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‘Inside	  and	  Out:	  Interactions	  between	  Rome	  and	  the	  Peoples	  on	  the	  Arabian	  and	  	  Egyptian	  Fron...
When excavating Roman garrisons in theEastern Desert of Egypt, the archaeologicalteam headed by Hélène Cuvigny found inter...
© Hélène Cuvigny
© Hélène Cuvigny(ετους)	  ια	  //	  Φαρμουθι	  κε	  μετρησον	  	  	  Ενγοσαρεκ	  υπερ	  ονοματος	  Μακακ	  πυρου	  	  	  α...
Here is a diplomatic transcription of O.Xer. inv. 374 taken from myFilemaker database (letters in blue = pointed, in pink ...
There	  is	  Blemmyan	  onomastic	  material	  extant	  from	  mainly	  two	  sources:	  	  	  	  •	  Epigraphic	  materia...
Jean Maspero « Notes épigraphiques »               BIFAO 6, 1908, 43-45                                       εγω	  ϊϲεμνε...
•	  Papyrological	  material	  from	  El-­‐Gebelein	  (Pathyris	  	  or	  Aphroditopolis),	  Upper	  Egypt,	  ca.	  6th	  ...
Berlin P. 8978H. Satzinger „Urkunden der Blemmyer“         Chr. d‘Égypte 43, 1968, 129-130
H. Satzinger „Urkunden der Blemmyer“         Chr. d‘Égypte 43, 1968, 129-130                                           τω	...
Berlin P. 22041                  H. Satzinger BKU III, 350
BKU III 350 (Berlin P. 22041)H. Satzinger BKU III, 350                            . anok xarawtik pé N. aen eisàai ntamer ...
The	  number	  of	  the	  personal	  names	  gained	  from	  these	  sources	  is	  about	  ninety.	  	  	  	  It	  had	  ...
BedawiyetA language of SudanPopulation      951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 30,000 Hadendoa,    15,000 Bisharin (1992). Popul...
This photo [circa1921] comes fromthe University of  Cambridge in    England.
Beja in Camel Race, near Port Sudan   © François-Olivier Dommergues 2009
In	  the	  following	  list,	  Greek	  and	  Coptic	  phi,	  theta,	  khi	  are	  rendered	  by	  ph,	  th,	  kh,	  respec...
abene	  (a	  god)	  aynēm	                                                                                        NAMES FR...
kirbe·y-­‐tak	  (cf.	  Bedauye	  kurba	  ‘elephants,’	  tak	  ʻmanʼ)	  kola	  (cf.	  Bedauye	  kwal	  ‘hammer,	  strike,	 ...
pōae	  pre-­‐kna	  (cf.	  Bedauye	  Mir	  ‘face,’	  kena	  ʻownerʼ)	                            NAMES FROMsaltik	         ...
yaha-­‐tek	  (cf.	  Bedauye	  tak	  ʻmanʼ)	  yasa-­‐tek	  (cf.	  Bedauye	  yaas	  ‘dog,’	  tak	  ʻmanʼ)	                  ...
The	  names	  that	  could	  be	  read	  on	  the	  ostraca	  from	  the	  Roman	  garrison	  (3rd	  cent.)	  are	  cited	...
.	  .	  γ̣ει	  	  .	  .	  χορει̣	  (Σ̣α̣χορει̣	  possible)	                                          NAMES FROM	  .	  αδα	...
Ανης	  	  Ανητ	  	                                                                  NAMES FROMΑννακι	  	  7x	  Αννυενετ	  ...
Βια	  Βιπαου	  (rather	  than	  Βιν̣αου)	                                                                                 ...
Ιαριμ	  	  Ιεμαρ	                                                                       NAMES FROMΙεραβοκ;	  	  Ιεραβωκ	  ...
Μουνχα	  .	  	  Μω̣ρους	  	                                                          NAMES FROMΝ̣αειλ̣α	  Νε̣-­‐	  […]	   ...
Σουπταου	  Σ̣υ̣ροβα	  	                                                                         NAMES FROMΣω̣γ̣	  .	  [	  ...
A phonetic analysis of the “Barbarian” material is badlyhampered. One reason is that the reading is uncertain in manycases...
In order to achieve concrete results, however, a statisticanalysis was undertaken, considering the discernableconsonantal ...
!"#$%&%($)&*+#,$-.+/#/%0        1*)/%0           2/+%0           34#%05678        9   878      <9                     =C5 ...
!"#$%&$(&)&*$(&+",$-./&                         0,1$123&        4"5123&         61,23&             !7$23&8&9&             ...
!"#$%&%($)&*+#,$-                                           .*/#"0#123#1&*+#,$-4+5#5%6        7*)5%6           85+%6      ...
The	   most	   conspicuous	   result	   is	   in	   the	   auslaut	   restrictions	  which	   are	   virtually	   identica...
Women’s	   names	   often	   end	   in	   -­‐t	   or	   -­‐s:	   	   apehseµ·t,	  mahana·t;	  	  amna·s,	  senta·s-­‐ao,	 ...
Names of Cent. V to VI — Grammatical StructuresNo examples in the names of the ostraca of cent. III.
