Clouds Hands On Tutorial Srinath Perera Ph.D. Senior Software Architect, WSO2 Inc.Member, Apache Software FoundationVisiting Faculty, University of Moratuwa Research Scientist, Lanka Software Foundation
Outline • What is Cloud Computing? • What can I do with the Cloud? • How to do it? • Conclusionphoto by John Trainoron Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/trainor/2902023575/, Licensed under CC
Quick EC2 Demo• Lets us start our own Virtual machines in the cloud.• We call the virtual machines, AMIs (Amazon machine images)• You can reuse other’s AMIs or create your own.
What is Cloud? • Based on the idea that computation and storage can be rented as a utility from data centers that runs somewhere (in the cloud) on demand. • Remote resources that are rented – On demand and in elastic manner – Pay as you go
Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it willbe seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one. ~ Charles Mackay Copied from http://www.flickr.com/photos/54555810@N00/2848637190/, by Rambling Traveler
Gold Rush• Very good example of a hype• Only few actually made money• But associated services (merchants and transportations) made lot of money
The Cloud Bandwagon • Is Cloud a hype? Of course it is! • Is it Just hype? may be not, thats what we will discuss. • But don’t get me wrong, • even if it is a hype, that doesn’t mean we should Image from not be talking about it.http://www.flickr.com/photos/88929764@N00/443 6978855/
Is Cloud Hype?• We have to understand what it is and what drives it? That would tell us how to navigation
Electricity as a Utility as an Example• Now, no one run generators themselves• Use electricity that is remotely generated• Can draw when need it• Only pay for what you use
Electricity as a Utility: Benefits • Small startup cost (do not have to buy a generator) • No operational cost • Do not need to do capacity planning • Overall cheaper electricity due to economics of scale • Making it parts of the everyday life, commodity (accessibility) Image from http://www.flickr.com/photos/infomofo/3220498521
Benefits of Cloud Computing • Avoid/reduce operational • costs by outsourcing • Can scale up and down as needed • Pay as you go • Making it parts of the everyday life, commodity(accessibility) • Cheaper computing power due to economy of scale
Drivers of Cloud • Unused computing power at Google, Amazon • Max load >> average load • High operational cost, need for outsourcing • Availability of large scale solutions and infrastructure as side efforts of high tech company operations
Private Cloud • Run a Cloud within the organization (mainly due to security concerns).• e.g. Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC), IBM private cloud, WSO2 Stratos private Cloud• Idea is optimizing resource sharing, utilizations, and operations – e.g. testing environments• Connection to public Cloud is possible (e.g. Amazon VPC uses VPN) Image http://www.flickr.com/photos/glasgows/536185797/, Some rights reserved by M Glasgow
Cloud Computing Models Control Flexibility of PurposeLevel of Abstraction Software as a Service Platform as a Service Infrastructure as a Service Public Hybrid Private Economy
What Can We do with the Cloud?• If I am a developer, now it is – Easy to get access to a machine – Easy to host something• If I am a startup – Easy run my new business – Easy to run my app• If I am a Enterprise – Outsource functionalities – On demand H/W• If I am a researcher – Easy access computing power
More Room to Outsource Non Key Functions of a Organization• Organizations outsource their non- competitive areas to reduce costs and focus on their own expertise.• IT departments are a major cost in most organizations• Cloud enables Organizations to outsource some of the IT functions
Small Start Up Cost• Small start up cost• Reducing the gap between visionaries and dreamers• New organization has better chance for outsourcing operations through the Cloud• Cloud competition likely to drive down hosting prizes
1 computer for 100days = 100 computers for 1 day• Great tool for occasional computations – Research labs• Reporting collecting data for a story – New york Times tiff to pdf conversion• Rise of analytics – great tool for offline analysis – Business Intelligence (BI) – Audits
Increased Accessibility • Large Scale Computation and Storage Resources becoming a Commodity • Computer intensive desktop apps (e.g. Excel, 3D Max) • Normal people, not just organizations can have access to computing power and storage
Creating and Deploying my Sample App in the Cloud
Explain the Scenario• Web App• A Web Service• Web App call the Web Service and show a hello world message got from Web Service.
Demo It Locally• Install WSAS• Show consoles• Install the Service• Try the Service• Install the Web App• Try the Web app• Show SOAP traces
IaaS (Infrastructure As a Service)• Let users allocate and use a computer on- demand, and can be returned when not needed.• Once allocated, node behaves as a normal node.• None or minimal add-on services
E.g. Amazon Web Services• Several Services – S3 Storage – EC2 computing cloud• Based on Virtualization, where each user is given a virtual machine and charged by the hour• Need least amount of changes to move apps to the Cloud. They in a way replace hosting services• Least amount of out of the box services (e.g. DOS attack prevention) and advanced services like scaling etc., are a responsibility of the user.• Often the best choice for ad-hoc computer users.
Demo 1• Login to the AMI• Download WSAS and install• Login and show the console• Upload the Service• Tryout the service• Upload the Webapp• Tryout the Web App• Show SOAP traces
Demo 2• However, if we shutdown the Instance, all is lost• Create and save the AMI• Restart and show
Enabling Technology: Virtualization • IaaS uses Virtualization to provide infrastructure as a service • Virtualization can add significant overhead (each instruction become 2 instructions) • New CPUs have hardware support for virtualization, – which make things better – still I/O is a challenge
Pros & Cons• Very easy to start• Minimal changes to the App• But not many add on features• Lack of persistence make life tricky
PaaS (Platform as a Service)• It provide servers (middleware platforms) as a service• Can deploy your application artifacts in the cloud• Unlike IaaS, it can give you add on services. But it will only support specific application types.
