A project report on training and development in bst textile pvt. ltd


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A project report on training and development in best textile pvt. ltd

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A project report on training and development in bst textile pvt. ltd

  1. 1. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT On “TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT” IN BST TEXTILE(Submitted in partial fulfillment for BBA, C.C.S University, Meerut) Institute of Management Studies, Noida Submitted To:- Submitted BY: DECLARATION
  2. 2. Projectsformba.blogspot.comI, ……….. declare that the project entitled “TRAINING TRAINING ANDDEVELOPMENT IN BST TEXTILE PVT. LTD” submitted for the BBADegree is my original work and the project has not formed the basis for theaward of any degree associateship, fellowship or any other similar titles.Place: Signature of the studentDate: 3Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  3. 3. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CERTIFICATE Table of Contents 4Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  5. 5. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENTProgress in life, business or any projects comes through taking initiatives &continuing to progress on new concepts & ideas. The original momentum isnot enough to keep you moving forward. Your progress will grit to halt unlessyou refill your engine for inspiration with fuel of fresh ideas with enthusiasm& proper guidance. I take this opportunity to acknowledge my utmostgratitude & been linked in some way or the other with the projectI am thankful to ………………. for their valuable tips prior to the start of theproject.I would like to thank my guide ……………………. for her kind support. 6Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PREFACEThe subject matter of personnel policies is varied as the personnel departmentand any itemization would serve merely as and with its management.Structure, the economic and social conditions prevailing in it at a particulartime, the attitude ideas of the top management. They also change with publicopinion, area and regional traditions, custom and practices, the information oftraining. 7Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  7. 7. Projectsformba.blogspot.com COMPANY PROFILE 8Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  8. 8. Projectsformba.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION 9Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  9. 9. Projectsformba.blogspot.com BST TEXTILE MILLS PVT. LTD. A PROFILEBST Textile Mills Pvt. Ltd is a 100% Cotton-Spinning Unit promoted by chiefpromoters Mr. Mukesh Tyagi and Mr. Pawan Tyagi, both textile technocratswith specialization in spinning. Having worked at shop floor in variousdepartments of spinning such as Production, Machine Maintenance and Sales/Marketing, it is their all round experience in textiles which gives us an edgeover our competitors. The company is emerging fast on the global textilehorizon and has significant growth plans for the future. The promoters TOTAL PROFESSIONAL APPROACH towards all the keyareas such as day-to-day production process controls, maintenance,manpower, sales and marketing makes a big contribution towards achievingthe most cost efficient quality product. The project also benefits frompromoters vast experience of domestic and international marketing. Mr.Mukesh Tyagi has been involved in domestic and international marketing ofcotton, poly cotton, poly viscose and 100 per cent polyester ring spun yarnsfor over two decades. The company also has an office in Europe located atLeicester (United Kingdom) which is managed by Mr. Pawan Tyagi. Thisplaces us in a very close proximity of our EU customers and gives them aCOMPLETE PEACE OF MIND in all vital areas such as fast and effectivecommunication, personal after sales support and quick technical assistance. The companys workforce is an ideal mix of youth and experience whereeach individual is groomed to work as a professional with total commitment toachieve a common goal - A QUALITY PRODUCT DELIVERED IN TIMETO OUR CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION. The management ensures a workfriendly environment in all areas to get each individual work as a team andoffers excellent opportunities and a progressive career to young and dynamicprofessionals. 10Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Profile and Location:The company has a total capacity of 30,000 ring spindles with an annualcapacity to produce 8400 MT of 100% Cotton yarn in Carded & Combed.There are 10 latest state of art TFOs also to produce folded yarns. The unit hasmodern & most innovative of the spinning technology with machines sourcedfrom India as well as abroad. The manufacturing site is located at SIDCUL, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand),about 230 kilometers northeast of Delhi, in a state-of-the-art industrial estatedeveloped by the local Uttrakhand government with excellent road, rail and airlinks to major cities and ports with in India. SIDICUL is a fast emerging andrapidly growing industrial hub in the north east region of India with excellentinfrastructure & benefits from most favorable business policies of the regionaladministration to help industrial growth. The Head Office is located at Mumbai (Bombay) which also manages salesand marketing operations. 11Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PRODUCTSPRODUCTS INCLUDES: • 100 % Cotton Ring Spun Raw White Yarns, carded and combed, in Count Range Ne 10s - 34s for Hosiery and Weaving applications. • 100 % Cotton Ring Spun Raw White Yarns, carded and combed, in Count Range Ne 10s - 34s for Hosiery and Weaving applications. • TFO Doubled and Multifold Yarns such 3 ply, 4 ply etc., in both Carded and Combed. 12Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Projectsformba.blogspot.com MACHINERY 13Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  13. 13. Projectsformba.blogspot.com PRE-SPINNING Department MachineryBlow room: LMW LATEST BLOW ROOM LINE WITH VETAL SCAN HAVING POLYSENSORCarding: LMW LC 300V3 CARDSBreaker Drawing: LMW LDO/6Lap Former: LMW LH1OComber: LMW COMBERS (MODEL LK54)Drawing: LMW LRSB 851RING FRAME: LMW LR 6/S 14Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  14. 14. Projectsformba.blogspot.comPppppppppp POST-SPINNINGpp ppppppppppppp 15Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  15. 15. Projectsformba.blogspot.comDepartment MachineryCone winding: SCHLAFHORST 338Yarn Clearers: USTERQUANTUM -2WITHFOREIGN FIBERDETECTOR.CheeseWinding: PEASSSCHLAFHORST PPW- AT.F.O: VEEJAYLAKSHMI -VJ150MR&D: PREMIEREVOLVICS 16Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  16. 16. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Sales & MarketingAt BST, we believe in " A HONEST & FAIR BUSINESS PRACTICE " whichperhaps reflects the core values & image of the organization. The company has adynamic & motivated team of sales personnel committed to carry out businesswith all HONESTY, INTEGRITY & FAIRNESS. The company promoters personally involve themselves in sales & marketingactivities of the company to ensure a fast and efficient sales service to ourcustomers. We constantly listen & learn from our customers which helps usunderstand the ever changing needs of their business and inspire us to give them acost-effective tailor-made quality product. This is why the company has managed to create a niche for itself in very shortspan of time & today has a long list of highly satisfied reputable clients at homeand abroad. We are regularity exporting our products to highly quality consciousmarkets of USA, EUROPE, FAR EAST & ASIA.. The company also has a strong presence in the domestic market and deals withsome of the countrys leading exporters of knitted & woven apparels. 17Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  17. 17. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Quality AssuranceOur Yarns are second to none when it comes to Quality. We carefully select finestof cotton crops and spin it under strict process controls to deliver a consistentquality end product suitable for most critical of end applications. Our highlyskilled production team constantly monitors key quality check points of theproduction process to ensure our yarns conform to international 5% USTERstandards. The company is constantly investing in latest generation quality controltechnology in pursuit of product excellence and has installed latest quality controlinnovations such as VETAL SCAN WITH POLYSENSOR at the blow roomstage & USTER QUANTUM-II yarn clearer on autoconers with FOREIGNFIBRE DETECTOR.Vetal Scan helps detection of all types of foreign particles such as colored clothbits, feather, polypropylene, yellow cotton & plastic etc. and plays a vital role inproducing a CONTAMINATION FREE YARN. VETAL SCAN Removes foreign particles like feather, color cloth bits, discolored threads, cotton, yellow cotton, yellow fabric pieces by line scan cameras and high density impurities like white / transparent polypropylene, plastic, colored polythene bag fragments using sonic sensors. 18Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  18. 18. Projectsformba.blogspot.comUSTER QUANTUM-II WITH FOREIGH FIBRE DETECTORDetects white and colored polypropylene defects using the capacitive sensor, inaddition to the detection of regular foreign fiber defects at the final stages of yarnproduction. OBJECTIVES1. To structure the Recruitment policy of BST TEXTILE MILLS PVT.LTDfor different categories of employees.2. To analyze the recruitment policy of the organization.3. To compare the Recruitment policy with general policy.4. To provide a systematic recruitment process.SCOPE OF RECRUITMENTIt extends to the whole Organization. It covers corporate office, sites andworks appointments all over India.It covers workers, Clerical Staff, Officers, Jr. Management, MiddleManagement and Senior Management cadres. 19Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  19. 19. Projectsformba.blogspot.comCATEGORICALLY CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES OFBST TEXTILE MILLS PVT.LTDCATEGORY I All workmen, All Assistants (Accounts, Stores, Field), clerk, Typist, Steno-Typist, Stenographer, Computer Operator.CATEGORY II Accountant, Store keeper, Supervisor up to the level of Officers, Designer, Jr. Engineer, P.A, Sr. P.A, EDP Programmer up to officer, Admin./ personnel / HRD officer, Inspector.CATEGORY III Secretary, Executive Secretary, Management Trainee, Asst. Engineer, Engineer, Sr. Engineer, Sr. Programmer, Sr. Officer, Asst. Manager, Dy. Manager, Manager, Sr. Manager, Works Superintendent.CATEGORY IV AGM, DGM, GM, SR. G.M.CATEGORY V VP & ABOVE.ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF BST TEXTILE MILLSA brief introduction to Divisional / Departmental heads.CHAIRMAN AND MANAGING DIRECTOR:CMD holds to most position in the organization. He is the owner of theCompany. He guides the functional heads to smoothen their activities. It isthe key position in the organization.DIRECTOR OPERATIONS:He is the overall in charge of P&A, HRD, Systems, TQM and Critical Issues.GM-PRODUCTION:He is the overall in charge of works. He is directly involved in productionplanning. He formulates various policies for betterment of the product. Heissues guidelines to Production Department and Quality Control Departmentfor implementation of the policies. 20Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  20. 20. Projectsformba.blogspot.comVP-FINANCE:He is directly involved in finance matters and finance policy. He is alsoinvolved with personnel department for wages compensation, salaries andother financial benefits.AGM- PERSONNEL & ADMINISTRATION:He is the overall in charge of personnel, Administration and IndustrialRelations of the group and also oversees the HRD activities.SR.MANAGER-CORPORATE HRD:HRD Department is responsible for better utilization of manpower throughRecruitment’s, Selections, Training, Development, Retention and Welfare ofthe group. It is involved in policy formation and its implementation.VP-MHD:He is the profit center head of the Material Handling Division. He isresponsible for Design and Projects Execution.VP-BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT:He is the main source of Business Procurement to MHD.SR.GENERAL MANAGERHe is responsible for marketing, Design, Estimation and ProjectsManagement. 21Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  21. 21. Projectsformba.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION 22Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  22. 22. Projectsformba.blogspot.com INTRODUCTIONSince the beginning of the twentieth century and especially after World WarII, training programs have become widespread among organizations in theUnited States, involving more and more employees and also expanding incontent. In the 1910s, only a few large companies such as Westinghouse,General Electric, and International Harvester had factory schools that focusedon training technical skills for entry-level workers. By the 1990s, forty percentof the Fortune 500 firms have had a corporate university or learning center. Inrecent decades, as the U.S. companies are confronted with technologicalchanges, domestic social problems and global economic competition, trainingprograms in organizations have received even more attention, touted as almosta panacea for organizational problem.The enormous expansion in the content of training programs over time hasnow largely been taken for granted. Now people would rarely question thenecessity of training in conversational skills. However, back to the 1920s, theidea that organizations should devote resources to training employees in suchskills would have been regarded as absurd. Such skills clearly were not part ofthe exact knowledge and methods that the employee will use on his particularjob or the job just ahead of him. Nevertheless, seventy years later, elevenpercent of U.S. organizations deem communications skills as the mostimportant on their priority lists of training, and many more regard it as highlyimportant. More than three hundred training organizations specialize incommunications training (Training and Development Organizations Directory,1994).Previous studies on training have largely focused on the incidence of formaltraining and the total amount of training offered. This study, however, drawsattention to the enormous expansion in the content of training with anemphasis on the rise of personal development training (or popularly known asthe "soft skills" training, such as leadership, teamwork, creativity,conversational skills and time management training). Personal developmenttraining can be defined as training programs that aim at improving onescognitive and behavioral skills in dealing with one self and others. It is 23Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  23. 23. Projectsformba.blogspot.comintended to develop ones personal potential and is not immediately related tothe technical aspects of ones job tasks. Monahan, Meyer and Scott (1994)describe the spread of personal development training programs based on theirsurvey of and interviews with more than one hundred organizations inNorthern California. "Training programs became more elaborate; theyincorporated, in addition to technical training for workers and human relationstraining for supervisors and managers, a widening array of developmental,personal growth, and self-management courses. Courses of this nature includeoffice professionalism, time management, individual contributor programs,entrepreneur, transacting with people, and applying intelligence in theworkplace, career management, and structured problem solving. Courses arealso offered on health and personal well-being, including safe diets, exercise,mental health, injury prevention, holiday health, stress and nutrition." 24Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  24. 24. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Training ExcusesTraining is one element many corporations consider when looking to advancepeople and offer promotions. Although many employees recognize the highvalue those in management place on training and development, someemployees are still reluctant to be trained. It is not uncommon to hear excusesregarding why someone has not received training.Some people are just comfortable in what they are doing. Some fail to see thevalue of training because they really believe that they already know it all. Andwhile that might be true, the knowledge value of training and development isnot the only perk.Training and development offers more than just increased knowledge. It offersthe added advantage of networking and drawing from others’ experiences.When you attend a seminar or event with others who have jobs that are muchlike yours, you have the added benefit of sharing from life experience. Theseminar notes or the conference leader might not give you the key nugget youtake back and implement in the workplace. Your best piece of advice for theday might come from the peer sitting beside you.Another common excuse is that there is not enough money budgeted to pay fortraining. Who said that training always carries a heavy enrollment fee?Training can be free. You can set up meetings with peers who are in similarpositions and ask how they are doing their jobs. Follow someone for a day tosee how he organizes or manages his work and time. The cost to you is a dayout of your normal routine, so the only drawback may be working a littleharder on an assignment to catch up from a day out of the office. You usuallydon’t think twice about taking a day of vacation, so why should a day oftraining be any different?Time is another often-heard excuse when training and development ismentioned. Have you considered that training and development might actuallygive you more time? Often the procedures, ideas, short cuts, and timesavinghints learned in training and development sessions equal more time in the longrun. Have you heard the old saying that you have to spend money to make 25Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  25. 25. Projectsformba.blogspot.commoney? Well, in a sense, the same is true for training and development. Youhave to devote some time to training and development to make you moreproductive in the long run. 26Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  26. 26. Projectsformba.blogspot.com THEORETICAL CONCEPT 27Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  27. 27. Projectsformba.blogspot.comWhat is Training in terms of organization?“Transferring information and knowledge to employers and equippingemployers to translate that information and knowledge into practice witha view to enhancingorganization effectiveness and productivity, and the quality of themanagement of people.” It also means that in organizational development,the related field of training and development (T & D) deals with the designand delivery of workplace learning to improve performance.Difference between Training and LearningThere is a big difference:  Training implies putting skills into people, when actually we should be developing people from the inside out, beyond skills, i.e., facilitating learning.  So focus on facilitating learning, not imposing training.  Emotional maturity, integrity, and compassion are more important than skills and processes. If you are in any doubt, analyze the root causes of your organizations successes and your failures - they will never be skills and processes.  Enable and encourage the development of the person - in any way that you can.  Give people choice - we all learn in different ways, and we all have our own strengths and potential, waiting to be fulfilled.Talk about learning, not training. Focus on the person, from the inside out,not the outside in; and offer opportunities for people to develop as people inas many ways you can. 28Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  28. 28. Projectsformba.blogspot.comA Brief Critique of Previous Approaches to Employee TrainingIt is a classic question in the training field, first raised by human capitaltheorists, that why firms train their employees. Many attempts have been madeto address this question, but the question of why firms provide general-skilltraining has not been fully understood. There have been two main theoreticalapproaches towards employee training, namely, the human capital approachand the technology-based approach. The human capital approach regardstraining as investment in human capital. Training is provided only when thebenefit from productivity gains is greater than the cost of training. Thetechnology-based approach regards training as a skill formation process.According to this approach, the expanded training in the contemporary periodis driven by the rapidly changing technologies and work reorganization. Thesetwo approaches are popular in academic and policy discussions. What theyhave in common is that they assume an instrumental logic and technicalrationality behind training decisions. Training is provided because it satisfiesthe functional needs of an organization. Studies with these approaches havelargely overlooked the content of employee training, as if all kinds of trainingprograms equally contribute to human capital accumulation or skill formation.Moreover, personal development training becomes a puzzle if viewed fromthese approaches, because it does not seem to follow from an instrumentallogic or technical rationality. 29Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  29. 29. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThe Puzzle about Personal Development TrainingThe puzzle about personal development training comes in the following fourways. First, it is not innately or immediately related to the technicalaspects of specific job tasks. Second, prior need analysis is rarelyconducted for such training, despite suggestions to do so in many traininghandbooks. Third, organizations and trainers seldom conduct evaluationsof behavior or outcome changes brought out by such training. Evaluation,when there is one, is often about how one feels about the training or what onehas learned. The evaluation questionnaire is often called a "smile sheet," astrainees often respond happily to the questions. But the impact of the trainingremains uncertain. Fourth, the rapid expansion of personal developmenttraining has taken place in the absence of scientific evidence of any linkbetween such training and improvement in organizational bottom lines.Core ArgumentSo, why have organizations increasingly engaged in personal developmenttraining? It is because that the rise of the participatory citizenship model oforganization over time has driven the expansion of personal developmenttraining in organizations. This argument is based on an institutionalperspective towards organizations. It is distinct from previous approaches totraining in two ways. First, it recognizes that training is not only provided tosatisfy functional needs of firms, but is also shaped by the sharedunderstanding about individuals and organizations, which is called"organizational model" in this study and is independent of the functionalneeds. Second, training decisions are not only affected by the internalconditions of an organization, but are also affected by the dominant ideologiesand practices in the organizational field. 30Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  30. 30. Projectsformba.blogspot.comImportance of Developing a Role in TrainingDeveloping a national role in training is important for an employersorganization for several reasons.First, it enables the organization to contribute to the development of acountrys human capital, through its influence on education policies andsystems and training by public training institutions, to better serve businessneeds. It also enables it to influence employers in regard to the need for themto invest more in training and employee development - which employersshould recognize as one key to their competitiveness in the future.Second, it provides an important service to members, especially in industrialrelations in respect of which sources of training for employers in developingcountries are few. Third, it is an important source of income provided theorganization can deliver relevant quality training. Fourth, it compels its ownstaff to improve their knowledge without which they cannot offer training toenterprises through their own staff. Fifth, the knowledge required for trainingincreases the quality of other services provided by the organization - policylobbying, advisory and representation services. Sixth, it contributes to betterhuman relations at the enterprise level and therefore to better enterpriseperformance, by matching corporate goals and people management policies.Finally, it improves the overall image of the organization and invests it with adegree of professionalism, which can lead to increased membership andinfluence. Many entrepreneurs seem to view employee training anddevelopment as more optional than essential...a viewpoint that can be costly toboth short-term profits and long-term progress. The primary reason training isconsidered optional by so many business owners is because its viewed moreas an expense than an investment. This is completely understandable whenyou realize that in many companies, training and development arent focusedon producing a targeted result for the business. As a result, business ownersfrequently send their people to training courses that seem right and sound goodwithout knowing what to expect in return. But without measurable results, itsalmost impossible to view training as anything more than an expense. 31Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  31. 31. Projectsformba.blogspot.comNow contrast that approach to one where trainings viewed as a capitalinvestment with thoughtful consideration as to how youre going to obtain anacceptable rate of return on your investment. And a good place to start your"thoughtful consideration" is with a needs analysis. As it relates to trainingand development, needs analysis is really an outcome analysis--what do youwant out of this training? Ask yourself, "Whats going to change in mybusiness or in the behavior or performance of my employees as a result of thistraining thats going to help my company?" Be forewarned: This exerciserequires you to take time to think it through and focus more on your processesthan your products.As you go through this analysis, consider the strengths and weaknesses in yourcompany and try to identify the deficiencies that, when corrected, represent apotential for upside gain in your business. Common areas for improvement inmany companies is helping supervisors better manage for performance. Manypeople are promoted into managerial positions because theyre technicallygood at their jobs, but they arent trained as managers to help theirsubordinates achieve peak performance. Determining your training anddevelopment needs based on targeted results is only the beginning. The nextstep is to establish a learning dynamic for your company. In todays economy,if your business isnt learning, then youre going to fall behind. And a businesslearns as its people learn. Your employees are the ones that produce, refine,protect, deliver and manage your products or services every day, year in, yearout. With the rapid pace and international reach of the 21st centurymarketplace, continual learning is critical to your businesss continued success.To create a learning culture in your business, begin by clearly communicatingyour expectation that employees should take the steps necessary to hone theirskills to stay on top of their professions or fields of work. Make sure yousupport their efforts in this area by supplying the resources they need toaccomplish this goal. Second, communicate to your employees the specifictraining needs and targeted results youve established as a result of your needsanalysis. 32Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  32. 32. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThird, provide a sound introduction and orientation to your companys culture,including your learning culture, to any new employees you hire. Thisorientation should introduce employees to your company, and provide themwith proper training in the successful procedures your companys developedand learned over time.Every successful training and development program also includes acomponent that addresses your current and future leadership needs. At its core,this component must provide for the systematic identification anddevelopment of your managers in terms of the leadership style that drives yourbusiness and makes it unique and profitable. Have you spent time thoughtfullyexamining the style of leadership thats most successful in your environmentand that you want to promote? What steps are you taking to develop thoseimportant leadership traits in your people?Financial considerations related to training can be perplexing, but in mostcases, the true budgetary impact depends on how well you manage the firstthree components (needs analysis, learning and leadership). If your training istargeted to specific business results, then youre more likely to be happy withwhat you spend on training. But if the training budget isnt related to specificoutcomes, then money is more likely to be spent on courses that have nopositive impact on the company.In many organizations, training budgets are solely a function of whether thecompany is enjoying an economic upswing or enduring a downturn. In goodtimes, companies tend to spend money on training thats not significant to theorganization, and in bad times, the pendulum swings to the other extreme andtraining is eliminated altogether. In any economic environment, the trainingexpense should be determined by the targeted business results you want, notother budget-related factors.To help counter this tendency, sit down and assess your training anddevelopment needs once or twice a year to identify your needs and brainstormhow to achieve your desired results effectively and efficiently. 33Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  33. 33. Projectsformba.blogspot.comYour employees are your principle business asset. Invest in them thoughtfullyand strategically, and youll reap rewards that pay off now and for years tocome. 34Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  34. 34. Projectsformba.blogspot.comBeyond Training: Training and DevelopmentTraining is generally defined as "change in behavior" - yet, how many trainersand managers forget that, using the term training only as applicable to "skillstraining"? What about the human element? What about those very samepeople we want to "train"? What about their individual beliefs, backgrounds,ideas, needs and aspirations?In order to achieve long-term results through training, we must broaden ourvision to include people development as part of our strategic planning.Although training covers a broad range of subjects under the three maincategories (skills, attitude, knowledge), using the term "training" withoutlinking it to "development" narrows our concept of the training function andleads us to failure.When we limit our thinking, we fall into the trap of: a. Classifying people into lots and categories b. Thinking of "trainees" as robots expected to perform a job function c. Dismissing the individual characteristics of people and the roles they play d. Focusing only on "what needs to be done" without adequately preparing the trainees involved to accept and internalize what is being taught.We are dealing with human thoughts, feelings and reactions which must begiven equal attention than to the skill itself. We thus create a double-focus:people development and skills training. These two simultaneous objectiveswill give us the right balance and guide our actions to reach our goal.To clarify our training and development objectives, and identify our criteriafor success, we must ask ourselves a few questions: • Do we expect an automatic, faultless job performance? • Does attitude count? 35Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  35. 35. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Does goodwill count? • Do loyalty and dedication count? • Does goal-sharing count? • Does motivation count? • Do general knowledge and know-how count? • Do people-skills count? • Does an inquisitive mind count? • Does initiative count? • Does a learning attitude count? • Does a sense of responsibility count? • Do team efforts count? • Do good work relations count? • Does creative input count? • Do we want employees to feel proud of their role and contribution?How can we expect such qualities and behavior if we consider and treat ourpersonnel as "skills performers"? However, we could achieve the desiredresults if we address the personal development needs of the employeesinvolved.When we plan for both "training" and "development", we achieve a properbalance between the needs of the company and those of the trainees. Thesynergy created takes us to new levels, to a continuing trend of companygrowth.Our consideration of the people involved results in work motivation, goal-sharing, and a sense of partnership. Not only do the employee-traineesperform at the desired levels, but they offer to the company and its customerstheir hidden individual gifts and talents, and this reflects itself in the quality of 36Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  36. 