Mysql Introduction

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Brief introduction of Mysql

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Mysql Introduction

  1. 1. A Brief Introduction to MySQL
  2. 2. Pointers  What is MySQL ? Its good features.  Installation guide.  Security and Privilege System  Compatibility with standards  Locks – an interesting feature  Table types  Some more salient features  Replication
  3. 3. What Is MySQL?  A fast, reliable, easy-to-use, multi-user multi- threaded relational database system.  It is freely available and released under GPL (GNU General Public License ).
  4. 4. Why Use MySQL ?  MySQL server can handle very large databases.  Offers rich and very useful set of functions.  Connectivity, speed and security make MySQL very suited for accessing database on a network.  A lot of contributed software available.
  5. 5. What Does MySQL Offer ?  A privilege and password system that is very flexible and secure and allows host-based verification.  Multi-threaded request-handling using kernel thread.  Replication features.  Very actively developed.  Memory leak proof.
  6. 6. Quick Installation Guide • tar –zxvf Mysql.x.xx.xx.tar.gz  cd Mysql-x.xx.xx.xx  ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/mysql  make  make install  scripts/mysql_install_db  safe_mysqld  Mysql –u root password ‘mypassword’
  7. 7. Configuring MySql  --bindir=Dir specifies dir for binaries  --localstatedir=Dir data dir  --with-tcp-port=portno  --with-unix-sock-path=absolute-path  --with-mysqld-ldflag=-all-static  --with-charset=charset (default Latin1)  --with-low-memory
  8. 8. Support  Works on many different platforms like FreeBSD , NetBSD , Linux 2.0+, Windows ’95, ’98, 2000 & NT, HP-UX etc  There are client tools and APIs available in c, c++, java, perl, python, php, Tcl
  9. 9. Security in mysql  Issues that bother: eavesdropping,altering  Uses ACL’s (Access Control Lists) , also there’s some support for SSL connections  Has inbuilt methods for storing confidential data like passwords in encrypted form.  Access is restricted thru grant of privileges to users,hosts
  10. 10. Privileges provided by mysql  The five tables: user,db,host,tables_priv,columns_priv  The privileges come into play only if there is a retrieval of data from the database, or updation of data in the database,e.g: select 1+1; calculator   File privilege : load data infile, select …. Into outfile
  11. 11. How the privilege system works  First reference to user followed by db and host , takes place during connection verification  Reference to tables_priv and columns_priv at data access stage  Ordering of user table on the basis of more specific host values first, followed by more specific user values.  For security purposes , mysql disallows host addresses of the form :192.168.7.yahoo.com
  12. 12. Some tips on security  Beneficial to invest in a firewall ; check using “telnet server_port 3306”  Do not rely on the data entered by the user, he can trick the code by using special character sequences  Make use of tcpdump, to check the whether or not mysql data streams r unencrypted: tcpdump –l –i eth0 –w – src port 3306|strings  Dont run mysqld as root.  Don’t give process and file privileges to users as far as possible.
  13. 13. Continued…..  Following mysqld options affect security: 1. –- secure 2. – skip-grant-privileges 3. – skip-name-resolve 4. –skip-networking  Passwords by default are stored in hashed form in database.But if the scrambled password is known the hacker can still log in as the user.  Passwords can be stored in my.cnf file when non-interactive access has to be done  Inbuilt functions for hashing: password, encrypt,encode,decode
  14. 14. Compatibility with Standards What doesn’t MySQL have ?  Transactions – no provision for commit and rollback  No nested sub-queries  Views are not supported  Foreign keys not used for referential integrity checks
  15. 15. Compatibility (contd.) What extra does MySQL have ?  Locking/Unlocking of tables  Atomicity of operations  Directory organization  Access of tables across tables  Several other features, discussed later…
  16. 16. More about Locks !  Locks help in maintaining integrity, atomicity  Read locks – enable you to only read from the locked tables.  Write locks – enable you to read and write exclusively. Other threads can’t access/update currently locked tables  Write locks have higher priority than read locks
  17. 17. MySql Table Types  Creates a .frm file that holds the table and column definition.  Syntax for defining table type is .. : CREATE TABLE test ( ) TYPE=HEAP ..  Categorization of types : Transaction safe type and Non transaction safe type.  Transaction Safe table types allow rollbacks,restore changes if update fails ,etc .  Non Transaction Safe table types are much faster ,use less disk space as well as memory for updates.
  18. 18. MyISAM tables  Use B-Tree indexing to store the keys, string indexes are compressed .  MyISAM itself supports three different table formats: a) static (fixed length) b) Dynamic c) Compressed  Static : fastest ,secure and simplest format , used when there are no varchar, blob or text.  Dynamic : each record stores a header that contain its length  Compressed : created using myisampack tool , they are read only ,use very little space as each record is compressed separately  ISAM is a deprecated version of MyISAM
  19. 19. Merge tables  A collection of identical MyISAM tables which are used collectively.  FOR eg : CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, message CHAR(20)); CREATE TABLE t2 (a INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, message CHAR(20)) ; CREATE TABLE total (a INT NOT NULL, message CHAR(20), KEY(a)) TYPE=MERGE UNION=(t1,t2) • allowed : select ,insert and Operations update .
  20. 20. Heap tables and Berkley DB  Use hashed index and are stored in memory  Generally used for temporary tables . •Berkley DB is used for making the tables transaction safe
  21. 21. MySQL Language Reference OPTIMIZE  Syntax :: … OPTIMIZE TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name]..  Used only for MyISAM tables  It performs the following functions :repairs the table if the table has deleted rows,sorts the index,and the statistics are also made to date. CHECK  Syntax :: … CHECK TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] [TYPE = [QUICK | FAST | EXTEND | CHANGED]]
  22. 22. MySQL Language Reference  Checks a table for errors and updates the key statistics of the table BACKUP  BACKUP TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] TO '/path/to/backup/directory‘  This again works only for MyISAM ANALYZE  During analysis the table is locked with a read lock
  23. 23. MySQL Language Reference REPAIR  Syntax: REPAIR TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] [TYPE = QUICK] FLUSH  Syntax : FLUSH flush_option [,flush_option]  Used to clear the internal cache of Mysql  It has various options like HOSTS,LOGS,PRIVELEDGES, TABLES tbl_names,etc
  24. 24. Replication in MySQL  What??  One server is designated as the master, while the other ( or others) as slave(s)  Updates done only on master and binary logs made  The slave connects to the master, catches up on the missed updates, and then starts receiving updates immediately as they come to the master.  Why??  For robustness you have two systems and switch to the backup if you have problems with the master.  The extra speed is achieved by sending a part of the non-updating queries to the replica server.
  25. 25. How To (SLAVE) • Upgrade both slave and master to 3.23.15 or higher. • PUT THESE IN my.cnf of SLAVE • master-host,user,passwd • server-id=< unique no>= 1 & <=2^32-1 • master-connect-retry !! (keep trying) • master-info-file • replicate-rewrite-db • skip-slave-start • Restart the slave(s)
  26. 26. How To (SLAVE) (contd) • Take a snapshot of all the tables/databases on the master • Use command LOAD TABLE <tblname> FROM MASTER (3.23.23)+  SLAVE START/STOP  FLUSH SLAVE
  27. 27. HOW TO (MASTER)  log-bin , FLUSH MASTER , FLUSH SLAVE  When you start the slave thread will be created  Tables are not Locked  SET SQL_LOG_BIN=0/1  CHANGE MASTER TO master_def_list

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