Can the names from the ostraca be interpreted as Beja language (Bedauye)?Beja expert Klaus Wedekind passed the names thoug...
NO	  REASONABLE	  RESULTS:	  ab-­‐ait,	  ab-­‐er	  .	  .	  ḷi,	  aḅ-­‐ṃạạ,	  abou:	  	  cf.	  ab	  ‘kid‘,	  fem.	  abat;	...
Also,	   possible	   reminiscences	   of	   the	   elements	   found	   in	  the	  Blemmyan	  names	  from	  Talmis	  and	...
This	  result	  is	  astonishing.	  	  Although	  the	  names	  from	  the	  ostraca	   have	   a	   similar	   phoneme	  ...
WE MAY HOPE FOR FURTHER ELUCIDATIONON THE BARBARIAN NAMES ...................
WE MAY HOPE FOR FURTHER ELUCIDATIONON THE BARBARIAN NAMES ...................                   Hadendowa, ca. 1960
THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA  FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)
THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA  FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)
THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA  FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)
THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA  FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)
THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA  FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)
THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA  FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)
THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA  FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)
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THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)

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THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE)

  1. 1. ‘Inside  and  Out:  Interactions  between  Rome  and  the  Peoples  on  the  Arabian  and    Egyptian  Frontiers  in  Late  Antiquity  (200-­‐800  CE)’,  Ottawa,  10-­‐13  October  2012   University  of  Ottawa   THE BARBARIAN NAMES ON THE OSTRACA FROM THE EASTERN DESERT (3RD CENTURY CE) Helmut Satzinger University  of  Vienna
  2. 2. When excavating Roman garrisons in theEastern Desert of Egypt, the archaeologicalteam headed by Hélène Cuvigny found inter alianumerous ostraca of economic content thatmention persons with Barbarian names. They were written in the middle of the 3rdcentury CE, or shortly after. An obviousquestion is that of the ethnicity and language ofthese persons. Given the period mentioned andthe area in question, the people that first come tomind are the Blemmyes.
  3. 3. © Hélène Cuvigny
  4. 4. © Hélène Cuvigny(ετους)  ια  //  Φαρμουθι  κε  μετρησον      Ενγοσαρεκ  υπερ  ονοματος  Μακακ  πυρου      αρτ(  )  ημισου  (πυρ.  αρτ.  ημισυ)  και  υπερ  ονοματος  Χανσαια    αρτ(  )  ημισου  (γινεται  πυρ.  αρτ.  ημισυ)  και  υπερ  ονοματος      Μαχ  αρτ(  )  ημισου  και  και  υπερ  ονοματος  Χοιαπ    ματ(  )  πεντε  (γινεται)  μ(  )  ε  και  και  υπερ  ονοματος    Ινκνετ  ματ(  )    τρια  (γινεται)  μ(  )  γ  (πυρ.  αρτ.)  β  μ(  )  β                                    ωευρευεξ  
  5. 5. Here is a diplomatic transcription of O.Xer. inv. 374 taken from myFilemaker database (letters in blue = pointed, in pink = restitutions ofabbreviations) :(ετους)  ια  //  Φαρμουθι  κε  μετρησον     © Hélène Cuvigny  Ενγοσαρεκ  υπερ  ονοματος  Μακακ  πυρου      αρτ(  )  ημισου  (πυρ.  αρτ.  ημισυ)  και  υπερ  ονοματος  Χανσαια    αρτ(  )  ημισου  (γινεται  πυρ.  αρτ.  ημισυ)  και  υπερ  ονοματος      Μαχ  αρτ(  )  ημισου  και  και  υπερ  ονοματος  Χοιαπ    ματ(  )  πεντε  (γινεται)  μ(  )  ε  και  και  υπερ  ονοματος    Ινκνετ  ματ(  )    τρια  (γινεται)  μ(  )  γ  (πυρ.  αρτ.)  β  μ(  )  β                                  ωευρευεξ  
  6. 6. There  is  Blemmyan  onomastic  material  extant  from  mainly  two  sources:        •  Epigraphic  material  from  Lower  Nubia,  ca.  5th  century.    When  the  Blemmyes  occupied  the  north  of  Lower  Nubia,  with  Talmis  (el-­‐Kalâbsha)  as  an  urban  and  cultic  centre,  they  left  a  number  of  inscriptions  there.    The  script  is  the  Greek  alphabet.      The  Greek  papyrus  letter  which  the  Blemmyan  king  Phōnēn  addressed  to  the  Nobatian  king  Abourni  may  be  of  slightly  later  date.  Dijkstra,  Philae,  pp.  45–46.    SB  XIV  11957.23  =  FHN  III  319.    Dijkstra,  Philae,  p.  52.    For  the  zirst  edition  see  T.C.  Skeat,  ‘A  Letter  from  the  King  of  the  Blemmyes  to  the  King  of  the  Noubades’,  JEA  63  (1977)  pp.  159-­‐70,  revised  by  J.  Rea,  ‘The  Letter  of  Phonen  to  Aburni’,  ZPE  34  (1979)  pp.  147-­‐62.  