36. Projectsformba.blogspot.comservice. Customers feel and recognize efficient performance, motivation andteam-work. They become loyal customers.We can learn from the case of a small restaurant operator who had becomedesperate at the negligent attitude of his servers, resulting in customercomplaints. He decided to seek professional expertise to help him replace hisemployees with "motivated, trained" people fresh out of a waiters trainingschool.Following some probing questions it came to light that, besides hourly pay, hedid not offer much to attract and retain loyal and dedicated employees.Through professional consultation, he came to realize that even if he paidhigher wages to new "trained" employees, the problem would persist becauseemployees want more than wages from their work place. They want: • Organization and professional management • Information regarding the business and its customers • Recognition for their role in the companys success • Acknowledgement of their individual capacities and contributions • Positive discipline / fairness • A say in the way the business is run.The restaurant operator realized that until then he had treated his employees as"plate carriers" and this is exactly how they had behaved and performed. Hewas ready to change his mode of operation: he diverted his focus to the needsof his employees, re-structured his organisation, planned new operationalstrategies, a human resources strategy, training and development guidelines,disciplinary rules and regulations.He communicated and shared these in a meeting with his employees andhanded out the employee handbook prepared for that purpose. He alsoreminded them of their responsibilities towards the business, the customers,and themselves (taking charge of their own training, development, and work 37Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  37. 37. Projectsformba.blogspot.comperformance). They were more than pleased when he asked them to expresstheir opinions, make comments and suggestions.He was surprised at the immediate transformation that took place. He beganreceiving excellent reviews from his customers, the employees worked as ateam, their motivation sky-rocketed and he never had to replace them! All thiswas accomplished by extending the previous concept of training to that oftraining and people development.Training and Development represents a complete whole that triggers the mind,emotions and employees best work performance. It is not only businessmanagers and owners who must do this shift in thinking, but HumanResources Directors and Training Managers (whose title should be "Trainingand Development" Managers). By their actions, they should offer a personalexample, coaching and guiding all the people in an organisation to think"beyond training" and invest efforts in people: • Professional development • Personal development.Contrary to what some manager’s think, people do not quit a place of work assoon as they have grown personally and professionally through training anddevelopment programs - at least they do not do so for a long while. Theybecome loyal to their employer and help him/her grows business-wise, whichoffers them more opportunities. They chart their own course for careeradvancement within the broader framework of organizational growth.Do we not call employees our "human resources asset"? Whatever theirpositions, each expect to be treated as such; when they are, they give morethan their physical presence at work. 38Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  38. 38. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TRAINING & EVALUATION 39Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  39. 39. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TRAINING & EVALUATIONTrainingImproving business performance is a journey, not a destination. Businessperformance rises and falls with the ebb and flow of human performances. HRprofessionals lead the search for ways to enhance the effectiveness ofemployees in their jobs today and prepare them for tomorrow. Over the years,training programmes have grown into corporate with these goals in mind.Training programmes should enhance performance and enrich thecontributions of the workforce. The ultimate goal of training is to developappropriate talent in the workforce internally.In India, training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with itsown roles, structures and budgets, but it is still young. This field is however;expanding fast but controversy seems to envelop any attempts to find benefitscommensurate with the escalating costs of training.Training has made significant contributions to development of all kinds.Training is essential; doubts arise over its contribution in practice. Complaintsare growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. The training apparatus andcosts have multiplied but not its benefits. Dissatisfaction persists and isgrowing at the working level where the benefits of training should show upmost clearly. This disillusionment shows in many ways – reluctance to sendthe most promising people for training, inadequate use of personnel aftertraining etc. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion, traininghas entered a dangerous phase in its development.Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. What isrequired is an insight into what training can or cannot do and skill in designingand carrying out training effectively and economically.The searchlight of inquiry may make the task and challenges stand out toostarkly, too simply. Using experience with training in India and other rapidlydeveloping countries has this advantage at similar risk. The contribution thattraining can make to development is needed acutely and obviously. At the 40Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  40. 40. Projectsformba.blogspot.comsame time, the limited resources available in these countries make thiscontribution hard to come by. These lines are sharply drawn; on the one hand,no promise can be ignored; on the other, no waste is permissible.Much of the training provided today proceeds as if knowledge and action weredirectly related. This assumption is itself a striking illustration of the wide gulfthat separates the two. On a continuum with personal maturation and growth atone end and improvement in performance of predetermined tasks at the other,education lies near the former, and training near the later. Focusing training onskill in action makes the task wide and complex. Training embraces anunderstanding of the complex processes by which various factors that make upa situation interact.For every training strategy, no matter which, the proper focus right from thevery outset is on one or more people – on-the-job-in-the-organization – thiswhole amalgam. Wherever the focus moves during the training programme,the starting point becomes the focus again at the end. The difference lies inwhat people have learned that they now apply. That difference, in terms ofmore effective behavior is the measure of the efficacy of training.The training process is made up of three phases:Phase 1: Pre-training. This may also be called the preparation phase. Theprocess starts with an understanding of the situation requiring more effectivebehavior. An organization’s concerns before training lie mainly in four areas:Clarifying the precise objectives of training and the use the organizationexpects to make of the participants after training; selection of suitableparticipants; building favorable expectations and motivation in the participantsprior to the training; and planning for any changes that improved taskperformance will require in addition to training.Phase 2: Training. During the course of the training, participants focus theirattention on the new impressions that seem useful, stimulating and engaging.There is no guarantee that the participants will in fact learn what they havechosen. But the main purpose remains: participants explore in a training 41Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  41. 41. Projectsformba.blogspot.comsituation what interests them, and a training institution’s basic task is toprovide the necessary opportunities.Having explored, participants try out some new behavior. If they find the newbehavior useful, they try it again, check it for effectiveness and satisfaction,try it repeatedly and improve it. Finally, they incorporate this new facet intotheir habitual behavior in the training situation. If they do not find it useful,they discard it, try some variant, or discontinue learning in this direction. Theintricate process of selection and testing is continuous and more or lessconscious. It is important that work organizations meanwhile prepare theconditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return.Phase 3: Post-training. This may be called the "follow up" phase. Whentraining per se concludes, the situation changes. When the participants returnback to work from the training, a process of adjustment begins for everyoneinvolved. The newly learned skills undergo modification to fit the worksituation. Participants may find their organizations offering encouragement touse the training and also support for continuing contact with the traininginstitution. On the other hand, they may step into a quagmire of negativity.More effective behavior of people on the job in the organization is the primaryobjective of the training process as a whole. In the simplest training process,improvement is a dependent variable, and participants and organizationsindependent variables.The training process has the following major objectives:1) Improvement in PerformanceTraining will be an important aid to managers for developing themselves aswell as their subordinates. It is not a substitute for development on the job,which comes from doing, experiencing, observing, giving and receivingfeedback and coaching. Research has shown that 80% of a person’sdevelopment takes place on the job. However, training can contribute the vital20% that makes the difference. Training can bring about an improvement in aperson’s: 42Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  42. 42. Projectsformba.blogspot.com  Knowledge  Skills  Attitude  Thereby raising his potential to perform better on the job.2) GrowthTraining is also directed towards developing people for higher levels ofresponsibility thereby reducing the need for recruiting people from outside.This would have the effect of improving the morale of the existing employees.3) Organizational EffectivenessIn company training provides a means for bringing about organizationaldevelopment. It can be used for strengthening values, building teams,improving inter-group relations and quality of work life. The ultimateobjective of training in the long run is to improve the company’s performancethrough people performing better.Benefits of Training EvaluationEvaluation has three main purposes:Feedback to help trainers understand the extent to which objectives are beingmet and the effectiveness of particular learning activities – as an aid tocontinuous improvementControl to make sure training policy and practice are aligned withorganizational goals and delivering cost-effective solutions to organizationalissuesIntervention to raise awareness of key issues such as pre-course and post-course briefing and the selection of delegates Evaluation is itself a learningprocess. Training which has been planned and delivered is reflected on. Viewson how to do it better are formulated and tested .The outcome may be to:  Abandon the training 43Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  43. 