiri embroidery as the cone shaped mango motif, popularly known as the Kalka or Badami buta
  9. 9. Kashmiri motifs
  10. 10. Tracing of the design • The selected design is traced on the fabric. It is done by the professional tracers called Naquashband (Nakshaband) following the traditional technique of tracing. • The procedure of tracing is as follows- 1. The fabric is spread on a flat surface 2. The perforated design sheet is placed over the fabric 3. The charcoal or chalk powder is rubbed over it, which leaves the impression over the fabric 4. To make the tracings durable, gum arabic is added to the powder 5. The traced design is outlined with a pen called Kalam
  11. 11. Fabric and Thread Used Different types of fabrics are used for Kashida of Kashmir. The most commonly used fabrics are: • Silk • Cotton • Wool Like the fabrics, different types of threads are used in Kashida of Kashmir • Wool • Silk • Cotton • Artificial silk
  12. 12.  White (sufed)  Green (zingarj)  Purple (uda)  Blue (ferozi)  Yellow (zard)  Black (mushki)  Crimson (gulnar)  Scarlet (kirmiz) Colour of threads
  13. 13. • The outstanding feature of this embroidery is the fact that it is made with single threads, resulting in a flat, formalized appearance to the design. Satin Stitch Stem Stitch Chain Stitch Darning Stitch Herring Bone • Special stitches Zalakdozi ( chain Stitch) Vata Chikn (button Hole), Doria ( open work ), Talaibar ( Gold Work ). Stitches Used
  14. 14. • There are three main techniques and some have evolved recently- Sozni and Rezkari: It is mainly done on Shawls using single strand and sometime double strand of silk or fine pashmina floss. The stitches are open chain, open stem, couching, fly, buttonhole and herringbone stitch locally known as Kashmiri stitch.
  15. 15. Dept. of fashion and textiles
  16. 16. Aari-work • It is a chain stitch done with the help of hook. • Mainly done on articles like cushion covers, bed covers and also on leather items. • Also done on the garments like Phirans and poncho.
  17. 17. Dept. of fashion and textiles
  18. 18. Kashmiri Couching • This is done by twisting 4-6 strands of thread on the right side and couching it with a single thread of same color. • It is a very intricate work and extensive training is needed to perfect this technique.
  19. 19. Kashmir also produces two very famous works one is called Gabha, a unique type of floor covering and another is Namda, a special work done on carpets.
  20. 20. Gabha work • It is a unique type of a floor covering, • It is very cheap, • Devised from old or torn woolen blankets or shawls after being washed milled and dyed in various colors appliqué work in grey colour and bold floral ornamental design is done. • Gabha work is centered mainly around the town of Anantnag
  21. 21. Namda Work • It is a special work done on a felt carpet with a hook called crewel forming chain stitch which forms the base foundation and it is supplemented by other stitches such as satin, cross filling etc. • This embroidery is done either in white or in various colours where patterns are filled completely with chain stitch and the stitches are started from the centre. It is also called Crewel embroidery. The carpet designs selected for Namda ranges from Persian to French like Chinar leaf, Shikargah, Theridar, Bulbuldar, Guldar, Badamdar, Kalka and so on
  22. 22. Types of Kashmir Embroideries • Kashida is a general term for Kashmir embroidery which include many stitches namely, chain stitch (zalakdozi), button hole (vata chikn), open work (dora), gold work (talaibar) and satin (sozni). • Zalakdozi- a form of Kashmir embroidery where tiny delicate chain stitch is used to render the stylized paisley motif, a favourite for this art form.
  23. 23. • Refoogari which means darning derives the name from the stitch. It is done with the thread as that fabric material used in the base. This results in the interweaving that produces a fine texture in the fabric. Design is worked evenly to look alike on both sides • Tapestry work- This art was introduced by Major and Mrs. Handow to make household articles around 1935. • It is done with a blunt tapestry needle on the canvas cloth called Dasuta. It is done with the woollen thread called Ear, with whip stitch by counting the threads
  24. 24. Namda
  25. 25. CHICKANKARI •Chickan-kari is derived from the word Chakeen that means elegant patterns on the fabric which is a Persian word. •The state of Uttar Pradesh especially the city of Lucknow is considered to be the hub of Chickan-kari embroidery. •Earlier it was done with white thread on muslin clothes. However now it is been done on various types of fabrics like cotton, linen nylon, georgette, chiffon and synthetic fabrics. Apart from wearable garments it is also done on various other things like curtains, bed sheets, table cloths, pillow covers and cushion covers. •Unlike earlier times it is not only done on white colored cloths but also fabrics of various colors. But the thread used for the embroidery is generally white. •Various motifs are embroidered through it like floral motifs which include flowers like rose, lotus, jasmine, creepers, etc. 6/11/2017
  26. 26. • Chikankari is famous as 'shadow work'. It is a very delicate work of Lucknow. • It is possible that the craft originated in East Bengal. It is now seen in Bhopal, Gaya, Calcutta, Allahabad and Varanasi but Lucknow is the great modern centre where work of a quite remarkable beauty and distinction is carried out. • According to Kamaladevi Chattopadyaya, "this was introduced by Nur Jehan and may have been inspired by or based on, Turkish embroidery. The designs were said to have been evolved by herself.“ • Chikankari work is called white embroidery.
  27. 27. Fabric used • The fabric used for this work is plain white fabric. • It is mostly done white on white. • Chikankari is though done on the white muslin background now is done on fine cotton material like voile, cambric, mulmul, chiffon, georgettes, koil cotton, organdy, nets and other similar sheer fabrics.
  28. 28. White on white White on coloured and coloured on coloured
  29. 29. Pre preparation (Design formations) • The patterns are printed from wood blocks in a washable colour. • The designs are first prepared in paper and wooden stamping blocks are prepared from them. • The designs are then stamped on the cloth and passed on to the embroiderers.
  30. 30. Stitches used • 'Chikankari does not employ a large variety of stitches although. • It makes use of ordinary stitches like:- 1. The Satin stitch 2. The Stem stitch 3. The Back stitch 4. The Herring bone stitch 5. The Button hole stitch. Stitches used 1 2 3 4 5
  31. 31. • There are two types of chikankari work • The flat style and the Knotted embossed for example jali or netting in varieties of designs. • Special stitches used in chikankari work are named as:- 1. Taipchi 2. Khatawa 3. Bukhia, 4. Murri 5. Phanda 6. Jali 6/11/2017
  32. 32. 1. Taipchi • Taipchi is a simple darning stitch used in a cheaper work. • It consists of strokes and straight lines driven through the cloth in the direction required to form the design. • It is usually employed for outlines or running designs. • Taipchi is the flat style of chikan work.
  33. 33. 2. Khatawa or Khatao • This is applique work prepared on white calico material. • It is not on fine muslins. It is an exceedingly intricate kind of applique work. • The same fabric is used as for the appliqué. • This embroidery belongs to the flat style of chikankari.