  7. 7. Jean Maspero « Notes épigraphiques » BIFAO 6, 1908, 43-45 εγω  ϊϲεμνε  βα-­‐   ταμαλ(αϲ)  βαϲιλ(ευϲ)   ϲιλευϲ  εχαρι-­‐   εδεθ(...)  τα(?)  ορ(εα?)   ϲα  τοπον  τη   ϲενταηϲεω-­‐   πλουλαν  κα-­‐   ϲ  αρχιιερ(εωϲ)   θωϲ  μαρουκ  εχα-­‐   ...     ριϲεν  τω  δηγου  βα-­‐   ... j’ai fixé les limites (?), ...   S. étant grand-prêtre ...
  8. 8. •  Papyrological  material  from  El-­‐Gebelein  (Pathyris    or  Aphroditopolis),  Upper  Egypt,  ca.  6th  cent.      El-­‐Gebelein  (Pathyris),  south  of  Thebes,  seems  to  have  been  part  of  the  area  which  the  Blemmyes  controlled,  over  which  they  exerted  curatoria,  and  from  whose  population  the    synetheia  was  to  be  extracted,  if  need  be,  with  the  aid  of  the    phylarchos  or  the    hypotyrannos.    Evidence  for  this  is  from  leather  documents.    All  of  them  arelegal  documents:    nine  debts,  three  of  them  with  pledging;      two  are  releases  of  slaves;    and  two  are  royal  documents    bestowing  curatoria  over  the  “island  called  Tanare,”  or    “island  Temsir  called  Tanare,”  inhabited  by  Rhômeis.  At  Duke  University  Library  there  is  also  a  leather  document  of  like  appearance,  it  is  a  business  text.http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/scriptorium/papyrus/records/283.html.  
  9. 9. Berlin P. 8978H. Satzinger „Urkunden der Blemmyer“ Chr. d‘Égypte 43, 1968, 129-130
  10. 10. H. Satzinger „Urkunden der Blemmyer“ Chr. d‘Égypte 43, 1968, 129-130 τω  ευγενειω  ωϲε  —  —  —  —  —   εχω  .  ϲοι  εν  τη  χειρι  μου  κρματων  νουβαρ[ιτων]   χρυϲου  νομιϲματια  οκτω  γι/  χρ/  ν̊  η  μονα  και  ταυτα   παρεξω  ϲοι  οποταν  βουληθεθηϲ  και  ϲτοιχει  μοι   .  .  .     To  noble  Ose  ...  I  have  (from)  you  in  my  hand  of  Nubian  coins   gold  solidi  eight,  making  gold  solidi  8,  netto.    And  these  I  will     put  at  your  disposition  as  soon  as  you  wish,  and  I  agree  .  .  .   Berlin P. 8978
  11. 11. Berlin P. 22041 H. Satzinger BKU III, 350
  12. 12. BKU III 350 (Berlin P. 22041)H. Satzinger BKU III, 350 . anok xarawtik pé N. aen eisàai ntamer ma………. èe eis takayo(n) NtaINts ài ptooy mpatibi sàime apeàshT aItaas nh àN pemoy àM pevnä nSévpe nh Nkayon anok de maàanaT eisàaI NsentekàaInis
  13. 13. The  number  of  the  personal  names  gained  from  these  sources  is  about  ninety.        It  had  long  been  surmised  that  the  majority  of  them,  namely  those  that  are  not  obviously  Egyptian,  or  Greek,  or  Latin,  are  based  on  a  language  that  is  closely  related  to  modern  Bedauye,  or  the  Beja  language. Gerald  M.  Browne,  Textus  Blemmyicus  Aetatis  Christianae  (Champaign    Illinois  2003)    
  14. 14. BedawiyetA language of SudanPopulation 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1992). Population total all countries: 1,186,000.Region Sudan, northeast along Red Sea coast. Also in Egypt, Eritrea.Alternate names Bedauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedja, Beja, Tu- BedawieDialects Hadendoa (Hadendowa, Hadendiwa), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Bisharin (Bisariab), Beni-Amir.Classification Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North © Ethnolog (internet)
  15. 15. This photo [circa1921] comes fromthe University of Cambridge in England.
  16. 16. Beja in Camel Race, near Port Sudan © François-Olivier Dommergues 2009
  17. 17. In  the  following  list,  Greek  and  Coptic  phi,  theta,  khi  are  rendered  by  ph,  th,  kh,  respectively.      F,  h  and  š  render  the  respective  Coptic  signs.      Y  is  the  [j]  sound,  whereas  Ypsilon  is  consequently  rendered  by  u.      Yet  w  is  put  where  omicron  +  ypsilon  are  obviously  consonantal.      Dots  under  letters  signal  that  the  reading  is  uncertain.    Hypothetical  elements  of  compositions  are  separated  by  hyphens,  surmised  grammatical  elements  (feminine  endings  ·t,  ·s  (rendering  [θ]?);  genitival  endings  ·i,  ·e)  are  separated  by  a  raised  dot.  
