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Accounting System Design and Development - System Planning and Development


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Accounting System Design and Development - System Planning and Development

  1. 1. (Part II)  Additional material: Stair and Reynolds 2008- Chapter 8 via e-reserve  System Planning and Development Accounting System Design and Development
  2. 2.  Traditional development life cycle  Prototyping  Joint application design  Rapid application development  CASE tools  Object-oriented development   Understand the concept of system development methodologies  Describe the advantages and disadvantages of traditional system development, prototyping, joint application design, rapid application development, and end-user development life cycles.  Evaluate the alternatives to in-house system development. 
  3. 3.  May produce excessive documentation.  Users are often unwilling or unable to study the specifications they approve.  Takes too long to go from the important issues to a working system.  Users have trouble describing requirements for a proposed system.   Forces staff to be systematic by going through every step in a structured process.  Enforces quality by maintaining standards.  Has lower probability of missing important issues in collecting user requirement. 
  4. 4.   An iterative approach to the systems development process.  Starts with only a general idea of user requirements, and develops models of the system ‘until it’s right’.  During each iteration, requirements and alternative solutions to the problem are identified and analyzed.  Users are encouraged to try the prototype and provide feedback. 
  5. 5.  Speeds up the development approach  Gives the users the opportunity to clarify their information requirements  Useful in the development of decision support systems and executive information systems  Work well for ill-defined problems  Help clarify user requirements  Promote close working relationship between systems developers and users.   A small scale working model of the entire system.  For example, sample report or output screen  After the first preliminary model is refined, the second, third models are introduced until the complete system is developed. 
  6. 6.  A group-based method for collecting user requirements and creating staged designs.  Process for data collection and requirements analysis in which users, stakeholders, and IS professionals work together to analyze existing systems, propose possible solutions, and define the requirements of a new or modified system.  A group normally require one or more top- level executives who initiate the JAD process.   Can result in an excess of iterations  Time consuming  If the process lacks of documentation, this can leads to problems after the system becomes operational and need maintenance.  Not practical with large number of users. 
  7. 7.  Easy for management to understand  Greater support for, and acceptance of new systems  Saves time  Produces higher quality systems  Easier implementation  Lower training costs   All users jointly define and agree upon systems requirements.  Often uses group support systems (GSS) software to foster positive group interaction.  Often used within the system analysis and system design stages of the SDLC. 
  8. 8.  A systems development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development.  A method that can combine JAD, prototyping, and integrated CASE tools, to rapidly produce a high- quality system.  It is an iterative approach similar to prototyping, which emphasizes on the speed of development.  For example, IBM has a RAD tool called Rational Rapid Developer, to make developing large Java programs.   Very difficult to get all users to JAD meetings.  Potential to have dysfunctional groups.  All the problems that may be caused by any group process. 
  9. 9.  System maybe built quickly, which may result in lower quality.  May result in systems with limited functionality and adaptability for change   Reduce paper-based documentation  Source code are automatically generated  Can create applications that are easier to maintain and modify  Speeds the development process  Reduces development costs  Active involvement of users in the development process 
  10. 10. What is Rapid Application Development (RAD)? How does RAD differ and/or similar from Prototyping? 
  11. 11.  Factors that drive the trends toward increased end-user computing and end-user development ◦ More powerful, inexpensive desktop hardware ◦ Increasingly diverse software capabilities ◦ Increasingly computer literate population ◦ Apparent cost savings   Any systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users.  Users perform ad hoc programming to solve business problems. 
  12. 12.  Creates lower-quality systems because an amateur does the programming  May eventually require consulting and maintenance assistance from the IT department  System may not have adequate documentation  Poor quality control  System may not have adequate interfaces to existing systems.   Directly meets user requirements  Bypasses the information systems department and avoids delays  User controls the application and can change it as needed  Increased user acceptance of new system  Frees up IT resources and may reduce application development backlog 
  13. 13.  Software obtained via subscription  Software resides on ASP’s systems  Software is accessed via Web or VPN  Subscriber does not have to host software on existing computer systems  Updates and bug fixes are provided by the ASP  ASP can provide help-desk support   Factors to consider during make-or-buy decision ◦ On-time ◦ On-budget ◦ Full functionality ◦ User acceptance ◦ Favorable costs-to-benefits ratio ◦ Low maintenance ◦ Scalability ◦ Integration with other systems ◦ Minimal negative cross-impacts ◦ Reusability 
  14. 14.  When organisations may not be able to manage technology as well as firms that specialise in managing IT  When IT is not a core competency area  When it is cheaper to outsource  When organisations do not have skilled IT staff that can keep technology up to date.   An alternative to developing and installing internal AIS is to outsource them.  Under outsourcing, a company needing data processing services hires an outside organization to handle all or part its data processing services.  The degree to which a company outsource may range from routine assistance with a single application to running the entire IT department. 
  15. 15.  Technical ◦ Access to new information technologies ◦ Ability to achieve technological improvement more easily ◦ Greater access to technical skills not available internally ◦ Faster application development and placement of IT application to service   Financial ◦ Avoidance of heavy capital investment ◦ Improved cash flow and cost accountability ◦ Improved cost benefits from economies of scale and from sharing computer, housing, hardware, software and personnel ◦ Less need for expensive office space 
  16. 16.  Quality ◦ Improve performance accountability ◦ Improve quality accreditation  Flexibility ◦ Quick response to business demands ◦ Ability to handle IT peaks and valley more effectively   Management ◦ Concentrate on core business activity ◦ Improve company focus ◦ Elimination of need to recruit and retain competent of IT staff
  17. 17.  Irreversibility of the outsourcing decision  Possible breach of contract by the vendor or its inability to deliver, loss of control over IT decisions  Loss of critical IT skills  Vendor lock-in  Some costs are hidden: vendor search and contracting, transitioning fro in-house IT to a vendor   The company may lose control of its information system and be exposed to possible abuse.  It could be difficult for a company to break its contract, resulting in inflexibility.  Over the long run, a company may lose sight of its information needs and how the system can provide it with competitive advantage. 
  18. 18.  Stair, R. and Reynolds G. (2008), Fundamentals of Information Systems, 3rd Edition, Thompson, USA  Benson, S. and Standing, C. (2008), Information Systems: A Business Approach, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York 
  19. 19. For more details on Assignment Help/ Homework Help/ Online Tuitions visit our website at Thank You