  34. 34. 3. Bukhia • This constitutes an inverted satin stitch with designs outlined on the right side of the fabric. The thread is chiefly below the cloth. Compact masses of thread are then worked on the wrong side so that the design appears opaque. • It is also called shadow work because the stitches that cover the wrong side of the cloth are in herring bone producing a shadowy effect. • The stitches cover the back of the cloth giving an opaque effect on the front side of the fine white fabric working at the same time, an outline of motif of flowers and leaves resembling back stitches. BUKHIA
  35. 35. 4. Murri • This falls under emboss knitted style. Murri means rice shape. • It is usually done on muslin cloth. Murri is worked in the centre of the flowers. • This is a knotted variety of stitch to give a rich heavy embossed effect. • The stitch is the French knot. 5. Phanda • This resembles grains like millet. • This also is in emboss knotted style. • This is a smaller and shorter form of the murri stitch. • These are used to fill petals or leaves in a pattern.
  36. 36. 6/11/2017 PHANDABAKHYA TEPCHI
  37. 37. Jali Work • Jali Work or netting or lace like trellis is somewhat like drawn thread work. • This is done by breaking up the fabric into holes and not by drawing out the threads. • The warp and weft threads are pushed apart with the needle into holes and tightened to give the cloth the appearance of a net. • This is done by a sort of very fine button-holing and then pulling the threads aside. • This embroidery is of supreme excellence comparable only with the best European laces to which it corresponds in purpose and effect.
  38. 38. • The design motifs in Chikankari are predominantly influenced by Mughal art. • The bel or creeper is the most commonly used design individual motifs or butis, animals and flowers are also made including fish, hathi (elephant) and kairi (mango), dhaniya patti (corriander leaf) ghas patti (grass leaves V-shaped line of stitches worked in a graduated series) murri (grain motif – diagonal stitches are worked several times on a basic stitch to form a grain shape) 6/11/2017 Motive s
  39. 39. Basic motifs of chikankari
  40. 40. Products Chikankari work is done on: • Sari borders • Tiny buttas in the body of the sari, • Blouses • Kurtas, cuffs, jubbas, • Caps, • Table cloth, • Table mats • Cushions • Curtains • Other household linens. It is commercialized and had gained the foreign market.
  41. 41. Chiffon dress material: Yellow and white threads on black chiffon. Shadow work on blue
  42. 42. Kairi motif Exquisite chikan work done on red pure chiffon kurti. green colour sequins are added to create magic.It includes phanda along with murri and shadow work.
  43. 43. Crotchet and appliqué work
  44. 44. Gala buti : Only the neck is adorned with chikankari with small butis all over the suit.
  45. 45. 6/11/2017
  46. 46. Zari work Zari embroidery is the use of thin gold or silver thread for embroidery work. Surat and Varanasi are major centers for making the metal thread which is also known as kalabathi. Zari embroidery is known as Zardozi. it is supposed to be an ancient art , known even in rigvedic times . For long it remained a cherished item by traders who exported it to major countries of the world during the middle ages. 6/11/2017
  47. 47. The popular styles practices all over India. • Salma-Sitara in which small round pieces of Gold or Silver are set in between the Zari work. This work is chiefly done by Muslim artisans in Lucknow. • Kamdani in which the effect is that of thousands of dots, producing a glittering effect and hence the designed is also called Hazari butti. • Minakari in which gold enameling is used. • Mokaish done with silver thread called Badla. • Gota in which border is made entirely of gold or silver threads .In Gota Kinari work , which is a specialty of Jaipur, figures of birds ,animals ,humans,etc are cutout of the Gota and attached to the cloth. The cut outs are then encased in wires of silver and gold. 6/11/2017
  48. 48. Zardosi with Sitara and Salma Zardosi with Dabka
  49. 49. • Among the outstanding & famous Indian embroideries probably the earliest seem to be gold & silver embroidery. • Even in the Vedas & epics references have been made to such embroidery. • It flourished during Mughal period. • It was done on silk. • Nowadays it is practiced allover the country. Places like Agra, Delhi, Lucknow, Kashmir, Bhopal, Varanasi, Bombay & Hyderabad are well known for this type of work. ZARDOZI
  50. 50. There are two main types of Embroidery:- • Heavy is known as Zardozi. • Lighter is known as Kamdani. And other types are :- Meena Work Kataoki Bel Makaish Tilla or Marori Work Gota Work Kinari Work
  51. 51. • Zardozi : This is a heavy and more elaborate embroidery work which uses varieties of gold threads, spangles, beads, seed pearls, wire, and gota. It is used to embellish wedding outfits, heavy coats, cushions, curtains, canopies, animal trappings, bags, purses, belts, and shoes. • The material on which this kind of embroidery is done is usually heavy silk, velvet and satin. • The kind of work found are salma-sitara, gijai, badla, katori, and seed pearls, among others. • The main centers are in Delhi, Jaipur, Banaras, Agra, and Surat. The old teach the young and the skill continues from generation to generation.
  52. 52. Kamdani : This is a lighter needlework which is done on lighter material like scarves, veils, and caps. Ordinary thread is used and the wire is pressed down with the stitching producing a satin-stitch effect. The effect produced is glittering and is called hazara butti (thousand lights).
  53. 53. ZARDOZI • Stitches are very close & elaborate • It is prepared with Badla (thin strips of metal) Gijai (circular thin wire resembling an insect of that name) sitara (round metal piece) & salma. • Zardozi is prepared on curtains, heavy coats, cushions shapes & animals trapping • In Zardozi the design is first out lined with the twisted gold thread. • Simpler kind & less elaborate, done on fine fabrics. • Kamdani is done on wearing apparel such as caps, veils, scarves etc. KAMDANI
  54. 54. Meena Work : This is thus called due to its resemblance with enamel work. The embroidery is done with gold and stones. Kataoki Bel : This is a border pattern made of stiff canvas and the whole surface is filled with sequin edging. A variation of this border technique is lace made on net and filled with zari stitches and spangles.
  55. 55. Makaish : This is one of the oldest styles and is done with silver wire or badla. The wire itself serves as a needle, piercing the material to complete the stitches. A variety of designs are produced in this manner. Karchobi work :Surat is famous for Karchobi work. In karchobi different types of gold are used for embroider & spangles are also used. There embroideries are known by different names based on the material being used for the embroidery
  56. 56. 6/11/2017
  57. 57. Gota Work : The woven gold border is cut into various shapes to create a variety of textures in the patterns. In Jaipur the border of the material or sari is cut into shapes of birds, animals, and human figures, attached to the cloth, and covered with wires of silver and gold. It is surrounded by coloured silks. The work resembles enameling. Kinari Work : A small variation of zari is Kinari work, where the embellishments are done only at the edges in the form of tassels. This is done mainly by men and women of the Muslim community.
  58. 58. • It was mostly done on satin with a buckram lining . • lining is tacked to make it easy for the embroiderer to hold it. • Fine needles & threads should be used to embroider the gold & silver work. Fabric Used
  59. 59. • The main stitches used in zari is, Laid or couching, satin, lain stem & running. • The satin stitch is used for embroidering caps, borders & other articles of dress which require heavy embroidery. • Chain – On Saris • Stem & running – for miscellaneous kind work running goes well with fine & net like fabric. • Laid or Couching - Cushion covers & mashads done with gold thread. Stitches Used
  60. 60. • Zardozi : This is a heavy and more elaborate embroidery work which uses varieties of gold threads, spangles, beads, seed pearls, wire, and gota. It is used to embellish wedding outfits, heavy coats, cushions, curtains, canopies, animal trappings, bags, purses, belts, and shoes. • The material on which this kind of embroidery is done is usually heavy silk, velvet and satin. • The kind of work found are salma-sitara, gijai, badla, katori, and seed pearls, among others. • The main centers are in Delhi, Jaipur, Banaras, Agra, and Surat. The old teach the young and the skill continues from generation to generation. • Kamdani : This is a lighter needlework which is done on lighter material like scarves, veils, and caps. Ordinary thread is used and the wire is pressed down with the stitching producing a satin-stitch effect. The effect produced is glittering and is called hazara butti (thousand lights).