  18. 18. abene  (a  god)  aynēm   NAMES FROMal·t·i-­‐k[na  ]  (cf.  Bedauye  ala,  alat-­‐  ‘neck,’  kena  ʻownerʼ)  ama·t,  ama·t·i  (goddess;    cf.  Bedauye  amas  ‘night’)     INSCRIPTIONSama·t·(i)-­‐isis  (Greek  Ἶσις  <  Egn.  3s·t)   ANDama·t·e-­‐pšoi  ‚  (Egn.  p3-­‐š3j  ʻthe  fateʼ,  also  a  deity  )   DOCUMENTSamnạ·ṣ  (fem.)  (cf.  Bedauye  amna  fem.,  ʻwoman  in  childbedʼ  apehsē·t  (fem.)  argōn     1asḷḷi  bara-­‐khia  (cf.  Bedauye  baraam  ‘air,  wind’)  brey-­‐tek  (cf.  Bedauye  bire  (f.)  ‘sky,’  tak  ʻmanʼ)  gama·t·i-­‐p·hant  (Egn.    p3-­‐ḥmntr  [phánt]  ʻthe  priestʼ)  dēgou  (cf.  Bedauye  deeg  ‘hard’)  ewtiy(i?)·ka  enbiek    (enb·i-­‐ek?)  enkot  hade-­‐tak[.  (?)](cf.  Bedauye  hadhdha  ‘lion’(?),  tak  ʻmanʼ)  hatikạ    (ha·t·i-­‐ka?)  inšikpour  (cf.  Bedauye  kabuur  ‘drum’(?))  ïs·e-­‐mne  (cf.  Bedauye  yaas  ‘dog,’  mine  ‘create’)  isōit    kaet  katir-­‐ō  (Egn.  ʕ3  [ʕá]  ‘big,  old’)  (perhaps  a  title)    
  19. 19. kirbe·y-­‐tak  (cf.  Bedauye  kurba  ‘elephants,’  tak  ʻmanʼ)  kola  (cf.  Bedauye  kwal  ‘hammer,  strike,  stamp’)   NAMES FROMkōy  —  indeed  Blemmyan?   INSCRIPTIONSkrouahe  (*kror,  Meroitic  title  karur?  –ahe:  cf.  ah  ‘take’)   ANDkouta    (loan  from  Old  Nubian,  kuda  ‘servant  (?)’  ?)    laize  [lɛze]  (or  la·i-­‐ze?)   DOCUMENTSlouk-­‐ani  (or  Greek/Latin  lucan-­‐  ?)  mahana·t  (fem.)  (cf.  Bedauye  mah(a)    ‘early  morning  dawn,’  nay  ‘sleep’)  mandēr  (a  deity)   2mararouk  (or  marouk)    menrou-­‐khēm  (menrou  =  Mandoulis;  Dem.  ḫm,  Copt.  šēm,  ḫēm  ʻsmall,  young’)  menrou-­‐kalau  mounkōk-­‐hənhiou  (fem.)  (looks  Egyptian;    mn  kkw(t)  ...  ‘darkness  remains  ...’)  namous  (in  Arabic:  ‘mosquito’  —  hardly  pertinent)  noay-­‐mēk  (mēk:  loan  from  Meroitic,  mak  ‘god’  ?)    noubal  (cf.  the  ethnonym  Noub-­‐)  noup·i-­‐ka  (cf.  the  ethnonym  Noub-­‐)  ōse  (cf.  ọ̄ṣịan)  ọ̄ṣịan,  ōsiēn  (ōs·i-­‐?)  phonoin,  phōnēn  (i.e.,  fo/ōnɛn  )  plōkh-­‐karour  (Mer.  (a)karor,  a  title?)  plou  plou-­‐lan  (fem.)  ?pọ̄kạ·t·i-­‐mne  /  pọ̄kụ-­‐  /  pạkạ-­‐  /  pạkụ-­‐  (cf.  Bedauye  mine  ‘create’)  
  20. 20. pōae  pre-­‐kna  (cf.  Bedauye  Mir  ‘face,’  kena  ʻownerʼ)   NAMES FROMsaltik   INSCRIPTIONSsebata·t-­‐amati  (?)  (amati:    a  goddess)    sentas-­‐aō  (Egn.    ʕ3  [ʕá]  ʻbig,  oldʼ)   ANDsentekhayni·s  (fem.)   DOCUMENTSsilbani-­‐khēm  (i.e.,    xēm;  Dem.  ḫm,  Copt.  šēm,  ḫēm  ʻsmall,  youngʼ)  skarōou  (NB  Greek  sigma  may  also  render  š)  sle     3souliēn  (soul·i-­‐ēn?)  tamalas    (NB  Greek  sigma  may  also  render  š)  tata  tesemay-­‐khēm  (i.e.,  -­‐xēm;  Dem.  ḫm,  Copt.  šēm,  ḫēm  ʻsmall,  young’)  tiou·t·i-­‐kna  (‑kna:  cf.  Bedauye  kena  ʻownerʼ)  tōdete·s  (fem.)  tous·i-­‐kṇa  (‑kna:  cf.  Bedauye  kena  ʻownerʼ)  wanak·t·i-­‐kouta  (cf.  Old  Nubian  kouda  ‘servant(?)’)  khaias  (cf.  Bedauye  hay  ‘say’  ?)  khara-­‐ftik  (khara  ‘god’?  cf.  Bedauye  hada  ‘lord’)  khara-­‐hie·t  (cf.  Bedauye  hi  ‘give’)  khara-­‐patkhour  khara-­‐khēn  khopan    (a  deity)  ousenen-­‐ō  (Egn.    ʕ3  [ʕá]  ‘big,  old’)  
