IP Layer
Routing Protocols
ROUTING
Types of routing Protocols
• Static routing
• Dynamic routing
Static Routing
• Manually configured by Administrator
• Administrative distance is 0 or 1
• Destination network should be ...
Static Default Route
• • Static default route will be used for
unknown destination or for all destination.
• It is used fo...
Dynamic Routing Protocol
• Dynamic routing protocols, exchange routing
information with the neighbors and build the
routin...
Types of Dynamic Routing Protocol
• Distance Vector Protocol
• Link-State Protocol
• Advance or Hybrid Protocol
Distance-Vector Protocol
• Bellman Ford Algorithm
• Updates are sent as broadcast
• Classfull Routing protocol
• Send comp...
Link-State Routing Protocol
• SPF or Dijkstra Algorithm
• Classless
• Sent only incremental / Trigger updates •
Updates ar...
Hybrid Protocol
• Classless
• Update are sent as multicast or unicast •
Trigger update
• Ex. RIPv2, EIGRP, BGP
Classification of Routing Protocol
• Classfull Routing Protocol
– Routing protocol which doesn’t Carry
subnet mask in Rout...
Summarization
• Combining the contagious address into one
and send to neighbor.
•Advantages
– – Minimizing the routing tab...
Auto Summary
• Also known as “auto summary at network boundary”
• Subnet at network boundary will be summarized into
• cla...
Auto Summary
Manual summary
• Administrator manually configures
Summarization
• Summary address contains networks in 2n
subnets
• It is...
EIGRP
• Cisco proprietary
• Advance distance-vector routing protocol
• Diffusing update algorithm (DUAL)
• Administrative ...
EIGRP Features
• Incremental / triggered update
• Fast convergence
• Max hops = 224 (default is 100 hops)
• Load balancing...
Key Technologies
• Neighbor discovery
– EIGRP sends hello messages to discover neighbors
• Reliable Transport Protocol (RT...
EIGRP Database
• Neighbor table
– List of directly connected routers running
EIGRP in same autonomous system
• Topology Ta...
EIGRP Database
Diffusing Update Algorithm- DUAL
DUAL
DUAL –stuck in active
EIGRP packets
1. Hello
2. Update
3. Query
4. Reply
5. ACK
Initial Routing
Configuring EIGRP
Summarization
• Auto summary
– EIGRP does auto summary at major logical network
• boundary
• Manual summary
– EIGRP suppor...
Configuring Route Summarization
EIGRP Load balancing
● Routes with lowest equal metric are installed in the
routing table (equal-cost load balancing)
● Th...
Variance Example
Router Authentication
● Many routing protocols support authentication
Router authenticates the source of each routing●
upd...
Ccna routing
Ccna routing
Ccna routing
Ccna routing
Ccna routing
Ccna routing
Ccna routing
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Ccna routing