  61. 61. • According to B.C Mohanty following varities of gold thread manufactured and used: • Pure gold thread or pure gold zari: Silver wire is wrapped around silk core thread and then gilded. • Nim zari or half zari: copper wire is wraped around silk or silk core thread in different colours and then silvered. The copper wire spirals are comparatively wider apart. This is not made now unless specially ordered. • Haldi gold thread or haldi zari: silver wire is wrapped around mercerized cotton thread and then coated with chemical golden yellow colour. • Rasi or table zari: Silver wire is wrapped around dyed golden orange mercerized cotton core thread and then coated with chemical golden orange colour. Threa ds
  62. 62. • Badla: The flattened wire of metal made after the drawing step. • Kalabattu or Kasab: The wire when twisted on core of silk or cotton becomes Kalabattu. • Tilla: It is a flat wire which cannot be threaded and is stitched on to the material directly. • Gijai: A wire coiled in ziz zag manner and is used as an appliqué and is also stitched on. • Dabka: Coiled thin wire through which a thread niddle is passed. It is tied to the surface and has shine and polish.
  63. 63. • Sitara: A small round metal piece which when set in an embroidery looks like a star, and used mostly in floral designs. • Thicker Kallabattu is braided gold thread, used in border, while the thinner variety is used at the end of laces of purses, tassels, strings, e.t.c • Tikora: Gold thread spirally twisted for use in curve and convulsions in complex designs. • Kora: Dull Zari thread. • Chikna: Lustrous zari thread.
  64. 64. 6/11/2017
  65. 65. •The Zardozi embroidery has five basic designs which have further variations. They are: •Jali or tanke bandi ka kaam which comprises of geometrical patterns. Here the stitches are counted and the design is made .Some jali designs are Chandi ki jali, Chakle wali jali,Suiyo wali jali. •Bharat designs refers to the filling work . •Floral designs or patti and phul motifs. •Birds or panchi motifs. •Animal or janwar designs. Styles
  66. 66. Motives used 6/11/2017
  67. 67. 6/11/2017 •Kasuti is world famous embroidery of Karnataka state earlier known as Mysore state, the motifs and art is a part of women’s world •Kasuti embroidery speaks about the people of Karnataka their traditions, customs and professions. •It is said that Kasuti resembles the embroidery of Austria, Hungary and Spain. •The word Kasuti comprised of ‘Kai’ means hand and ‘Suti’ is cotton thread, i.e. Kasuti is hand work of cotton thread, in Karnataka language. •Kasuti embroidery was famous in many places especially in the districts of Bijapur, Dharwar, Belgaum, Miraj, Sangli and Jamkhandi. KASUTI
  68. 68. This embroidery is prepared by women for their personal use. In the olden days it was a custom that the bride had to possess a black silk sari, called chandrakali sari with Kasuti work on it. As a matter of fact traditionally this embroidery is done on saris and blouses. The five garments on which Kasuti was done were kunchi (bonnet and cape combined), lenga (skirt), seragu (pallav of a sari), kusuba (bodice) and kulai (bonnet). Material used- The material on which the Kasuti embroidery was done earlier was mostly khans (used as blouse pieces) and Irkal sarees. Today Kasuti embroidery is done on any type of fabric. It is done on table cloth, curtains, cushion covers and many other household articles of hand woven cloth 6/11/2017
  69. 69. 6/11/2017 Colours Used • The colours mostly used for Kasuti are orange, green, purple and red. • The colour combination in these four colours is red, orange and purple, or red, green and orange. • White is predominant on a black and dark background. • Blue and yellow are rarely used, whereas bright pink, pale green and lemon yellow were hardly used
  70. 70. •Hindu motifs predominate here and Muslim influence appears to be completely absent. •The motifs used in Kasuti embroidery ranged from mythological and architectural to the beautiful flora and fauna. •The motifs used in Kasuti are from temple architecture, the gopurams of South India, raths and palanquins, bird motif such as the parrot, the peacock, the swan, and the squirrel. Animal motifs used are the sacred bull (Nandi), the elephant and the deer. •Near the pallu larger designs are depicted such as the temple, elephant and howdah, nandi the secret bull, parrot and peacock etc. They are followed by motifs of diminishing sizes like flowers, birds, animals and geometrical patterns. 6/11/2017 Motives Used
  71. 71. 6/11/2017 •The other designs used for Kasuti embroidery are inspired from the articles of daily use such as rudraksha, rattle, cradle, flower pot, anklets, bells, cashew nut, chess square and tulsi katte (katte is the enclosure for the sacred tulsi plant). •One will rarely see horses, lions, or tigers but cats and dogs are never seen. •Among the floral motifs lotus is most common, others were jasmine, marigold, chrysanthemum.
  72. 72. The secret of this age-old embroidery form is that it can be done only by counting the threads of the warp and weft and never the design is traced in the material to be embroidered and the embroidery starts without knotting thread but with a tiny back stitch. Vertical, horizontal, and diagonal stitches are used. The motifs have to be completed as the stitching line comes back to fill in the blank spaces. In such cases the wrong and right sides are like . Stitches Used
  73. 73. Gavanti: The Gavanti is double running stitch and is commonest among all the other stitches used in Kasuti embroidery. Muragi or Murgi: This means twisted. It is a variation of holbein stitch. It has a ‘zig zag’ nature. This can be made vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. The diagonal pattern, with a ladder like appearance, is used most popularly. Muragi is also used to fill up patterns. This stitch is reversible and shows up the same on the front and reverse of the fabric. Negi: The word negi originates from the Kannada word neg meaning to weave. It is the typical pattern darning stitch. It uses running stitch to make patterns and gives a weaved effect. This stitch is reversible, but they tend to be like mirror images of each other. Menthi: This means fenugreek Menthi is a cross stitch and is used to cover up the back ground of the design. It is done by counting the warp and the weft threads. It uses the typical cross stitch to fill in the patterns or motifs. This stitch is not reversible. 6/11/2017
  74. 74. 78 Motifs with Gavanti stitch Murgi stitch
  75. 75. 6/11/2017 Motifs with Negi stitch
  76. 76. 6/11/2017 Motifs with Menthi stitch
  77. 77. M O T I V E S U S E D 6/11/2017
  78. 78. Kasuti embroidery depicting domestic and household articles and some temple related motifs
  79. 79. D E S I G N E S U S E D6/11/2017
  80. 80. Border Motifs 6/11/2017
  81. 81. • The Rumals of Chamba, a state in the Himalayan range are remarkable pieces of embroidery. • The evidence about existence of Chamba embroidery pages back to fifteenth century, mentions in Buddhist literature that the embroidery was practiced in Pathankot, Chamba and other neighboring remote villages. • It was also mentioned that during eleventh and twelfth century A.D this luxurious embroidery was done in Pahari areas like, Churah, Chamba, Jammu, Kulu, Kangra, Mandi. • The embroidery depicted a fine, delicate, perfect manual work called as needle miniatures of Himachal or Pahari Rumal Chamba rumal
  82. 82. • The primitive traditional Chamba has undergone gradual evolution with respect to motifs, colours, stitches, workmanship and aesthetic appearance. • Reflecting back into the earlier Chamba embroidery all most all the motifs namely, human figures, birds, flora and fauna were highly stylized and disproportionately drawn. • Colours employed were very bright, bold and brilliant. • The folk style was replaced by subdued colours and become more popular during the eighteenth and nineteenth century.