Why PaaS?• IaaS only provides limited saving to someone who needs to outsource their IT functions• SaaS is great when they can be used • They are usually very specific (e.g. email, CRM ..) • If they match, then great, but if they are not, not much choice for the user.• PaaS stays in the middle ground • Framework to host your apps • Hopefully you can move your apps as it is (well not the case with Azure or App Engine, but it is possible with WSO2 Stratos !!!).
Google App Engine• Support Java and Python• Support web requests and run user written web applications in an isolated environment• Java version is based on servlets• Support storage based on Big table, memcache based cache, and auto scaling• Can write apps locally, test it, and then upload to the Cloud
WSO2 Stratos• Support Java based SOA artifacts (services, workflows, mediation) , messaging, CEP, Rules, etc• Support running user written web applications in an isolated environment• Built on Open source projects like Axis2, ODE etc• Support storage based on MySQL, Cassandra, and HDFS• Can write apps locally, test it, and then upload to the Cloud
Show Stratos• Create an Account• Compare with Local Server
Stratos Demo• Upload the Service• Try out the Service• Show with SOAP Tracer• Upload the Web App• Try out the Web App• Enable Security
Add-On the Features• Edit Web app security• Mediate requests• Add Throttling• Add Caching• Create and use Data sources
Driving Technology: Multi-tenancy Many Parties share the same set of resources, while giving each one his own space
Why Multi-tenancy? 1. Increased sharing• Cloud shares resources across a large pool of users.• Now sharing happens in the application level as “There is no delight in owning oppose to sharing at anything unshared.” OS level for multiple Seneca (Roman philosopher, mid-1st century processes and AD) sharing at HW level with VMs. photo by Ben Gray on Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/ben_grey/4582294721/,• That can bring Licensed under CC greater savings
Why Multi-tenancy? 2. Provide “pay for what you use”• Often there will be many accounts in a PaaS or a SaaS, but only a fraction of them will be in use.• We cannot allocate runtime resource per account (disk may be ok, as it is cheap). For example, we cannot run a VM per account.• By sharing the same server with many users, Multi-tenancy provides much reduced runtime cost per server.
Multi-tenancy vs. Virtual Machines• Multi-tenancy provides much fine grained sharing by many applications sharing the same server.• Say there are 100k accounts, but 10k active users at a time. VM based model needs 100k VMs, which means there is a cost incurred per account.• With Multi-tenancy one server can handle many accounts, and by mixing and matching heavy and light users, Multi-tenancy can operate with much less number of servers. photo by hans s on Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/photos/archeon/2359334908/
Cloud Native• Elastic (Uses the cloud efficiently) • Scales up and down as needed • Works with the underlying IaaS• Self-service (in the hands of users) • De-centralized creation and management of tenants • Automated Governance across tenants• Multi-tenant (Only costs when you use it) • Virtual isolated instances with near zero incremental cost • Implies you have a proper identity model• Granularly Billed and Metered (pay for just what you use) • Allocate costs to exactly who uses them• Distributed/Dynamically Wired (works properly in the cloud) • Supports deploying in a dynamically sized cluster • Finds services across applications even when they move• Incrementally Deployed and Tested (seamless live upgrades) • Supports continuous update, side-by-side operation, in-place testing and incremental production
Software as a Service• Provide a complete package as a service• Very easy to get started• Generally only provide limited customizability• Might provide higher level domain specific abstractions and functionality
SaaS Example: Salesforce• Provide support for CRM (Customer Relationship Management) software as a Service• The application available out of the box users• just configure and use it.• Salesforce handles all the details, and a ideal choice for outsourcing IT functions• However, applications are very specific and customizations are limited.
SaaS App Market• Mobile apps, Browser Apps etc often depends on backend, that need to be hosted and running.• Also, there is the old user case of service market place (e.g. Map Service, targeted advertising suggestions)• PaaS could provide an ideal environment to develop and run them.
Latency/ Bandwidth • Why does electricity as a Utility was so successful? One key aspect was almost unlimited speed and capacity • Is that the same for Cloud? – Not really – Most people dismiss this, and does not even want to discuss – But for some apps (e.g. interactive apps like games) this can be a issue • Possibilities – support for offline operation – Fedex your data
Autoscaling and Cloud Bursting• Max load >> average load• Allocate based on the load• Running internal machines in an average load (because cloud is still expensive than hardware ) and• Scale out to cloud when there is high load• Mimic the Hybrid car
Performance• In the Cloud, your software will run on an another layer of abstractions• It will inevitably slower (3-4 times if unlucky) – Often the overhead comes from I/O – Some hit on CPU power• Expect the bottlenecks to shift• Remember performance ≠ scalability• Cloud likely to let you scale out, but performance on individual nodes likely to go down
Security• With cloud you will run your apps and put your data in an outsiders administrative domain, Can we trust the outsiders to not look at our data? – Well it depends. But concern is normal for any out sourcing• Can we trust their security measures? Does the isolations are good enough?• If we are keeping data owned by others, what are the legal implications etc.
Look back: Recommendations• How can we benefits from the Cloud? My list of benefits were by no means exhaustive. – If you are small startup? Doing something part time (writing Apps for App Store), then cloud is for you definitely. – If you have a small data center, need to efficiently manage that and increase utilization, you should think Private Cloud Copyright Kirsty Smith and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons License
Look back: Recommendations (Contd.)• If your services have a Max load >> Average load, you should think about crowd bursting• If you do heavy computations once in a while (analytics, audits), then use IaaS there.• If you want to outsource some of your IT functions, think SaaS• Before leap think about 3 major concerns of Cloud? – Security/ Privacy, Latency and Performance• How much sharing and savings I need? – IaaS, PaaS, SaaS