  21. 21. yaha-­‐tek  (cf.  Bedauye  tak  ʻmanʼ)  yasa-­‐tek  (cf.  Bedauye  yaas  ‘dog,’  tak  ʻmanʼ)   NAMES FROMyawi-­‐ze     INSCRIPTIONSyeni   AND DOCUMENTS  Egyptian  Names  atre  (i.e.,  hatré)    (=  Egn.  ḥtrj  ʻtwinʼ)     4hapi  (=  Egn.  ḥʕpj,  name  of  the  Nile)    p·ades    (=  Egn.  p3-­‐ʾ·dj-­‐sw  ʻHe  who  has  given  himʼ?)      pasapip    (=  Egn.  p3-­‐s3-­‐  ʾpjp  ʻthe  son  of  Apipʼ??)    p·ate-­‐bor(  )    (=  Egn.  p3-­‐  ʾ·dj-­‐…  ʻHe  whom  …  has  givenʼ?))    p·hant  (=  Egn.  p3-­‐ḥmntr  [phánt]  ʻthe  priest”)    pi-­‐say  (i.e.,  pi-­‐šay)  (=  Egn.  p3-­‐š3j  ʻthe  fateʼ,  also  a  deity)        (NB  Greek  sigma  may  also  render  š)    pi·son    (=  Egn.  p3-­‐sn  [pisón,    sán]  ʻthe  brotherʼ)        p·rēt    (=  Egn.  p3-­‐rwḏw  ʻthe  controllerʼ)    psentha-­‐ēse,  psentha-­‐ēsi[s]  (lege  pšenta-­‐?)      (=  Egn.  p3-­‐šrj-­‐n-­‐t3-­‐(n.t)-­‐3s.t,  ʻthe  son  of  her  who  belongs  to  Isisʼ;    a  name)    t·rəm-­‐p·yōh  (fem.)    (=  Egn.  t3-­‐rmṯ·t-­‐p3-­‐  ʾʕḥ  [trəmp(y)óʕḥ]      ʻthe  woman  [=adorer]  of  the  moonʼ)      
  22. 22. The  names  that  could  be  read  on  the  ostraca  from  the  Roman  garrison  (3rd  cent.)  are  cited  in  the  following,  in  a  Latin  transcription  of  the  Greek  original  as  I  received  it  from  Hélène  Cuvigny.      Note  that  a  dot  under  a  letter  signals  that  the  reading  is  uncertain.      Letters  g  and  t  can  hardly  be  distinguished,  as  can  be  noticed.      These  are  the  conventions  of  the  transcription:    ph,  th,  kh,  ks,  ps;    ypsilon  is  rendered  by  u  in  all  cases.
  23. 23. .  .  γ̣ει    .  .  χορει̣  (Σ̣α̣χορει̣  possible)   NAMES FROM  .  αδα    .  ε̣μμιν     THE OSTRACA1-­‐2  κεσιμ̣α̣    Αβαιτ     1Αβερ  .  .  λ̣ι  Αβ̣μ̣α̣  /  Αε̣ι̣μ̣α̣   © Hélène CuvignyΑβου    Αγ̣ι̣ε̣ν  /  Ατ̣ι̣ε̣ν  /  Αν̣ε̣ν  2x  Αγιου  /  Ατιου    Αγω  /  Ατω  2x  Αδαπ  Αδεινι  Αδιννοου  2x  Αει    Αι  .  .  .    Ακασα    Ακορια    Αλ̣  .  .  δ̣ου  (Αλ̣ε̣κ̣δ̣ου,  Αλ̣ε̣ω̣δ̣ου  ?)  Α̣μοκο̣υρτα  Αμου  Αναψα  (seems  to  be  spelled  Ανν̣α̣ψα  in  another  ostracon)  Α̣νε̣ν̣      
  24. 24. Ανης    Ανητ     NAMES FROMΑννακι    7x  Αννυενετ  /  -­‐νεγ   THE OSTRACAΑνουκ  Αποικ  .  .  υ     2Αρμιτ  Ασ̣  .  .  ο̣     © Hélène CuvignyΑσ̣πυνκου̣ς̣     ̣Ατι  .  .  /  Αγι-­‐    Ατιου  /  Αγιου    2x  Αυ̣διεν  /  Αγ̣διεν    Αυτενκα    /  Αυγενκα    Αυτ̣ης  Αχουαμ̣  Β̣  .  .  βασοκ  Β̣α  .  .  .  .  .  ου  Βαδιτ  Βαμας  /  Βαυλας  /  Βαγαας  /  Βαγλας  /  -­‐ατ    Β̣αρατιτ  Βδει    2x  Βεκρ̣α̣βιε    Βεργωδιτ  /  Βερσω-­‐  Βετετ  /  Βετεγ      