  83. 83. • The Rumal are generally in square shape but sometimes they are rectangular ranging from two feet to six feet in length. Chamba rumals are very picturesque and are small head shawls. • The chamba rumals had special significance. The embroidered rumals were used to cover offerings, to deities, to cover presents from the bride’s home to that of the bride groom and vice versa. • Chamba embroidery was also used on household accessories such as dice-cloth, caps, hand fans, pillow covers, wall hanging, ceiling covers etc. • Today, it can also be found on choli and blouse pieces
  84. 84. 6/11/2017 Square Rumal
  85. 85. • In the matter of styles in Chamba rumals, there are two different kinds, the most widely used being one in the style of Pahari paintings. The second style was a folk style in which the women embroidered their cholis and rumals (scarves) using their own patterns and designs. • Chamba rumals were ultimately done by the upper class women of royalty. They had the use of the trained miniature artist who would draw the theme of the rumal in charcoal and provide guiding colour schemes. • Hand drawing of free style was the mode of tracing or outlining the design or motif, carried out exclusively by ladies. These women drew the figures of their own creation and produced the images of their deity on the material as visualized by them.
  86. 86. • Rumal-square cloth • Pankhi – hand fans • Blouses • Bedspreads • Wall hangings • Dice boards • Cushion covers • Caps 6/11/2017 Products
  87. 87. • Second type being hand-spun, hand woven coarser, relatively heavier khaddar. • In later period the unbleached cotton material was replaced by mill made cotton cloth. • However, cream or white coloured Tassar silk materials was also commonly used for making rumals • Earlier, the white fabric was locally dyed by professional dyers using natural vegetable colours. Today, according to the taste, demand fashion trend and availability the ground fabric employed being terycot, organdie, linen, poplin and muslin of either white or light colours Fabric • Traditionally the ground fabric used was two types of unbleached cotton cloth, first being the light weight, fine, delicate, cambric like, semitransparent, manufactured at Sialkot, Amritsar and Ludhiana
  88. 88. • The threads used for embroidery were untwisted pat (silk thread), which gave rich effect against dull rustic cotton ground. • No Chamba rumal is in single colour. The infinite shades and tints of bright, brilliant and contrasting colours were used. Most commonly used colours are red, yellow, green, blue, crimson and purple. Threads and colours used
  89. 89. • The folk style made generous use of brilliant colours including pink, lemon yellow, purple and green while the court form evolved a more sophisticated color palette that consisted of pale shades of ochre, dark green and blue. • Blue colour is always used for Krishna and crimson for feet • Gopis in vivid colours of yellow and green or dark pink in crimson combination. • Red, blue and white colours are used for Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara respectively • The outline of the motif is always worked with black.
  90. 90. • Embroidery was done in double satin stitch called dorukha. • No rumal was in single colour. The stitch was carried forwards and backwards alternately and was done simultaneously on both sides of the cloth so a Chamba rumal does not have a right or wrong side. • The stem stitch was used whenever necessary for the outlines. • Chain stitch was not practiced on rumals. Gujjar women used darning, sometimes even herringbone and satin stitches Stitches Used
  91. 91. • Their pictorial quality lies in their being embroidered with scenes from the immortal classics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, themes from Indian mythology, and Pahari miniature paintings, Ragas and Raginis, the game of Chaupad, Ganesha, hunting and marriage scenes, the Nayikas, and often episodes from the Raslila of Radha and Krishna. • In the case of Ras Leela, Krishna and the Gopis dance in a circle holding hands by the outstretched clasping hands of the dancing Gopis. The centre of the field is usually filled with human figures in action- Krishna and Radha dancing, elephant riders e.t.c. • Sometimes the embroidery consists solely of floral and geometrical designs. The border designs are generally floral. • The unique characteristic of the embroidery is that it gives a vivid impression of the embroidered figure being in action or in motion, thereby enhancing the artistic value of the Rumals Motifs/Design
  92. 92. • Animal and bird motifs are also used in this embroidery. • Birds- peacocks, ducks, swans sometimes decorative sometimes symbolic. • Animal- running boars, leaping tigers, prancing horses and fleeting rams • Tree- willow tree, cypress tree and plaintain trees bent with flowers and fruits • Trees, flowers, animals and birds are usually stylized in nature • It is also observed that many musical instruments such as Flute, Tambura, Drums (dholaks), Veena, Sitar, Tabla are used in the art. • Muslim Gujjar women used geometrical motifs, included triangle, squares, diamonds, rectangular, hexagonal and circles
  93. 93. 6/11/2017
  94. 94. 6/11/2017
  95. 95. 6/11/2017 Dice game
  96. 96. • It is to say that Krishna in all his various forms and characters occupied the central figure of much of Himachal embroidery. • The Rumals display other folk styles like marriage of Krishna and Rukmini, Vishnu in a lotus, Ganesh, Vishnu-Laxmi, Pahari women playing musician instruments, men smoking pipe and so on • Rasmandala- Here the centre of the theme depicts Lord Vishnu sitting in the Padma, the lotus has four arms, each holding a Padma, a Gada, a Shankh (conch shell) and his weapon, the Sudarshan chakra. • The other empty part of the rumal is covered with floral and guldasta motifs, except the corners which had human figures (Gopies) playing Dholak Themes
  97. 97. • Kaliya Damana- Krishna killing the horrified Kaliya Kalinga Sarpa (serpent), who lived in Jamuna river. • Samudra Manthana- The ocean was churned by Devas (Gods) and Asuras (Demons) using a serpent, Vasuki as rope and mountain Meru as the churning rod. Both nectar and poison were the products of Samudra Manthana. However, many more things emerged out of the ocean due to the vigorous elaborate churning. And this scene of Samudra Manthana has been taken as a motif for embroidery of rumal and wall hanging. • Since, this being an elaborate scene, the motif is divided into several panels embroidered individually and later joined all of them together
  98. 98. Rukmini Harana- The elopement of Rukmini and her marriage is the zist of the theme. It is an elaborate theme, embroidered on rumal depicting the various ceremonial activities performed on one part and preparation of Rukmini’s wedding on the other. • The scene exhibits, Rukmini grooming and decking up for her wedding, women engaged in various activities, musicians playing music, sahelis of Rukmini busy in carrying out various chores, Rukmini praying, Lord Krishna taking Rukmini in his chariot, couple sitting in front of the vedi, the place where marriage rites performed, Priest enchanting the mantras and performing marriage rites, Barat, the procession of marriage, involving royal animals like, saddled horse, elephants, drum beaters, musicians playing Ransingha and so on.
