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History of firearms

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history of firearm and its classification

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History of firearms

  1. 1. History Of Firearms Department of Criminology & Forensic Science Dr. Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya Sagar, Madhya Pradesh Submitted To: Dr. Navjot Kaur Kanwal Assistant Professor Submitted By : Rajen Kerketta • M.Sc. Forensic Science
  2. 2. Firearms  “ An instrument or device with which it is possible to propel a projectile by means of the expansive force of the gases generated by the combustion of an explosive substance”
  3. 3. Firearms: A Quick History • Firearms were invented in 1260 in China, after the Chinese • had invented gunpowder in the 9th century • These inventions were later transmitted to the Middle East, • Europe, and Africa • Almost every gun is based on the same simple concept: You apply explosive pressure behind a projectile to launch it down a barrel. • The earliest & simplest application of this idea is the cannon • The 1st handheld guns were essentially mini-cannons; you loaded some gunpowder & a steel ball & lit a fuse
  4. 4. History of Firearms 11/15/2019 4
  5. 5. Handcannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271- 1368)  By the mid 1300’s the first recorded use of a firearm was noted  These were primitive muzzle loading black powder firearms  Referred to as hand cannons
  6. 6.  The earliest type of handgun was simply a small cannon of wrought iron or bronze, fitted to a frame or stock with metal bands or leather thongs  These weapons were loaded from the muzzle end of the barrel with powder, wad and ball  A small hole at the breech end of the barrel, the touch hole, was provided with a pan into which a priming charge of powder was placed  On igniting this priming charge,either with a hot iron or lighted match, fire flashed through the touch hole and into the main powder charge to discharge the weapon.
  7. 7. Match lock
  8. 8.  This was really the first major advance in pistols as it enabled the weapon to be fired in one hand and also gave some opportunity to aim it as well.  The construction of matchlock was exactly the same as the hand cannons and the only difference was match, a slow burning piece of cord.  A slow burning piece of cord used to ignite the priming charge, was held in a curved hook screwed to the side of the frame.  To fire the gun, the hook was merely pushed forward to drop the burning end of the match into the priming charge.
  9. 9. pros: First Trigger  CONS: Fragile Weather Sensitive Poor Accuracy
  10. 10. Wheel lock Wheel lock
  11. 11.  With the advent of the wheel lock the lighted match used in the match lock was no longer necessary  The wheel lock consisted of a serrated steel wheel, mounted on the side of the weapon at the rear of the barrel  The wheel was spring loaded via a chain round its axle with a small key or spanner similar to a watch drum  When the wheel was turned with a spanner, the chain wound round the axle and the spring was tensioned  Part of the wheel protruded into the small pan, the flash pan or priming pan, which contained the priming charge for the touch hole
  12. 12.  A piece of iron pyrite was fixed in its jaws  This was kept in tight contact with the serrated wheel by means of a strong spring  On pressing the trigger, the bar was withdrawn from the grooved wheel which then turned on its axle  Sparks produced from the friction of the pyrite on the serrated wheel ignited the priming charge which in turn ignited the main powder charge and fired the weapon
  13. 13. Wheel lock Pros: Shorter lock time, better accuracy, Less weather sensitive Cons: Fragile operating system, very expensive to manufacture
  14. 14. Flint lock Source: www.howstuff.com
  15. 15. Flint lock Flintlock ignition appeared in the late 1600s. When the trigger is pulled, the hammer holding a piece of flint fell against a steel cover (the frizzen) sitting over the priming pan.The hammer knocked the cover out of the way and the collision of flint and steel caused sparks that ignited the powder in the priming pan. Top View Flash Pan
  16. 16.  The ignition system which superseded that of the wheel lock was a simple mechanism which provided a spark by striking a piece of flint against a steel plate  The flint was held in the jaws of a small vice on a pivoted arm, called the cock  The steel which was called the frizzen, was called the frizzen, was placed on another pivoting arm opposite the cock,and the pan containing the priming compound was placed directly below the frizzen  When the trigger was pulled, a strong spring swung the cock in an arc so that so that the flint struck the steel a glancing blow
  17. 17.  The glancing blow produced a shower of sparks which dropped into the priming pan igniting the priming powder  The flash produced by the ignited priming powder travelled through the touch hole, thus igniting the main charge and discharging the weapon