43. Projectsformba.blogspot.com  Redesign the training – new sequence, new methods, new content, new trainer  Redesign the preparation/pre-work – new briefing material, new pre-course work  Rethink the timing of the training – earlier or later in people’s career, earlier or later in the training programme, earlier or later in the company calendar  Leave well aloneThe following are the clear benefits of evaluation:  Improved quality of training activities  Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to output  Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped  Better integration of training offered and on the job development  Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff  Evidence of the contribution that training and development activities are making to the organization  Closer integration of training aims and organizational objectives 44Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  44. 44. Projectsformba.blogspot.comThe Way AheadThe development of learning organizations, working to harness thebrainpower, knowledge and experience of their people, reflects thefundamental importance of training and learning for those organizations thathope to prosper in the new millennium. The rend towards a more"empowering" style of management and an increasing emphasis on self-development have combined to bring about a move away from didacticinstruction towards coaching and facilitation and away from "trainer" towards"performance improvement consultant".In the coming future, the following trends are likely to be seen:Increased use of virtual reality, the internet and multi-media trainingEmphasis on cross-cultural developmentRemote learning to reflect changing patterns of work 45Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  45. 45. Projectsformba.blogspot.com The Training RoleInternal TrainingThe role of an employers organization in training has to be viewed fromdifferent perspectives. First and foremost it must be viewed from an "internal"point of view i.e. the training and development of its own staff. This isessential to the effectiveness of the organizations training services as well asto the other services it provides members, all of which fall within thefollowing: • Influencing the legal and policy environment needed for business growth and development • Direct services to membersThis requires that the staff be trained in the areas of the organizations servicesand core competencies which may include areas such as: • Industrial relations • Human resource management • Occupational safety and health • Information analysis and research for:  Influencing the policy environment  Transferring knowledge to members  Undertaking wage and other surveys 46Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  46. 46. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTraining ServicesThis objective of training (i.e. to make its other services more effective)involves mostly the acquisition of knowledge needed for staff to perform theirfunctions. This is an important pre-requisite to staff undertaking the secondrole of an employers organization in training, which is to provide training tomembers (and sometimes to nonmembers) in areas in which they expectservices. But unlike in the case of the first objective of training earlier referredto, this second role or objective requires not only knowledge in the areas oftraining, but also training skills i.e. in training techniques or methodologies. Ifstaff do not develop training skills • They will be able to transfer knowledge • But not the skills to apply the knowledge to particular situations which arise in enterprises (productivity is increasingly the application of knowledge).Examples include negotiation, workplace mechanisms to improve workplacerelations and human resource management policies and practices such as: • Recruitment, selection, induction • Performance appraisal • Leadership and motivation • Employee retention • Wage and salary determinationThe main objectives of this second training role (to provide training tomembers) are: • To provide members with the means to address labour - related problems and issues • To instill in enterprise managers the skills needed to improve their management of people 47Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  47. 47. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Where enterprises have a training department, to train their personnel.It follows that the staff of employers organizations are not themselvespractitioners in people management. They are trainers of those engaged inmanaging people and, occasionally of other trainers.Influencing National Policies and ProgrammesThe third role is one to be discharged at the national level, and involvesinfluencing national educational and skills training policies and schemes. Thiscould be affected in a variety of ways: • Through representation on the policy boards of national training institutions. • Identifying employers education and skills needs and providing feed back from employers. Employers organizations could form executive training committees within the organization such as the Education Committee in the Japan Federation of Employers Associations, the Industrial Education and Training Committee in the Korean Employers Federation and the Committee on Manpower and Development in the Singapore National Employers Federation. At the initiative of the New Zealand Employers Federation the School- Industry Links Development Board was established in 1990 to strengthen the relationship between secondary schools and business. Unique pilot programmes were commenced in 1992 on "Teacher Placement in Industry" and "Management Course for Secondary School Principals". • Influencing government, education and training authorities to correct inappropriate policies and to commence preparing for the future education and training needs if HRD policies are to have impact. • Initiating or promoting teacher education programmes to impart to them knowledge about the role of business in society, the environment needed for business development etc. 48Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  48. 48. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Promoting closer links between employers and educational and training institutions. • Influencing course content e.g. management course contents to include more human relations management subjects, and even basic management in occupational safety and health and environmental management.Other RolesA fourth role is for an employers organization to raise awareness amongemployers of the need for increased investment in the development of humancapital as an essential condition for achieving competiveness.A fifth role is in the training of personnel or human resource managers, giventhe fact that their role still tends to be downgraded relative to othermanagement functions such as finance, marketing and production. This rolecould also be undertaken through training support given to professional bodieslike an institute of personnel management.A sixth role for an employers organization is the provision of advisoryservices to member companies by • Assisting trainers in enterprises to develop or improve their in-house training programmes, especially in the areas of the employers organizations expertise • Upgrading the knowledge of company trainers • Maintaining a directory of relevant training programmes/coursesSeventh, an employers organization should be able to influence the provisionof training incentives to be offered to employers, through the tax system ortraining levies. Numerous examples in countries abound which can provideuseful ideas to employers organizations.Eight, an employers organization could develop training material to be usedby enterprises for in-house training. 49Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  49. 49. Projectsformba.blogspot.comUnderstanding Employee Drives and Motivations - The FirstStep towards Motivation at WorkHowever large or small a company or business is, it is employees at all levelsthat can make or break it. This holds true not only for the people we hire on aregular basis, but also for temporary and contracted workers. It is as importantto research and study the needs, drives, and expectations of people we hire oremploy, and aim at responding to and satisfying those, as it is with regard tocustomers.In actual fact, considering the role each "employee" plays in a companyssuccess, analyzing and planning an adequate response to employeesmotivations deserves first place in the order of business.Before going any further, let us shift our approach from grouping people underthe generic category of "employee" to individual human beings and term themas "hired workers" or "working partners". This is what they are. We mustacknowledge them as human beings with individual needs, drives,characteristics, personalities, and acknowledge their contribution to thebusiness success.Though each person has specific needs, drives, aspirations, and capabilities, atvarying degrees of intensity, peoples basic needs are the same, as illustratedby Abraham Maslow in the following model: 50Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  50. 50. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Self-Actualization Ego Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological NeedsMASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDSMaslow explains the Hierarchy of Needs as applied to workers roughly asfollows:Physiological NeedsBasic physical needs: the ability to acquire food, shelter, clothing and otherbasics to surviveSafety Needs: a safe and non-threatening work environment, job security,safe equipment and installationsSocial Needs: contact and friendship with fellow-workers, social activitiesand opportunitiesEgo: recognition, acknowledgment, rewardsSelf-Actualization: realizing ones dreams and potential, reaching the heightsof ones gifts and talents.It is only when these needs are met that workers are morally, emotionally, andeven physically ready to satisfy the needs of the employer and the customers.Worker motivation must also be viewed from two perspectives: 1. Inner drives 51Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  51. 51. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 2. Outer (external) motivators.A persons inner drives push and propel him/her towards an employer, aparticular job, career, line of study, or other activity (such as travel orrecreation). It is these drives that Maslow delineates in his hierarchy of needs,and which we must understand and internalize, use as guidelines in our effortsto help employees feel motivated.The outer (external) motivators are the mirror image the employer or outsideworld offers in response to the inner drives. In order to attract the "cream ofthe crop" of available workers, same as in his/her dealings with customers, theemployer not only tries to satisfy these basic needs, but to exceed them -taking into consideration additional extraordinary needs individual workershave.Most workers need to: 1. Earn wages that will enable them to pay for basic necessities and additional luxuries such as the purchase of a home, or travel 2. Save for and enjoy old age security benefits 3. Have medical and other insurance coverage 4. Acquire friends at work 5. Win recognition 6. Be acknowledged and rewarded for special efforts and contributions 7. Be able to advance in life and career-wise 8. Have opportunities for self-development 9. Improve their skills, knowledge, and know-how 10. Demonstrate and use special gifts and abilities 11. Realize their ideals.The employer responds to those needs by offering and providing: 52Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  52. 52. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1. Employment 2. Adequate pay 3. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements, transportation, flexible work schedules) 4. Job security (to the degree possible) 5. Clear company policies 6. Clear and organized work procedures 7. A stable, just and fair work environment 8. A safe work environment 9. Medical coverage and other benefits 10. An atmosphere of teamwork and cooperation 11. Social activities 12. Reward and recognition programs 13. Incentive programs 14. Open lines of communication (formal and informal) 15. Systematic feedback 16. Training and development programs 17. Opportunities for promotion 18. Company/ business information 19. Information on customer feedback 20. Sharing of company goals and objectives a 21. Information on the market situation and industry 22. Future expectations 53Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  53. 53. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 23. Plans for the future 24. Guidance and mentoring.It is important that the employer discover other extraordinary needs applicantshave before hiring them and know beforehand whether he/she can satisfythose needs or not. An employee may have: • Family responsibilities and be unable to work shifts, overtime, or weekends • Heavy financial responsibilities which he/she can meet only by working at two jobs, leading to exhaustion, "sick leave", and deficient work performance • A desperate financial need for additional overtime and weekend remuneration • Premature expectations of swift promotions.Some other needs the employer can expect, for which company policiesshould be planned accordingly: • If the company is in a remote location, all employees will have a need for more social activities • Many single people look for dates and spouses at work • Some women may not be ready to work late shifts unless the employer provides transportation back home • Some workers may have a problem with drug or alcohol abuse.In addition to needs and drives, adult workers have expectations from theiremployer - they expect: • A knowledgeable, experienced, expert employer • Clear and fair policies, procedures, and employment practices • Business integrity 54Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  54. 54. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Clear job descriptions • Two-way communications • Effective management and supervision • Positive discipline • Good company repute • Good customer relations • Company survival • Opportunities for personal growth • Company growth • A share in the companys success.Business owners and managers are under constant scrutiny by the people theyhire. Adult workers care beyond the salary - they care to know to whom theyentrust their fate, reputation, and security. They consider their work as amajor factor that shapes their lives and the lives of those dear to them. Oncethey feel confident that the employer and their place of work is what theywished for and expected, they are ready to contribute above and beyond "thecall of duty".Most of these needs, expectations and aspirations are unexpressed - it is up tothe employer to develop a good system of company communications,employee relations, training and development that will lead to an environmentof openness, cooperation, teamwork, and motivation that will benefit all theparties involved.Cross-Training as a motivational and problem-solving Technique 55Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  55. 55. Projectsformba.blogspot.comMany managers, including human resources directors, mistakenly believe thatemployee motivation can be won through monetary rewards or other perks.They learn soon enough that such perks are taken for granted and that moneyis not the key to employee motivation. A professional and unifiedmanagement, in a good work environment, is the basis on which to buildemployee motivation.While high employee turnover reflects on low morale and lack of motivation,when seen from another angle, the absence of turnover quickly results in de-motivation since the possibility of motion and forward-motion is taken awayfrom employees. It is against human nature to remain static, performing thesame duties day in, day out, without expectations of change in routine oropportunities for advancement.Following a reading or lecture on the subject, managers sometimes implement"job enrichment" in a misguided manner, adding unrewarded responsibilitieson the shoulders of their supervisors and employees. This results in a feelingof exploitation and has the reverse of the intended effect.An effective training technique which results in motivation is cross-training,when implemented horizontally, upward and downward. Department heads,assistants and employees can cross-train in different departments or within thedepartment itself. With background support, employees can have one daytraining in the role of department head ("King for the Day"). When a GeneralManager is away, department heads can take roles replacing him, which is aform of cross-training.Cross-training should be carefully planned and presented as a learningopportunity. It should be incorporated in a hotels master yearly training plan,covering all positions and departments. It should begin with supervisory leveland filter down to entry-level positions. Housekeeping should cross-train inFront Office and vice-versa; Front Office in Marketing, Sales, PublicRelations, Food & Beverage, Banquets, Security; Marketing & Sales in FrontOffice, Food & Beverage, Purchasing; Food & Beverage Service in the 56Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  56. 56. Projectsformba.blogspot.comCulinary department and vice versa; Human Resources in differentdepartments and vice versa.This technique achieves the following objectives: • Prevents stagnation • Offers a learning and professional development opportunity • Rejuvenates all departments • Improves understanding of the different departments and the hotel as a whole • Leads to better coordination and teamwork • Erases differences, enmity and unhealthy competition • Increases knowledge, know-how, skills and work performance • Improves overall motivation • Leads to the sharing of organizational goals and objectives.Sending people to work in another department at a moments notice is notwhat cross-training is about. This has to be an effective planned process.Employees must "buy" into the idea, be encouraged to give feedback andmake suggestions for improvement. They become "partners". Departmentalcommunications meetings can be used to share lessons learned. Whenemployees think "the grass is greener on the other side of the lawn" they soonrealize their mistake after exposure to other departments. They return to theirjob with a better attitude.Cross-training can also be used to "shake up" supervisors or employees whohave lapsed into poor performance. Upon being moved to a different positionor department, albeit temporarily, they hear "warning bells", shape up andusually return to their positions as exemplary performers.Depending on the budget at hand and the objectives to be achieved, the timefor cross-training can vary from one day to a week or more. Details must be 57Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  57. 57. Projectsformba.blogspot.comcoordinated with the "receiving" department head. The trainee is incorporatedwithin the departments activities for the duration of the cross-training(briefings, meetings, or obligations).A more sophisticated form of cross-training is job rotation, which usuallyinvolves extended periods (from one month to six months). With job rotation,the employees role is of a different nature. He is not considered as trainee,but is responsible over certain job functions, for which he has to provehimself.Both cross-training and job rotation create a team of workers who are moreknowledgeable, can easily replace each other when needed and who gain newconfidence regarding their professional expertise. These two techniques leadto great motivation throughout the company.Unionized properties face some difficulty in implementing such techniquesdue to the rigidity of Union policies and labor agreements. It is up tomanagement to win over Unions on this concept and convince them of thebenefits to employees careers. Union representatives can be made tounderstand that company-wide cross-training involves substantial investmentin time, effort and payroll. The benefits, however, are enjoyed by the threemain stakeholders: employees, management and guests. Employees enjoy therewards of added know-how, skills, career opportunities and future securitydue to business success. 58Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  58. 58. Projectsformba.blogspot.comProblems for Employers Organizations DevelopingTraining RoleSeveral reasons account for the problems faced by employers organizations intraining their own staff, and in providing training to members. They includethe following: • Unlike enterprises which can have their staff trained in management and other training institutions, there are no courses and training institutions which are geared to the needs of employers organizations. This places a heavy responsibility on senior staff to train new recruits and on staff to develop themselves. Therefore organizations often rely on the ILO to conduct training programmes designed to serve the needs of employers organizations, and to provide staff with study tours to other employers organizations. • Most organizations do not have skilled trainers i.e. persons who have been trained as trainers. • Inadequate training material • Inadequate information/knowledge relating to labor-related subjects needed to attract enterprises to the organizations training programmes. • The economic viability of having full time training staff. Due to financial constraints, an employers organization would generally have to keep full time training staff to a minimum. Therefore staff with special skills providing advisory and representation services should be trained as trainers to enable them to undertake some training in their areas of expertise.Organizational Change 59Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  59. 