  25. 25. Βια  Βιπαου  (rather  than  Βιν̣αου)   NAMES FROMΒοειτ  Γαιβα  .  λ  .  ν  των  αυτω     THE OSTRACAΓαμοχερυα̣τεν  /  Σαμ-­‐  /  -­‐τεπ    Γαραπ     3Γενκομρος  /  Σεν-­‐    Γοδενα̣ς̣  /  Γοδενα̣τ̣  Γοδως     © Hélène CuvignyΔουκα  .  .  ως  Δουκαινος  (I  am  pretty  sure  that  Δουκα  .  .  ως  in  n°  1  =  inv.  364  should  be  read  Δουκακε                              Δουκαινος)  Δω    Εμπορετ̣  /  -­‐ρες̣  Ενγοσερεκ  /Ενγοσαρεκ    Ενκ̣ω̣τω  /  Ενκ̣ω̣γω    Εντ̣ο̣υας̣  /  Εντ̣ο̣υατ̣    Εντουτ  /  Εντουγ  Ζεσ̣του.    Θαγετ  /  -­‐τετ  /  -­‐τεγ  /  -­‐γεγ    Θηπλωχ    Ια̣κνητ̣    Ιανεν    Ιαντατως    3x  Ιανως    
  26. 26. Ιαριμ    Ιεμαρ   NAMES FROMΙεραβοκ;    Ιεραβωκ  (var.  of  Ιεραβοκ)  Ϊεροβα     THE OSTRACAΙκτωει  /-­‐ερ    Ινκενετ̣  /  Ινκενεγ̣,  Ιν̣κνετ  (sic)  4x   4Ινκουικ  Ι̣ν̣χ̣  .  ρ  .  .  .     © Hélène CuvignyΚ  .  νιω  (maybe  Κε̣νιω,  var.  of  the  following?)  Κεστεκ    Κιαι̣  (or  Κιαρ̣)  Κνιω  Κοβ  .  .  .    Κωκω  (woman)  Κωτ̣ω  or  Κωγ̣ω  Λαβα  Μακακ  Μαμ̣ου  /  Μακ̣ου  (jy  crois  moins)  Μαουερτι,  Μαουετι    Μασαδ    Μ̣ασακιν,  Μασακι      Μαχ    Μεναρετ  /  -­‐ρεγ    Μενενατι  
  27. 27. Μουνχα  .    Μω̣ρους     NAMES FROMΝ̣αειλ̣α  Νε̣-­‐  […]   THE OSTRACAΝεχολα  Νιβιτ   5Νουατ  /  Νουετ    Ο̣υ̣α̣μσαει  /  -­‐ταει     © Hélène CuvignyΠαλιτα  /  Παλιλα    2x  Παρε  .  .  α  (Παρε̣ι̣τα  ?)    Πεβω    Σ  .  υδιτ    Σαβ̣α̣τ̣αν  .  .  .  /  Σαβ̣α̣γ̣αν  .  .  .    Σαγ̣χειτ  or  Σατ̣χειτ  Σακκα    Σατορβα    Σ̣α̣χορει̣:    .  .  χορει̣  (Σ̣α̣χορει̣  possible)  Σειγων̣  /  Σαι-­‐  /  -­‐των̣    Σ̣ερεχεμ  (rather  than  Γ̣ερεχεμ)  Σινγεν    Σκ̣α̣πι̣ε̣ν     ̣Σκεριεν    Σογοδ    3x  Σουγ̣ωτ    
  28. 28. Σουπταου  Σ̣υ̣ροβα     NAMES FROMΣω̣γ̣  .  [    Ταικ  /  Γαικ  /  Τεικ  /  Γεικ     THE OSTRACAΤ̣α̣ιμιμ̣α̣τ̣  /  Τ̣ε̣ι̣-­‐  /  -­‐μιτ̣α̣υ̣τ̣     ̣Ταμοδορα    2x   6Τανουκ  Ταφταφ  /  Ταφτοφ     © Hélène CuvignyΤαχουμ̣  or  Ταχουσ̣α̣  Τβοχινι    2x  Τεμνουκ  5x  Τερπου    Τλαχαρ  Τυραννι    Τ̣υ̣ρ̣νουτ̣  /  Τ̣υ̣ρ̣νοτ̣υ     plus  twelve  Greek  or  Latin  names,  Φαδα      Χ̣α̣ϊειω̣τ̣     plus  eight  Egyptian  names  Χανσαϊα    Χε̣ν̣σετ  /  -­‐σατ    Χοβηρ    Χοβσατι    Χοϊαπ    Χομβιλ    
  29. 29. A phonetic analysis of the “Barbarian” material is badlyhampered. One reason is that the reading is uncertain in manycases. Another one is the presumable discrepancy of theGreek and “Barbarian” phonetics and phonemics. The fewtexts in Coptic script from el-Gebelein prove the existence ofsounds h and š in their language. Greek script, however, isunable to distinguish these sounds from zero and s,respectively. Both the Cushitic and the Eastern Sudaniclanguages display still more sounds and phonemes that arealien to Greek (such as retroflex and palatal occlusives). Still,one can gain the impression that the two corpora of“Barbarian” names, of the 3rd and the 5th and 6th centuriesrespectively, are by and large congruent in respect of theirphoneme or sound inventories. Also, there is a certainresemblance in the syllable structure.