  99. 99. • Battle of Kurukshetra- Many themes of the Mahabharata is chosen for the embroidery. The most commonly found ones are the battle of Kurukshetra and exile of the Pandavas. • This battle is elaborately depicted on a five feet wide and one and a half feet long panel of base material. • Pandavas occupy the left hand side of the panel along with Lord Krishna on his chariot, Kaoravas on the right hand side and Abhimanyu is placed in centre of the panel, showing the picture of being caught in the Chakravihu
  100. 100. • Raga Ragini- Raga, the tune of song and Ragini, the mode of song expressing the base for songs sung in a minimum of six version. The Pahari painters were greatly influenced by the Vaishnavas, during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and adopted Ragmala (Sangeet Mala) theme. The popular Raga Ragini themes are Raga megha, Raga hindola, Raga vasanta, Raga Todi, Rag bhairavi and soon. • The themes expressed the mode, mood, time, day, season, month during which the particular Raga is being sung. • Ashtanayika- It expresses various moods and personality of Nayik and Nayika, presented in panelled embroidery. Ashta means eight, i.e. the composite theme represents around eight panels of Nayik and nayika, in their variegated moods.
  101. 101. • Minjar mela jalus- Minjar the tassels, Mela the fair and Jalus the procession depicts the procession during Mela. Mela is a very famous festival of Chamba, where the people sacrifice Minja in the river Ravi, to drive away the evil sprits and pray for their prosperity. • The Gujjar theme- The Muslim Gujjar women usually carried out embroidery locally, taking all the motifs from nature except, human and bird figures. However, it has the resemblance of Phulkari of Punjab
  102. 102. Major themes used
  103. 103. Village scene
  104. 104. Court scene
  105. 105. Motives inspire from nature
  106. 106. Hunting Scene
  107. 107. Dasa
  108. 108. Radha Krishna Raas leela Krishna
  109. 109. Finely embroidered Chamba Rumal from Chamba
  110. 110. 6/11/2017 •The traditional folk art of Bengal is famous as Kantha which means 'Patched Cloth‘. •Kantha on Sanskrit means rags. •Kantha evolved out of necessity to drape or protect against cold and the special significance of kantha is quilling. •Kanthas were produced in Hugli, Patna, and Satagon, faridpur, Khulna & other parts of East & West Bengal. •The Dacca muslin saris of gray, black or white colours are one of the most artistic and beautiful specimens of Handloom textiles were considered as very valuable by the women folk of Bengal. Kantha
  111. 111. 6/11/2017 There are two types of embroideries. •In the first type, the old and discarded cotton saris or dhotis were piled up on the top of each other, quilted and embroidered. •And the other type was quilted by using the discarded cotton bed spreads and the pictorial embroidery was done with Tussar silk threads.
  112. 112. 6/11/2017 •Kantha is an indigenous household craft, made the rural women in West Bengal; it is a specialty of Bolpur-Santiniketan and remains also the most creative of all embroidery styles in this part of India. •The use of kantha is popular in saris but any garment or cloth with kantha embroidery (having a border of decorative running stitch motifs) may be called a kantha garment. In the best examples, the entire cloth is covered with running stitches, employing beautiful motifs of flowers, animals birds and geometrical shapes, as well as themes from everyday activities. •The stitching on the cloth gives it a slight wrinkled, wavy effect.
  113. 113. 6/11/2017 • There are several legends that are associated with the origin of this art form. • It is said that in the past, the precious clothes that were torn out were piled in layers and stitched by the women. • Another legend relates `kantha` origin to Lord Buddha and his disciples because they used the thrown away rags to cover themselves. They used to stitch those thrown away. • Kantha also means throat. The name Nilakanth is given to Lord Shiva, literally meaning, “blue throat” after he swallowed the poison that arose as a result of the churning of the ocean, It is also known as the “Throat charka”. History
  114. 114. 6/11/2017 • The origin of Kantha traces its history to a period not less than a thousand years. Its images reach back to even earlier sources, pre and post- Vedic. • Some symbols such as the tree of life, the swirling cosmos, and the sun are taken from the primitive art. • The later influence of Hinduism, in the making of Kanthas for religious ceremonies, pujas, weddings and births, gave the art its place as a vehicle of significant cultural meaning.
  115. 115. 6/11/2017 • The earliest mention of Bengal Kantha is found in the book, “Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita”, by Krishnadas Kaviraj which was written some five hundred years back. • There the poet says, Sachi, the mother of Chaitanya, sent a homemade Kantha to her son at Puri through some pilgrims. • The same Kantha still can be viewed in Gambhira, at Puri, displayed in a glass case. • The second earliest reference is in Zaman’s book about the famous artist A. Tagore. Who seemed to have encountered a woman in a village in a district of Srihatta of Bangladesh, who recorded her life story in her Kantha spanning a period starting from her marriage to old age.
  116. 116. 6/11/2017 • Bengal Kantha making is a little different from other quilting artistry. The material is different as well as the stitching method. From a very long time, Bengal cotton and silk have been known in the world market for its finesse and quality. • Bengal Kantha makers reflect their traditions in choosing their designs. The real value of Kantha embroidery lies in its fine craftsmanship and vignette of daily folk life motifs being a favorite of the embroiderers.
  117. 117. Lotus motif: represents the life-giving power of water, and is also associated with the sun for the opening and closing of the petals. It is also the symbol of the recreating power of life. The lotus is associated with purity and the goddess Laksmi, the goddess of good fortune and abundance. Solar motif: symbolizes the life giving power of the sun. The sun is associated with the fire which plays a significant part in Hindu rites, both religious and matrimonial. Moon motif: has a religious influence, and is popular amongst the Muslims. Mostly it is in the form of a crescent moon accompanied by a star. Wheel motif: is a common symbol in Indian art, both Hindu and Buddhist. It is the symbol of order. The wheel also represents the world. Motifs 6/11/2017
  118. 118. Tree of Life motif: Contemporary Kantha (used as a wall hanging) with animal, fish, butterfly, tree and human figure motif. Indus people conceived the papal as the Tree of Life...with the devata inside embodying the power of fecundity. Pipal is sacred to the Buddha because he received enlightenment under its shade. Swastika motif: It is symbol of good fortune. The symbolic design has significant influence in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Kalka motif or paisley motif :originated in Persia and Kashmir and has become an integral image of the sub continental decorative motif. It can be compared with a stylized leaf, mango or flame. Similar motifs can be found in traditional Kashmiri Shawls. 6/11/2017
  119. 119. Fabrics and Stitches used • Fabric on which the kantha is done are usually muted as the old fabrics are already underwent various washings. The threads used for embroidery were usually drawn from the colorful borders of the discarded saris mainly White, red, green, yellow, black and blues in colour. • Cotton threads are usually used for embroidery. • The stitches used in kantha embroidery are: running, darning, satin and loop. Stem stitch is also used to outline the figures.