59. Projectsformba.blogspot.comConventional organizational change, which typically encompasses trainingand development, and motivation, mostly fails.Why? Are the people stupid? Can they not see the need for change? Do theynot realise that if the organization cannot make these changes then we willbecome uncompetitive. We will lose market share. There will be job cuts. Wewill eventually go out of business. Can they not see it? Actually probably not.Or more precisely, people look at things in a different way.Bosses and organizations still tend to think that people whom are managed andemployed and paid to do a job should do what theyre told to do. We areconditioned from an early age to believe that the way to teach and train, and tomotivate people towards changing what they do, is to tell them, or persuadethem. From the experiences at school the people are conditioned to believethat skills, knowledge, and expectations are imposed on or put into people byteachers, and later, by managers and bosses in the workplace. But just becausethe boss says so, doesnt make it so. People today have a different perspective.And when they think about it, theyre bound to.Imposing new skills and change on people doesnt work because: • It assumes that peoples personal aims and wishes and needs are completely aligned with those of the organization, or that there is no need for such alignment, and • It assumes that people want, and can assimilate into their lives, given all their other priorities, the type of development or change that the organization deems appropriate for them.Instead, organizations, managers, bosses and business owners would do betterto think first about exploring ways to align the aims of the business with theneeds - total life needs - of their people. Most people who go to work areunder no illusion that their main purpose is to do what their manager says, sothat the organization can at the end of the year pay outrageously high rewardsto greedy directors, and a big fat dividend to the shareholders. The workers 60Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  60. 60. Projectsformba.blogspot.comwork so that other more gifted or fortunate or aggressive people can profitbecause of our efforts.And god help those if they are running a management buyout company, intenton floating or selling out in the next two-to-five years, making the MBOequity-holders millionaires, and leaving the employees, on whose backs thesescandalous gains have been made, up the creek without a paddle, at the mercyof the new owners.How the bloody hell do you expect decent hardworking people to align withthose aims?Its time for a radical re-think, before they all disappear up their ownbacksides...Fact one:People will never align with bad aims. Executive greed, exploitation,environmental damage, inequality, betrayal, false promises are transparent forall decent folk to see:"Oh you want me to do this training, and adjust to your changes, so I can makemore money for you and the parasites who feed off this corporation? Ive gotmy own life to lead thanks very much."And thats if bosses are lucky. Most staff will simply nod and smile demurelyas if in servile acceptance. If they still wore caps theyd doff them.The bosses should re-assess and re-align their organizations aims, beliefs, andintegrity - all of it - with their workers. Then they might begin to be interestedin helping with new skills and change, etc.Fact two:People cant just drop everything and change, or learn new skills, just becauseboss says so. Even if they want to change and learn new skills, they have awhole range of issues that keep them fully occupied for most of their waking 61Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  61. 61. Projectsformba.blogspot.comhours. The need for consulting with people is rather a good idea is that it savesboss from his own wrong assumptions. Consulting with people does not meanthat organization is in the workers hand they wouldnt want the corporation ifthey are paid well. So if the company is thinking in this then it is wrongbecause consulting with people gives boss and them a chance to understandthe implications and feasibility of what boss think needs doing. And asidefrom this, consulting with people, and helping them to see things from bothsides generally throws up some very good ideas for doing things better thanboss could have dreamt of by himself. It helps boss to see from both sides too.Fact three:Organizations commonly say they dont have time to re-assess and re-aligntheir aims and values, etc., or dont have time to consult with people properly,because the organization is on the edge of a crisis.Well whose fault is that? Organizations get into crisis because they ignorefacts one and two. Ignoring these facts again will only deepen the crisis.Crisis is no excuse for compromising integrity. Crisis is the best reason to re-align aims and consult with workers. Crisis is wake-up and change theorganization and its purpose - not change the people. When an organization isin crisis, the people are almost always okay - itll be the organizational purposeand aims that stink.The company should start by looking at their organizations aims and valuesand purposes. What does organization actually seek to do? Whom does theirorganization benefit? And whom does it exploit? Who are the winners, andwho are the losers? Does the organization have real integrity? Are they proudof the consequences and implications of what their organization does? Will theorganization be remembered for the good that it did? And what do workers sayto themselves about the way their boss is managing change?Some of the areas in which an employers organization can undertaketraining are: 62Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  62. 62. Projectsformba.blogspot.com a. Industrial Relations and Labour Law. This should be a priority as it is the labour relations role which, more than any other, distinguishes an employers organization from other employer bodies. b. Personnel and Human Resource Management. Training in this area helps to strengthen personal departments and human resource management functions. Since one of the main objectives of HRM is to integrate it with the functions of line managers, HRM training should be made available to all enterprise managers. However, training in this field may require linking up with institutions which are qualified in this regard, as it is difficult to build a comparative advantage without external assistance. c. Negotiation and negotiation skills. This is important not only for the conduct of collective bargaining but also for enterprise managers in their frequent interactions with their employees and other enterprises. d. Safety and health. An employers organization could develop a limited role, such as interpreting relevant laws and training safety committees in enterprises. e. Productivity. Here a limited role is possible, largely through training to achieve sound industrial relations and in HRM practices which promote productivity improvement. Productivity bargaining and performance and skills based pay systems are a part of an employers organizations mandate directly linked to productivity. f. Supervisory training. This often neglected area of training is an important means of improving workplace labour relations and productivity. The ILO has developed a supervisory training module which has been found useful by enterprises. g. Cross-cultural management training. In the context of increasing investment in countries from both within and outside the region and the apparent proliferation of disputes flowing from cross-cultural "mismanagement", there is scope for the development of training 63Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  63. 63. Projectsformba.blogspot.com programmes for foreign personnel designed to acquaint them with local practices and cultural factors relevant to managing local employees. Increasingly, local employees also need to adjust to the management requirements and styles of foreign companies. Strangely, this has been a much neglected area of training. However, it requires quite a mastery of local systems, practices and culture.Training should not take the form of only collective training programmes i.e.for personnel from several different enterprises. Considerable impact can beachieved through the design and conduct of training programmes for particularenterprises at plant level as it facilitates addressing a particular enterprisesneeds. The latter type of programme also has a reasonable chance of attractingsenior managers who are in a position to influence the companys policies.Equipping the Organization for TrainingThe organization should equip itself to perform a training role. Among otherthings, this involves the followings: • Analyzing the organizations strengths and weaknesses in training in the light of the needs assessment surveys and identification of the areas of training. • Training the staff in training skills • Where relevant, studying the management of the training function of employers organizations which have developed an excellence in training • Improving the organizations information/research/knowledge base • Developing training courses and materials • Where necessary entering into arrangements with outside individuals or institutions to design and/or conduct training programmes • Appointing a training manager, or at least a person to plan and coordinate the training 64Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  64. 64. Projectsformba.blogspot.com • Acquisition of the training equipment needed.As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learnersto transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in theircurrent jobs. Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities(training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up toanother threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in thefuture. 65Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  65. 65. Projectsformba.blogspot.comTopics of Employee Training1) Corporate ethics: This covers the value of good manners,courtesy, consideration, personal décor and good rapport. It alsoshows why and how to discourage gossip, controversies, personalwork at office, rush jobs etc.2) Communications: The increasing diversity of todays workforcebrings a wide variety of languages and customs. Right from theway the receptionist handles a call to how the CEO deals with acustomer gives a glimpse of the image of an organization. Suchtraining encompasses oral, written and presentation skills. Itstresses the importance of communication being clear, concise,concrete and colorful.3) Career and life planning: A primarily employee-orientedtraining objective u undertaken to help employees plan for theirlives, career, retirement, redundancy etc. Such training imparts thevalues of life skills that employees need under different anddifficult circumstances.4) Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity forconducting administrative and office tasks.5) Customer service: Increased competition in todays globalmarketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meetthe needs of customers.6) Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation abouthow people have different perspectives and views, and includestechniques to value diversity 66Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  66. 