  18. 18. Percussion system The percussion lock (also called “caplock”) replaced the flintlock in early 1800s. Early percussion locks used priming compounds inside a metallic foil cap placed over the vent hole. When the hammer strikes the cap, the resulting spark ignites the main charge. Percussion
  19. 19.  The percussion cap also paved the way to the self- contained ammunition we have today – cartridges and shotshells  The percussion cap ignition system was developed in 1805 by the Reverend John Forsyth of England  Gunpowder, the projectile and the primer were put together into a single housing that could be loaded quickly in the mid-1800s. In addition to this system, some of the new in- line muzzle loaders may use a 209 primer, the same as is used in some shotgun shells
  20. 20.  Introduced in 1820s  Making serious strides towards cartridges  Explosive pressure sensitive Ignition system much less sensitive to weather. Percussion caps
  21. 21.  The compound, mercury fulminate, when struck by a hammer, produced a flash strong enough to ignite the main charge of powder in the barrel  A separate priming powder and sparking system was now no longer required  With this invention, the basis for self contained cartridge was laid  Shaw employed a small iron cup into which was placed a small quantity of mercury fulminate.
  22. 22.  This was placed over a small tube, called a nipple, projecting from the rear of the barrel  The hammer striking the mercury fulminate in the cup caused it to detonate and so send a flame down the nipple tube igniting the main charge in the barrel.
  23. 23. SpringfieldM1864 SPECIFICATION:  Manufacturer Springfield  Calibre .58  Rifled  Muzzle Loading  Accurate Range 400 yards Hammer Percussion cap goes here Functioning: The hammer strikes the percussion cap and ignites the gunpowder, which propels the bullet out the barrel of the gun. Sights
  24. 24. Pros- Cheap, fast lock time, improved weather resistance, multi-shot (repeater) action, looks good in Westerns  Cons- Slow reload time, possible sympathetic detonations.
  25. 25. The pinfire system  Introduced in 1840  Off set primer  Firing pin part of cartridge.
  26. 26.  Pin fire weapon was one of the earliest true breech - loading weapons using a self - contained cartridge in which the propellant, missile and primer were all held together in a brass case  In this system, the percussion cup was inside the cartridge case whilst a pin, which rested on the percussion cup, protruded through the side of the cartridge case  Striking the pin with the weapon’s hammer drove the pin into the priming compound causing it to detonate and so ignite the main propellant charge.
  27. 27. pinfire
  28. 28. The Rimfire system  Introduced in 1840s  Round of ammo is complete.  No cartridge pin  Longest lived cartridge to date is rimfire
  29. 29.  It is a thin - walled cartridge with a hollow flanged rim  Into this rim is spun a small quantity of a priming compound  Crushing the rim with the firing pin causes the priming compound to explode, thus igniting the propellant inside the case.
  30. 30.  BB caps  One of the oldest cartridges used for indoor gallery shooting  Primer only, no gunpowder rimfire
  31. 31.  Rimfire has the priming compound in the rim of the cartridge  Cartridge is self contained allows fast reloading, repeating action, reliability rimfire
  32. 32. Early Rimfire •
  33. 33. Modern Rimfire  Most common ammunition sold in the world  Pros- Cheap, Accurate, reliable Cons- limitations of velocity and caliber
  34. 34. 22LR  Most common cartridge  Very accurate  Cheap  Reliable  Virtually no recoil minimal noise
  35. 35. 22LR
  36. 36. Center fire system
  37. 37.  This was the great milestone in weapon and ammunition development  In centre fire ammunition, only the primer cup needed to be soft enough to be crushed by the firing pin  The cartridge case could thus be made of a more substantial material which would act as a gas seal for much higher pressures than could be obtained with rimfire ammunition.
  38. 38. WhyCenterfire?  Reloadable  Capable of big projectiles and high velocities  Reliable  Very weather resistant
  39. 39.  Heard, B.J., 2008, Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics, United Kingdoms, Wiley Blackwell  Sharma, B.R., 2002, Firearms in Criminal Investigation and Trials, 3rd edition, India, Universal Law Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.  Gun Timeline, https://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/technique/gun- timeline/ Retrieved on 5th October, 2019  NRA Museum, http://www.nramuseum.org/gun-info-research/a-brief- history-of-firearms.aspx Retrieved on 6th October, 2019  The History of Guns, https://historycooperative.org/the-history-of-guns/ Retrived on 10th October, 2019  Popular Mechanics, https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/weapons/g935/flying- humvees-and-cluster-bombs-from-the-air-force-expo-12858520/ Retrieved on 30th September, 2019 Reference
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history of firearm and its classification

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