  30. 30. In order to achieve concrete results, however, a statisticanalysis was undertaken, considering the discernableconsonantal phonemes in respect to their employmentin initial, medial, and final position.
  31. 31. !"#$%&%($)&*+#,$-.+/#/%0 1*)/%0 2/+%0 34#%05678 9 878 <9 =C5 GOB:8 ( 8:8 ( 8: ( 95 <OB Final: no voiced stops except d:;8 < 8:;8 < 8:; < (5 P<)8 = 8)8 << 8) = <B5 =OB#8 >89 8#8 <98=9 8# >8<( (<8G=5B8Q#;8 = =5 P<?8 < <5 P<"8 <@ 8"8 <( 8" > =95 B A8 B8C 8A8 >8<> <<8=G5=8GD8 = 8D8 =( 8D C ((5 BOBD;8 > 8D;8 ( 8D; = <<5 = E8 <@ 8E8 <B 8E < =>5 G+8 ( 8+8 (G 8+ <@ GQ5 C 8$8 =( 8$ ( =>5 G 808 ( (5 P<-8 C 8-H8 (IJK LMN8*/ G <B5 =OBF8 <! 8FH8 G LMN84, <! >5 <
  32. 32. !"#$%&$(&)&*$(&+",$-./& 0,1$123& 4"5123& 61,23& !7$23&8&9& :;& <& ;:;& & & A&&&8& D& =;& >& ;=;& & ;=& ?& ?C&&8& *&Final: no voiced stops =(;& ?& ;F;& ?& & <&&&8& ?& 5;& ?& ;5;& C& & &&&8& <& $;& *& ;$;& <?& ;$& A& DC&&8& ?C& & & & & & & G& <& & <&&&8& ?& %;& *& ;%;& ?H& ;%& A& <D&&8& ?H& & ;I;& <& & <&&&8& ?& & ;J;& <& & <&&&8& ?& @;& A& ;@;& ?*& ;@& K& D<&&8& ?D& @(;& *& ;@(;& *& & ?<&&8& & (;& <& ;(;& & & A&&&8& D& B;& & ;B;& K& ;B& <& ?*&&8& A& ,;& C& ;,;& <<& ;,& A& DD&&8& ?C& & ;.;& ?& ;.& D& ?>&&8& >& 3;& <& ;3;& >& ;3& ?& ??&&8& & /;& D& ;/;& A& ;/& D& ?D&&8& & E;& ?& ;E;& ?& ;E& ?& D&&&8& ?&
  33. 33. !"#$%&%($)&*+#,$- .*/#"0#123#1&*+#,$-4+5#5%6 7*)5%6 85+%6 .9#%6:; 4+5#5%6 7*)5%6 85+%6 .9#%6:;<= > =<= @> AE: IQ0 <= A =<= 0 S: (?= ( =?= ( =? ( >: @Q0 ?= E =?= 0 =? @ @I: 3?1= @ =?1= @ =?1 @ (: R@ ?1= @ =O= @ A: @)= A =)= @@ =) A @0: AQ0 )= @ =)= I 0: A#= 3=> =#= @>=A> =# 3=@( (@=IA:0=S #= 3 =#= A@ =# S (I: @I#1= A A: R@ B= @ @: R@ B A A: @"= @C ="= @( =" 3 A>: 0 "= 3 ="= @C =" S A(: @C =T= A A: @D= 0=E =D= 3=@3 @@=AI:A=I =D= A A: @F= A =F= A( =F E ((: 0Q0 F= S =F= @3 =F > (A: @(F1= 3 =F1= ( =F1 A @@: A F1= 3 =F1= 3 @A: 0 1= A =1= 0 S: (G= @C =G= @0 =G @ A3: I G= 0 =G= > =G A @3: S+= ( =+= (I =+ @C IS: E += I =+= AA =+ S ((: @I =$= A( =$ ( A3: I =$= @0 =$ ( @E: E =6= ( (: R@ 6= A =6= E =6 @ @@: 0-= E =-J= (KLM NOP=*5 I @0: AQ0 -= ( =-= S =- ( @(: 0H= @! =HJ= I NOP=9, @! 3: @ H= @ =H= @ =H @ (: @
  34. 34. The   most   conspicuous   result   is   in   the   auslaut   restrictions  which   are   virtually   identical;     in   fact,   an   important   feature:    otherwise,  the  evidence  is  not  really  convincing.    As  was  shortly  mentioned  above,  the  language  of  the  Blemmyan  names  of  the  5th  and  6th  centuries  may  be  regarded  as  some  kind  of  Old  Beja,  as  an  ancester  language  of  modern  Bedauye,  or  at  least  as  one  closely  related  to  it.    Although  already  described  by  Almkvist  and  by  Reinisch  as  early  as  the  1890ies,  the  language  of  these  nomads,  roaming  in  large  areas  of  Egypt,  the  Sudan,  and  Eritrea,  is  yet  imperfectly  documented.    Anyway,  a  scrupulous  analysis  of  the  onomastic  material,  on  the  basis  of  knowledge  of  Beja  rules  and  elements,  has  yielded  some  results.  