  120. 120. 6/11/2017
  121. 121. • The Lep is a thickly quilted warm wraparound for the winter, about six feet by four feet in size. It is presented at festive occasion to a near relative, for being worn as a wrap in winter. • The large and rectangular Soozni or blanket, used on ceremonial occasions, is generally six feet by three feet. • The Baytan is a wrapper for books and valuable articles, about three feet by three feet square and with white borders of rows of animal and human figures; the centre and four corners are also embroidered. • The Oar is a rectangular pillowcase with simple decorative motifs like a series of straights lines or conventionalized trees and birds; a border is sewn round, the four edges as extra decoration. Different types of Kantha 6/11/2017
  122. 122. Some Kantha are large and thickly quilted for keeping books and valuables or mirrors and combs wrapped. Sometimes Kantha are made as bedspread on which honored guests may take their seats. • Archilata kantha: small, rectangular covers for mirror or toilet accessories with wide , colorful borders in assorted motifs. • Rumal kantha: are used as absorbent wipes or plate coverings. They also feature a central sun with ornamented borders. • Durjani/Thalia kantha: small rectangles with a central lotus design and embroidered borders. Three corners of the rectangle are folded inward to form a wallet. The special significance of the Kantha quilt is not only in its artistic elegance but its vivid narration of legends and tales of heroism. They are made with such fineness and dexterity that no one would feel that it is quilting.6/11/2017
  123. 123. Phulkari 6/11/2017 • Phulkari, a rural tradition of handmade embroidery, literally meaning " flower work”, was perpetuated by the women of Punjab (North-west India & Pakistan) • Techniques and patterns were not documented but transmitted by word of mouth. Hence, each regional group was identifiable by its unique embroidery. • The word phulkari usually indicates the shawl that was loomed and embroidered to cover women's heads or to be displayed in a gurudwara (Sikh temple).
  124. 124. • Phulkari embroidery belongs to Punjab state. • Phulkari is comprised of two words ‘Phul’ and ‘kari’ meaning flower and work. • In other words Phulkari means flower craft, floral work or flowering and Bagh means garden, in which the entire surface of the shawl is decorated with floral designs. In this style the embroidery covered every inch of the entire base material so that the cloth was completely invisible. • The term Phulkari is commonly used in East Punjab (Amritsar) and the term bagh for similar shawls in West Punjab (Peshawar, Sialkot and Rawalpindi). 6/11/2017
  125. 125. 6/11/2017 • Phulkari is an integral part of the life of Punjabi girl. Each of the important ceremonies connected with marriage is associated with wearing of a Bagh. • It is considered to be auspicious, a symbol of happiness, prosperity and ‘suhag’ of a married woman. The maternal grand mother or mother took pride in embroidering chope. • A Bagh or Phulkari, therefore is not only a beautiful traditional art but a symbol of maternal love and faith expressed in embroidery • Traditionally Phulkari embroidery was meant for large pieces such as chaddars and bed covers. Now-a-days the younger generation is using the old Phulkari chaddars for kurtas, skirts and other attractive garments. • Today Phulkari work is also done on cushion covers, bolster covers, sarees etc.
  126. 126. 6/11/2017 • This embroidery is practiced by womenfolk only. The men are not involved in this craft in any way. • It is worked entirely on the wrong side of the cloth and the design is neither drawn nor traced. • The embroiderer plots out the most artistic designs simply by counting the treads from the back while the pattern takes shape on the right side, usually the base is entirely covered with embroidery.
  127. 127. 6/11/2017 • Embroidery work was invariably made on a plain cotton fabric (khaddar) which is manually spun, woven and dyed with natural pigments. Its quality was evaluated according to the fineness. There are three types of hand woven fabrics used for Phulkari 1. Khaddar- a loosely spun and coarsely woven fabric 2. Chaunsa khaddar- a fabric woven with fine yarn, on which Baghs were embroidered 3. Halwan- a light weight finely woven fabric. It was popular in Hazara and Rawalpindi districts of west Punjab and is used exclusively for Phulkari. Fabric
  128. 128. • Khaddar could be of four colours:-White , Red, Black, Blue • white being given to mature women or widows while red was associated with youth and was by far the most widespread tone. • Black and blue colours were kept for everyday worn shawls as they prevented from revealing stains and dirt. and regularity of its surface. • The complete khaddar was always made of two or three stripes which were approximately 50 cm wide. • Depending on the region, these stripes were sewed before or after the embroidery work.
  129. 129. Thread used • The embroidery was made on the wrong side of the khaddar with a thread of floss silk called pat. • Pat was red-colored to symbolize passion • White for purity, • Golden or yellow for desire and abundance, • Green for nature and fertility • Blue for serenity. • Purple for a symbiosis between red's energy and blue's calm. • Orange for a mix of desire and divine energy.
  130. 130. • Apart from silk, cotton thread is also sometimes used on white cotton material. However, woollen yarn is employed for handwork in some parts of Punjab. • Now a day’s rayon floss, cotton and blended threads are also used. • Golden yellow, green, white, crimson red and orange are the five colours commonly used in Phulkari. • Blue, pink etc, were also used
  131. 131. Motifs used • The motifs are made up of horizontal, vertical and diagonal stitches, producing geometrical pattern in Phulkari designs while the bagh has an overall geometrically floral pattern. • The basic geometrical shapes in Phulkari are- triangle, square, rectangle, vertical and horizontal lines. • All the motifs were inspired from the things used in day today life. • Floral motif- lotus, sunflower, cotton • Fruits- orange, muskmelon, mango, pomegranate, pear, dates • Domestic and royal animals- cow, buffalo, donkey, camel, goat, rabbit, pig, horse, elephant, cat, rat, frog, tortoise
  132. 132. 6/11/2017 Motives Gallery
  133. 133. 6/11/2017
  134. 134. 6/11/2017 Wheat design on a bagh from west Punjab
  135. 135. • Birds- hen, sparrow, crow, chicken, pigeon, owl • Household articles- various types of utensils, brass urn, pitcher • Domestic activities- churning curds, pounding wheat or corn, spinning a cone • Bagh motifs inspired by vegetables: Karela Bagh, Gobhi Bagh, Dhaniya Bagh, Kakri Bagh and Mirchi Bagh • Bagh motifs based on the famed gardens: Char Bagh, Shalimar and Chaurasia Bagh • Bagh motifs based on the no. of colours: Satrangas are seven-coloured motifs and panchrangas are five-coloured motifs • The most common and beautiful motifs: the wheat and barley stalks that grow all over Punjab.