66. Projectsformba.blogspot.com7) Staff management and team building: Such training shows theimportance and benefits of good management and how everyonecan achieve more through teamwork.8) Stress management: Stress is an individual’s response to threatsand challenges in the environment. Manifested physiologically andphysically, it may occur due to role conflict, role ambiguity, roleincompatibility, role overload or role under load. Stressmanagement techniques are covered under this objective.9) Time management: Time management skills covered hereshowcase the importance of being specific, delegation andprioritization. They also show how to set measurable, attainable,relevant and time-bound goals.10) Human relations: The increased stresses of todays workplacecan include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people toget along in the workplace. It also includes interpersonalrelationship skills Communication is a two-way exercise and thisobjective covers the importance of listening, concentrating,showing empathy and self-awareness. 11) Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total QualityManagement, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basictraining about quality concepts, guidelines and standards forquality, etc. 12) Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavyequipment , hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but canalso be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. 67Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  67. 67. Projectsformba.blogspot.com13) Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usuallyincludes careful description of the organizations policies aboutsexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriatebehaviors.14) Memory skills: This objective highlights techniques for betterreception, retention and recall through audio and visual learningtechniques. It helps to improve skills by employing all senses,associating and following systematic review plans.15) Special skills: Besides the above, organizations also impartspecial job-related skills. These may include technology training,report writing, technical training, quality assessments etc.An organization may choose to impart training in any or many ofthe objectives mentioned above. But before one invests it isimportant to choose a trainer who is good and capable of making apositive difference with his or her training methodologies. Alsoorganizational training needs to be undertaken keeping the missionand the vision statement of the organization in view. 68Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  68. 68. Projectsformba.blogspot.comBenefits from Employee Training and DevelopmentRegardless of the size or type of an industry or business, training can havea measurable impact on performance and the bottom line.Research shows that productivity increases while training takes place. Astaff who receives formal training can be 230 per cent more productivethan untrained colleagues who are working in the same role. Stayingcompetitive is the key to sustainability. Training your staff, keeping themmotivated and up-to-date with industry trends and new technologies isessential to achieving that goal.Staff benefit too, learning new skills and becoming a valued asset in anyorganization. Training brings direct benefits to business and can becalculated as a return on investment.High labor productivity increases business output and can open a greatershare of the market or expand it by improving products, services andreputations.Successful training is focused on supporting your business objectives.  Staff retentionTraining increases staff retention which is a significant cost saving, as theloss of one competent person can be the equivalent of one years pay andbenefits.In some companies, training programs have reduced staff turnover by 70per cent and led to a return on investment of 7,000 per cent.  Improved quality and productivityTraining that meets both staff and employer needs can increase the qualityand flexibility of a business’s services by fostering: • Accuracy and efficiency • Good work safety practices • Better customer service.Most businesses provide on-the-job training, particularly during induction.Ongoing training almost always shows a positive return on investment. 69Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  69. 69. Projectsformba.blogspot.com  The flow-on effectThe benefits of training in one area can flow through to all levels of anorganisation. Over time, training will boost the bottom line and reducecosts by decreasing: • Wasted time and materials • Maintenance costs of machinery and equipment • Workplace accidents, leading to lower insurance premiums • Recruitment costs through the internal promotion of skilled staff • Absenteeism. • Staying competitiveBusinesses must continually change their work practices and infrastructureto stay competitive in a global market. Training staff to manage theimplementation of new technology, work practices and business strategiescan also act as a benchmark for future recruitment and quality assurancepractices.As well as impacting on business profit margins, training can improve: • Staff morale and satisfaction • Soft skills such as inter-staff communication and leadership • Time management • Customer satisfactionThere are numerous sources of on-line information about training anddevelopment. Several of these sites (theyre listed later on in this library)suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. Thesereasons include:1. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees2. Increased employee motivation3. Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain4. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods5. Increased innovation in strategies and products 70Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  70. 70. Projectsformba.blogspot.com6. Reduced employee turnover7. Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a goodreason for ethics training!)8. Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity trainingCompanies that have a healthy training culture report the following benefits: • Improved quality • Increased productivity • Greater flexibility and responsiveness to change • Reduced insurance premiums • Less wastage • Reduced maintenance and repair costs • Greater commitment from staff • Higher staff retention rate • Improved morale.Perhaps the most important benefit of a healthy training culture is that theskills of your staff are formally recognised and that your employees feel thattheir contribution to the company is valued. 71Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  71. 71. Projectsformba.blogspot.comRenewed focus on Corporate TrainingUpcoming technologies are aimed at making organizational processes moreefficient, but this effort is incomplete without proficient employees who are intouch with forthcoming innovations in their companies. Today, human capitalhas replaced physical capital as a source of competitive advantage for allorganisations, big and small; hence there is a renewed focus on corporatetraining to create a better, faster and smarter workforce that will impactbusiness results.The training industry in India has evolved as a business effectiveness tool. Thearena of training has moved on from employee retention programmes to issueslike sales training, leadership, relationship building and increasing production.Sanjeev Duggal, CEO and MD, NIS of Sparta says that, “Training has becomea critical business enabler and is being linked to business outcome. Due toever-changing market scenarios and stiff competition, every organisationwants to make optimum use of the most critical resource-people-efficientlyand effectively to impact business results.”In-house vs. outsourceThe kind of training requirement an organization has determines whether thetraining is conducted in-house or is outsourced to a third party. Duggal notes,“Training programmes that involve volume and are done on a consistent basis(like the voice-and-accent training imparted at BPOs) is generally done in-house. But an organization usually involves a third party when there is needfor a specialized training programme like a management developmentprogramme, role-based skill development programme or outboundprogramme.”Corporate preference is generally towards organizations that have goodexperience in training corporate personnel. Training students and trainingprofessionals are different in terms of approach, methodology and delivery.Trainers have to be highly experienced with a track record of successfuldelivery. 72Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  72. 72. Projectsformba.blogspot.comNair explains, “Training programmes are usually in-house where the clientutilizes his own environment and facilities, thereby giving him traveling andeconomic benefits. But some organizations outsource their entire trainingprogrammes to qualified and reputed training organizations after due diligenceon their credentials, faculties, client references and experience in thebusiness.”According to Katyal, the choice between outsourcing and in-house trainingdepends on the nature and need of the organization. IT and BPO companiesundertake a lot of in-house training, and depending on the kind of specializedtraining required, they outsource. Government sector companies mostlychoose to outsource. Outsourcing offers the advantage of sourcing scarcetalent and the ability to ramp up quickly, whereas in-house training offersgreater control.Matching schedules and providing customized courseware for customizedcontent is another operational challenge in this segment.Katyal points out that the challenges which companies face while undertakingtraining programmes includes finding locations for training in remote areasand an experienced faculty.Multiple gainsTraining makes an organization well-equipped to keep pace with the changingdynamics of business. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and tosociety. Generally, they receive a greater share of the material gains due totheir increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfactionthrough the achievement of personal and company goals.Nair points out that IT-based training programme enable participants to usesoftware to its fullest potential, thereby cutting down time requirements andgetting the best RoI on the company’s technology deployments. “Training as aculture also helps corporate HR retain their people. On the technology side,participants aspire for knowledge initiatives. Constant updating on 73Projectsformba.blogspot.com