  35. 35. Women’s   names   often   end   in   -­‐t   or   -­‐s:     apehseµ·t,  mahana·t;    amna·s,  senta·s-­‐ao,  sentek-­‐hai ‚ni·s,  toµdete·s.  N.B.    A  feminine  ending  –t  is  a  feature  also  found  in    Egyptian,  Semitic,  and  Berber.    The  genitival  noun  (which  precedes  its  referent)  ends  in  -­‐i  or  -­‐e  (after  a  consonant)  or  y  (after  a  vowel).  N.B.    An  ending  –i  of  the  genitival  noun  is  also  found  in  Semitic.  
  36. 36. Names of Cent. V to VI — Grammatical StructuresNo examples in the names of the ostraca of cent. III.
  37. 37. Can the names from the ostraca be interpreted as Beja language (Bedauye)?Beja expert Klaus Wedekind passed the names though his parser: 10. Mai 2011 23:32:38 MESZ Lieber Herr Satzinger, Heute nachmittag haben Sie die Namensliste geschickt, und ich habe sie durch meinen Beja-Parser geschickt - mit den Wörtern und den Umschreibungen ..., die mir gerade so einfielen. Das Ergebnis - grob wie es ist - hänge ich in zwei Dateien hier an: (1) Die Liste Ihrer Namen, alle Zeilen numeriert (2) Die interlinearisierte Liste der Übersetzungen, mit der gleichen Zeilen- Numerierung Manche Ergebnisse kann man wirklich nicht ernst nehmen - aber ich schicke Ihnen mal das Ergebnis ohne weitere Revision. Viel Spass bei Aussortieren. ... Ihr Klaus Wedekind
  38. 38. NO  REASONABLE  RESULTS:  ab-­‐ait,  ab-­‐er  .  .  ḷi,  aḅ-­‐ṃạạ,  abou:    cf.  ab  ‘kid‘,  fem.  abat;    ab-­‐ou:  ab-­‐uu  ‘his  kid’  ab-­‐ait:    aba-­‐yt  river/khor/brook-­‐CasGen  =  ‘of  a  river’  Αti  .  .:    aat-­‐i  milk-­‐CasGen  ‘of  milk’;    milk-­‐PossSg1  ‘my  milk’  atiοu  :    aat-­‐i-­‐yooh  milk-­‐CasGen-­‐PossSg3  =  ‘of  his  milk’  akasa:    aa-­‐kass-­‐aah  ArtPlMSubj-­‐all/total-­‐PossSg3  =  ‘all  his  (men)’  agiοu:    aa-­‐gaw-­‐u  ArtPlMSubj-­‐house/tent/sheath-­‐PossSg1  =  ‘my  houses’  auṭēs:    awt-­‐ees  honey-­‐PossSg3  =  ‘his  honey’;    awt-­‐ee-­‐s  honey-­‐CasGen-­‐    AdvGen+from  =  ‘from  honey’.  bekrạbie:    barguug-­‐iit  old+man-­‐Adv+like  =  ‘like  an  old  man’  betet:    0-­‐bit-­‐i-­‐t  hawk/eagle-­‐CasGen  ‘of  a  hawk  (or  eagle)’  garap:    garab  ‘split’  akοria:    aa-­‐khoor  ArtPlMSubj-­‐river+bed:    but  khoor  is  Arabic!  Etc.  ...  Hardly  anyone  of  these  meanings  is  a  likely  personal  name.  
  39. 39. Also,   possible   reminiscences   of   the   elements   found   in  the  Blemmyan  names  from  Talmis  and  el-­‐Gebelein  are  very  scarce.   Amokourta:    compare  Blemmyan  kouta?   Baratit:  compare  Blemmyan  Barakhia  ?   Κοuei   (if   Coptic,   meaning   ‘little’):     may   be   identical   with  Blemmyan  Kōy.   Kestek:     compare   the   Blemmyan   names   with   a   second  element  ‑tek  or  ‑tak.   Theplōkh:    compare  Blemmyan  Ploukh-­‐karour?   Mounkha:    compare  Blemmyan  Mounkōk-­‐hǝnhiou?   S/Gerekhēm:     compare   the   extension   –khēm   of   several  Blemmyan  names.  
  40. 40. This  result  is  astonishing.    Although  the  names  from  the  ostraca   have   a   similar   phoneme   inventory   as   the  Blemmyan   names,   have   almost   identical   restrictions   in  respect   of   the   zinal   consonant,   and   have   a   comparable  syllable   structure,   the   material   substance   does   not   show  agreement  in  a  noteworth  measure.     On  account  of  all  this,  an  identity  of  the  languages  of  the  names   in   the   ostraca   of   the   3rd   century   and   those   in   the  texts  of  the  5th  and  6th  centuries  cannot  be  claimed  for  sure  –   unless   further   elucidation   yields   more   positive   results.    As  it  seems  now,  the  names  from  the  ostraca  may  originate  in   a   language   related   to   that   of   the   Blemmyes,   similar   in  structure,  but  seemingly  not  identical.  
  41. 41. WE MAY HOPE FOR FURTHER ELUCIDATIONON THE BARBARIAN NAMES ...................
  42. 42. WE MAY HOPE FOR FURTHER ELUCIDATIONON THE BARBARIAN NAMES ................... Hadendowa, ca. 1960

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