  136. 136. • For the embroidery, only a single strand was used at a time, each part worked in one color. • The design was embroidered from the reverse side using long and short darning stitch over counted threads. The quality of the phulkari depends upon the size of the stitch. The smaller the stitch, the finer the embroidery. • Satin stitch is used on Phulkari borders • Blanket stitch or buttonhole stitch for finishing off the edges • Stem stitch, chain stitch and double running stitch were used for outlining the borders and marking the areas. • Herring bone stitch- is used to cover expertly the joints of the base fabric. Stitches
  137. 137. Stitches used 6/11/2017
  138. 138. Expensive phulkari with flowers embroidered in “Darning stitch” Low cost phulkari with flower embroidered in “cluster stitch”
  139. 139. • Phulkari, Bagh and Chope are the three types of embroidery which are grouped according to the craftsmanship. • Phulkari have the patterns at intervals over the cloth; Bagh have over all inter connected designs and were geometrically conventionalized. • In Phulkari the ornamentation is dispersed mostly diapered with large areas of field colour i.e. the pattern is diapered at intervals over the cloth whereas in the Bagh, the whole field is covered with pat or silk floss and not even a thread of the base fabric is visible with beautiful colours. • The designs on the Phulkari are more or less floral in character with a few geometrical patterns in some whereas in the Bagh the whole surface is decorated with a connected pattern, chiefly on two shades with geometrical and diapering designs. • Chope is little longer than the usual shawl, where body and the edges along the selvedge were embroidered
  140. 140. Bagh- means “garden of flowers”, and the term distinguishes the flowered Phulkari is that the embroidery is so profuse that the ground colour is no longer visible thus the embroidery becomes the fabric itself. Chope- Chope is usually embroidered on the borders. It is gifted to the bride by her grandmother during some ceremony before wedding. The “Chope” is embroidered straight with two sided line stitch which appears same on both the side. Unlike Phulkari and Bagh where a variety of colours are used, Chope is generally embroidered with one colour (Golden or yellowish golden mostly). Types of Phulkari 6/11/2017
  141. 141. A “chope” phulkari on red khaddar, probably after embroidery piece got dyed. A “chope” phulkari on beige khaddar, probably before the embroidered piece got dyed.
  142. 142. • There are many types of Phulkaris. The motifs and designs are different from place to place. They may be grouped as follows: • Chope- A precious red coloured Phulkari, prepared and presented by the maternal grandmother of the bride at her wedding function. The triangular designs are embroidered on the border with golden yellow pat by double running stitch, which appears identical on either sides of the cloth. However, a small Nazar buti is embroidered in one corner of the chope to keep off the evil eye. • The chope is draped around the bride at the time of ‘Chura Charana’, a ceremony when the bride wears red ivory bangles presented by her maternal uncle
  143. 143. • Suber- It is also a rich, gorgeous, red coloured Phulkari worn by the bride, during her wedding at the time of ‘Pheras’, presented to the bride by her maternal relations during the marriage ceremony. • The colour of base material is same as that of chope, the area embroidered varied. Suber has a central and four corner designs where the centre has a group of five motifs and similar ones repeated at the corner. • Tilpatra- The term tilpatra consists of two words ‘til’ meaning sesame seeds and ‘patra’ meaning sprinkled. In other words, tilpatra literally means dotted with sesame seed design. • This shawl is made of an inferior and inexpensive khaddar and is scarcely embroidered with small tiny dots in the body and pallav using far apart stitches. • It is usually presented to the maids as part of traditional custom to servants during marriage and on auspicious occasions. 6/11/2017
  144. 144. Nilak- It is a Phulkari of blue colour. Nilak is usually worked on blue khaddar but sometimes done on black also. • The embroidery is done with yellow and crimson pat threads exhibiting attractive contrast colour combinations. • The motifs commonly embroidered are the articles used at household like comb, fan, umbrella or rumal and flowers. • Popular among the peasant women. 6/11/2017
  145. 145. • Shishedar Phulkari- This phulkari is done on either red or brown background. The diapered designs along with mirror is inserted on body of the articles. This phulkari was the specialty of south-eastern Punjab that now comes in Haryana state. • It is however becoming rare and extinct. 6/11/2017
  146. 146. • Thirma- Phulkari on white khadddar. It is an important treasure of Hindu women that was presented by bride’s family during her wedding. • The number of Thirma presented used to form basis for the prosperity, status, standard of living of the bride’s family. • The two main characteristics of Thirma are- 1. Two vertical bands on either sides separated by a row of herringbone stitch with green floss 2. The embroidery on the pallu. • Floral and geometrical designs were embroidered with red, green, blue or purple floss. • This work is popular in rawalpindi, Peshawar, Hazara of Punjab district which now come under the jurisdiction of Pakistan 6/11/2017 A RED “THIRMA” (ON WHITE KHADDER) BAGH FROM WEST PUNJAB 6/11/2017
  147. 147. Types of bagh • Kaudi bagh: Among their patterns, these bagh include chains of Kaudi phulkari small white squares representing stylized cowries. From another point of view, the shape of these shells can remind of female genitals and make them become symbols of fertility. Kaudi phulkari were often worn by women wanting to increase their chance to become pregnant. • Panchranga bagh: Meaning "Five colors", this bagh is decorated with chevrons of five different colors. • Satranga bagh: In The same way, similar pieces like satranga ("Seven colors") bagh are also available. 6/11/2017
  148. 148. Meenakari bagh or Ikka bagh This bagh, often made of gold and white coloured pat, is decorated with small multicolored lozenges referring to enamel work (meenakari) or to "diamond" playing cards suit. 6/11/2017
  149. 149. Vari da bagh: In west Punjab, following the birth of a boy, it was customary, to begin a vari da bagh. The newborns grandmother would place the first stitch on the embroidery. This bagh would later be handed to the boys bride on their wedding day. Worked in yellow/gold yarn on a red ground, the colours symbolize luck and fertility. The whole surface is covered with diamonds, each enclosing a smaller diamond. In good pieces three sizes of concentric diamond are found, the smallest again divided into quarters. 6/11/2017
  150. 150. • Bawan bagh: The bawan bagh is very rare as only a few women were able to fashion this type. Bawan means the number 52; in these pieces we usually find 52different patterns. The field is subdivided into 42 or 48 rectangles, each containing a different multi coloured motif. The remaining four or ten motifs are placed in the side or end borders. • Surajmujkhi bagh: the sunflower, refers to the main pattern of this phulkari. This type of phulkari is unique as it is the only one that mixes in comparable proportions Holbein stitch (used to make chope phulkari) and the regular darning stitch. 6/11/2017
  151. 151. 6/11/2017 •Darshana Dwar or Darwaza- This Phulkari is a presentation (the Bhent) to some of the religious institutions offered during certain ceremonial functions/which was presented to temples on the fulfillment of a wish. •It is draped over the entrance gate of religious institutions from where people enter to have the Darshan of their deity or to adorn the walls of the home when the Guru Granth Sahib (holy book of the Sikhs) is brought to a house. The theme is a decorative gate.
  152. 152. 6/11/2017 •Sainchi Phulkari- Folk embroidery of Malwa region of Punjab where the motifs are being traced, outlined before embroidering. •It is done on plain red or black khaddar used as veil or wrapper, for daily wear, is known as Salu or Saloo. •The motifs depict the various activities of rural life, different household activities, daily chores of a housewife and other such incidents (various agricultural operations). Sainchi Phulkari
  153. 153. Influence of kutch embroidery on punjab phulkari Mirror work of kutch and khatiyawar is also like phulkari work done on silk or sattern material for making shirts .In this kutch embroidery the motifs are elephant, peacock, parrot alone with floral border most of the embroidery is done with chain stitch and herringbone the northern part of sindh is influenced by kutch and Kathiawar, therefore it is a mixture of Punjab and kutch embroidery. 6/11/2017
  154. 154. 6/11/2017
  155. 155. Kathiawar embroidery
  156. 156. • Kathiawar being in the vicinity of Kutch, Sind and Punjab, a combination of these embroideries is noticed in Kathiawar embroidery. • The embroideries of Sindh, Kutch and Kathiawar are very similar and almost identical. • Kutch embroidery was practiced from the sixteenth and seventeenth century in Patan, a little town in the state of Gujarat. • It is believed that this art was taught to the Mochi’s by a muslim who came from Sindh. Origin
  157. 157. • The embroidery is colorful, elaborate and lavishly done on the choli and the Ghaghara (chaniya) which is the traditional costume of the women of Kathiawar. • Little mirrors are also used. • Kathiawar embroidery is generally done on 'natis' or children's caps ending in a square flap at the back, Torans (panel over the doors), Chaklas (square piecs), Chandrawas (rectangular pieces) and Ghagras. • Chaklas cover furniture pieces and Chandrawas are as wall as hanging.