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Ccna routing

  1. 1. IP Layer Routing Protocols
  2. 2. ROUTING
  3. 3. Types of routing Protocols • Static routing • Dynamic routing
  4. 4. Static Routing • Manually configured by Administrator • Administrative distance is 0 or 1 • Destination network should be known • Routing based on next hop IP address or exit interface • • Secure and fast
  5. 5. Static Default Route • • Static default route will be used for unknown destination or for all destination. • It is used for Internet • It is last preferred route in routing table. • It can be also used on Stub router
  6. 6. Dynamic Routing Protocol • Dynamic routing protocols, exchange routing information with the neighbors and build the routing table automatically • Administrator need to advertise only the directly connected networks • Any changes in the network topology are automatically updated
  7. 7. Types of Dynamic Routing Protocol • Distance Vector Protocol • Link-State Protocol • Advance or Hybrid Protocol
  8. 8. Distance-Vector Protocol • Bellman Ford Algorithm • Updates are sent as broadcast • Classfull Routing protocol • Send complete routing table as update • Update are send base on timers. • Routing Loops occur frequently • Ex. RIP, IGRP.
  9. 9. Link-State Routing Protocol • SPF or Dijkstra Algorithm • Classless • Sent only incremental / Trigger updates • Updates are sent as multicast • Ex. OSPF, ISIS
  10. 10. Hybrid Protocol • Classless • Update are sent as multicast or unicast • Trigger update • Ex. RIPv2, EIGRP, BGP
  11. 11. Classification of Routing Protocol • Classfull Routing Protocol – Routing protocol which doesn’t Carry subnet mask in Routing updates. – Eg. RIP, IGRP. • Classless Routing Protocol – Routing Protocols which carry subnet mask information in routing update – Eg. RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS, BGP
  12. 12. Summarization • Combining the contagious address into one and send to neighbor. •Advantages – – Minimizing the routing table. – – Less use of resources like memory, processor, – bandwidth. • Two Type of Summarization – – Auto summary – Manual summary
  13. 13. Auto Summary • Also known as “auto summary at network boundary” • Subnet at network boundary will be summarized into • classfull updates • Classfull routing protocol does auto summary by default and it cant be turn off • Routing protocol like RIPv2, EIGRP, BGPv4 support auto summary • Routing protocol like OSPF and ISIS doesn’t support auto summary
  14. 14. Auto Summary
  15. 15. Manual summary • Administrator manually configures Summarization • Summary address contains networks in 2n subnets • It is supported by all classless routing protocols
  16. 16. EIGRP • Cisco proprietary • Advance distance-vector routing protocol • Diffusing update algorithm (DUAL) • Administrative distance is 90-internal, 170-external • Classless • Support FLSM, VLSM, CIDR, Auto and Manual summary • Metric = composite metric (32 bits) - Bandwidth, load, delay, reliability & MTU • Updates are sent as multicast(224.0.0.10) or unicast
  17. 17. EIGRP Features • Incremental / triggered update • Fast convergence • Max hops = 224 (default is 100 hops) • Load balancing on 4 equal cost paths (Default) • – Max 16 paths (equal or unequal cost paths) • It supports multiple routed protocols • – (IP, IPX, Apple Talk) • EIGRP uses protocol no 88 • Important Note: IGRP protocol has been discontinued from IOS ver 12.3 and ab
  18. 18. Key Technologies • Neighbor discovery – EIGRP sends hello messages to discover neighbors • Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) – Guaranteed delivery of updates to its neighbor • DUAL Algorithm – It selects the best path and also remembers the • alternate path if any exists • Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM) – – EIGRP supports IPv4, IPv6, IPX, Apple Talk – – For each protocol it has independent module – – Separate hello message, neighbor and topology table for each of the above protocols
  19. 19. EIGRP Database • Neighbor table – List of directly connected routers running EIGRP in same autonomous system • Topology Table - List of all routes learned from its directly connected neighbors • Routing table – List of best paths towards each destination (from the Topology Table)
  20. 20. EIGRP Database
  21. 21. Diffusing Update Algorithm- DUAL
  22. 22. DUAL
  23. 23. DUAL –stuck in active
  24. 24. EIGRP packets 1. Hello 2. Update 3. Query 4. Reply 5. ACK
  25. 25. Initial Routing
  26. 26. Configuring EIGRP
  27. 27. Summarization • Auto summary – EIGRP does auto summary at major logical network • boundary • Manual summary – EIGRP supports manual summary per interface basis • Summary will be continued till the last specific route goes down • Summary metric will be the best metric from specific route • Router of the summary route will create a summary route pointing to null interface
  28. 28. Configuring Route Summarization
  29. 29. EIGRP Load balancing ● Routes with lowest equal metric are installed in the routing table (equal-cost load balancing) ● There can be up to sixteen entries in the routing table for the same destination: – The number of entries is configurable – The default is four • Variance is configured for unequal cost load balancing – Variance is the multiplier to FD of successor – Default is 1(equal cost load balancing)
  30. 30. Variance Example
  31. 31. Router Authentication ● Many routing protocols support authentication Router authenticates the source of each routing● update ● Simple password authentication is supported by: – IS-IS – OSPF – RIPv2 ● MD5 authentication is supported by: – OSPF – BGP – EIGRP

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