  158. 158. 'Natis' or children's caps
  159. 159. Stitches and Colors used • The stitches used in the embroidery of Sindh, Kutch and Kathiawar are chain stitch, herringbone, interlacing stitch, darning stitch and buttonhole stitch. • Chain stitch is usually done in white or any other color, interlacing stitch is done with indigo, blue, crimson, red, green, yellow. • Mirror work is done with red, green, yellow predominantly, but other colors could also be used. Herringbone is typically done in indigo, blue, crimson and yellow, but not limited to those, other colors could also be used.
  160. 160. Distinct styles in Kathiawar embroidery • Heer Bharat • Abhla Bharat • Chain stitch embroidery of Bhavnagar stitch (Sindhi-stitch) • Applique work • Moti Bharat (bead work).
  161. 161. Heer Bharat • it is done in untwisted silk thread (floss) which is called 'Heer’ in Gujarat. 'Bharat' means embroidery in Gujarat. • It is also known as 'Banni embroidery‘refers to a kind of embroidery done by people belonging to the Banni community in Kutch, Here long stitches almost an inch in length are used. The embroidery resembles phulkari of Punjab.
  162. 162. 6/11/2017 •The designs are geometrical and combinations of squares, rectangles or triangles covering the entire surface of the material. • The prominent colour used in this is crimson red. •According to Jasleen Dhamija, "generally embroidery is prepared on a deep blue, background. Though the dominant colour is crimson red it is picked up in places, with a touch of black and off white silken thread. Yellow and green colours are rarely used. •To emphasise the pattern the centre of the motif is picked up with an abhla (mirror) stitched on with button hole stitch.”
  163. 163. Heer Bharat
  164. 164. Abhla Bharat • In this mirror are used. Button hole stitch is used to fix the mirrors. • The design is drawn leaving a circle for the portion where the mirror has to be attached. • The remaining embroidery is done with stem or herring bone stitches with silk thread. • The colours used are red, green, indigo blue and pink. • Motifs are flowers, creepers and sometimes rows of mirmrs are worked to form a pattern. This is done on ghagaras, toran, chakla, and Chandarwa.
  165. 165. Abhla Bharat
  166. 166. Chain Stitch • This is a distinctive style of embroidery of Bhavnagar. • This is done in White chain stitches. Sometimes other colours are used with white to give a bold appearance. • Mirrors are used to emphasize a face or a hand or the rising sun. Designs are a girl holding a flower, a boy holding a kite, a man riding a horse, a palanquin carry a lady.
  167. 167. Abhla bharat
  168. 168. Sindhi Taropa • This is known as the interlacing stitch. This has nothing to do with the texture of the fabric but springs from the ingenuity of the needle woman. This interlacing stitch is practiced in Sindh, Kutch and Kathiawar. • In this stitch, with the use of long threads stitched into the base of the cloth, the basic structure is built. Then looping of the threads around the entire structure of the stitch is worked. The designs are chiefly chequers , chevrons, lozenges, discs. Sometimes these designs are shaped to form birds, six petaled flowers and discs. • According to Jasleen Dhamija," this stitch was prevalent in Germany. One wonders whether this stitch was introduced into India or whether Indian embroiderers introduced it into Germany.”
  169. 169. Sindhi embroidery
  170. 170. Sindhi Taropa
  171. 171. Single diamond continued diamond Single extention Fiver Continued Fiver Border Overall Simple motif Basic patterns used in sindhi taropa
  172. 172. Motives gallery
  173. 173. B O R D E R D E SI G N S
  174. 174. 6/11/2017 •It is an integral part of the decorative needle work of Gujarat, but it has however a distinctive style of its own. •Left over pieces of any type of fabric patterned, printed or plain, are cut out and stitched together to create an effect. •Applique work is never done on garment but only on toran, chakla, chandarwan or the saddle of the horse. The motifs are worked and then stitched to a white background. Applique Work
  175. 175. A P P L I Q U E W O R K
  176. 176. 6/11/2017 •In this embroidery, Coloured beads to form the design are used. • Designs are prepared by creating a surface in itself. The background colour of the beads white and the patterns are woven in colours such as green, red, yellow and purple. •The motifs are the same as those of the embroidery such as parrots, elephant with a haudah, the camel with a rider, warrior on horseback, etc. Moti bharat
  177. 177. • This work is not done on the of fabric. The opaque white beads form the base on which the transparent beads are worked by stringing them together in various shapes and forms of birds, animals, human figures and other articles of day to day life. • Traditionally blue, green yellow and red colored beads were commonly used. Now wide range of coloured beads is available. • Stylized human figures, geometrical designs, glimpses of daily life, horse and camel riders, elephant with haudha, horse with carriage, the famous love legend of local hero Dhola and his lover Maru are the designs repeatedly used. Various articles like, Purse, cap, toran. play articles, cradle decoration, showpieces are prepared by Moti Bhat.
  178. 178. Moti bharat
  179. 179. Manipuri embroidery • Manipur is a state in northern India, and has unique embroidery of its own. • The women of Manipur do fine and delicate embroidery. • The embroidery is usually done on the border of the phaneyk which is worn by women like a sarong. The phaneyk is a woven piece of fabric in dark stripes against a light background. It is woven by the women themselves. It is common to find a loin or pit loom in almost every household in Manipur. • The colors most commonly used in embroidery are white, black, red, green and yellow. 6/11/2017
  180. 180. Romanian stitch or couched satin stitch 6/11/2017
  181. 181. •The motifs used are butterfly, elephant, cockerel etc. • Commonly used motif is the “Akyobi” design which is worked in two shades of red with a bit of black and white. It is a circular design, one circle joining the other, with each circle being further broken up into patterns, each with a significant motif and special name. •The central round motif like a dot is believed to be e bee which flies around the lotus flower sucking its honey. The four petals on the side of the dot are known as the ‘moil’ the tenderest part of the lotus bud. •The half open circular designs are known as the khoi mayek which means a fishing hook. The W shaped design in the bow. The border is called the tendwa. 6/11/2017
  182. 182. Hijai mayek is embroidered in black and white, and is worn by widows, elderly women and at funerals. It shows running lines and circular movements. Other motifs used are battle scenes, swords etc. Other fabrics to be embroidered besides the phanek are: 1) Zamphie - war cloth worn by warriors at the time of war, used by a few people. It was honored by the king. 2) Ningthoupee - kings’ cloth 3) Saijomba - long coat worn by trusted courtiers of the king, which had special embroidery 4) Phirananba: These are the small flags delicately embroidered and used by the warriors as plumes on their turbans, each designated the rank. 5) Kumil or ras shirt 6/11/2017
  183. 183. Elepha nt Butterf Akyo bi Peacoc k 6/11/2017
  184. 184. 6/11/2017