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  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction Why Digital Radio? What is IBOC Eureka 147 Block diagram IBOC modes of operation IBOC implementation Techniques Benefits of DAB Why delay in adoption? 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Digital radio, also called digital audio broadcasting (DAB), is transmission and reception of radio signals in the digital domain, as opposed to the traditional analogue transmission/reception by AM and FM systems. Digital radio is similar to hooking up the digital output from a CD player directly to a radio transmitter. At the other end is a digital-to-analogue converter (DAC), which converts the digital signal back into analogue mode so that it can be heard on the audio system as it was recorded. In practice, the CD player is hooked up to a control board, which, in turn, routes the signal as part of the feed to the radio station’s transmitter. 3
  4. 4.  The signal is either impressed onto a signal carrier and transmitted via uplink to a satellite or transmitted across the land. In both the cases, the signal is received and converted into analogue by a specialized DAC within the radio’s tuner circuit. Currently, digital radio broadcasts are available in select countries, including the UK , Germany and Canada. 4
  5. 5. Why Digital Radio? The main advantage of digital radio is that it doesn’t have the usual distortion associated with analogue radio such as hissing, popping and phasing. It is immune to distortion from multipath, adjacent stations. User get a new array of data-rich services including traffic information, sports score and weather updates, stock prices, etc.. The data is displayed on the LCD in the form of text, images and video. Thus multimedia radio becomes reality. 5
  6. 6. Contd… To explain, in analogue radio, a large number of radio signals can exist in the atmosphere at any time. However each of them is being transmitted on a different radio frequency. Stations that share the same radio frequency are usually far apart so that they don’t interface with each other. In order to receive a station within its transmission range, all we have to do is tune the receiver to its frequency. The drawback of this analogue mode is that the signals in close proximity in terms of frequency can interfere with each other to some extent, depending on the modulation pattern of the radio station and the ability of the radio receiver to reject interfering adjacent signals. 6
  7. 7. What is IBOC? In-band on -channel (IBOC) is a hybrid method of transmitting digital radio and analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on the same frequency. 7
  8. 8. IBOC: a new system The IBOC technology allows digital audio broadcasting without the need for new spectrum allocations for the digital signal. The IBOC system will be compatible with existing tuners as it utilizes the existing AM and FM bands by attaching a digital side band signal to the standard analogue signal. For digital compression, the IBOC uses a perceptual audio coder (PAC) developed by Lucent Technology. The USADR AM IBOC DAB system basically comprises the codec, forward error correction(FEC) coding, and interleaving section, modem and blender. 8
  9. 9. Eureka 147: The digital radiosystem in use Uses at much higher frequencies than standard 88- 108Mhz FM band and 0.525-1.705MHz AM band. UK utilizes Band III (174-240 MHz) Canada uses L-Band (1452-1492MHz) The eureka system broadcasts multiple stations and services over a single frequency in something called a multiplex. The bandwidth within the multiplex is allotted to stations as needed. Stereo programming is typically broadcast at 192kilobits. 9
  10. 10. Block diagram of the IBOC DAB transmitter 10
  11. 11. IBOC modes of operationHybrid mode : Inthis mode thedigital signal isinserted within a 69.041 kHzbandwidth, 129.361 kHz oneither side of the analogFM signal. Each sideband isapproximately 23 dB below thetotal power in the FM signal. 11
  12. 12. Extended hybrid mode :This modeincludes the hybrid mode and additionaldigital signals are inserted closer tothe analog signal, utilizing a 27.617 kHzbandwidth, 101.744 kHz on either side ofthe analog FM signal. The total power ofthe digitalsidebands is 20dBbelow the nominalpower of the FManalog carrier. 12
  13. 13. All Digital mode: This mode replacesthe analog signal with additional digitalsignals and also includes the digitalsignals of the Hybrid and Extended HybridModes. The total power of the digitalsidebands is 10dBbelow the nominalpower of thereplaced FM analogcarrier. 13
  14. 14. IBOC implementation Technique The requirement for FM-to-IBOC isolation is also somewhat difficult to achieve in practice because of the power ratio between FM and IBOC(100:1). In a combiner that has to deal with a 1:1 power combining ratio, a 26 dB isolation seems to be fine. There are a few techniques used to combine FM and IBOC signals. 14
  15. 15. Low Level Combining Option 15
  16. 16.  Low level combining relies essentially on a common amplification technique which means that both the host FM and the IBOC signals are amplified in the same Power Amplifier(PA). This method requires very good linearity from the PA part. Most PA’s cannot handle common mode amplification at rated output power; they have to be operated in the most linear portion of their transfer curve which results in a substantial back-off(around 6-10 dB). As IBOC adds about 1% to the total channel power, its power contribution is negligible so the power rating of the antenna is normally not an issue. 16
  17. 17. High Level Combining Option 17
  18. 18.  High level combining is based on the use of distinct power amplifiers for the Host FM and the IBOC signals. This technique uses an IBOC Power injector which is basically an inverted directional coupler Its power ratio is selected to minimize the loss on the host path, typically 0.5 dB. Such an injector offers a loss of about 10 dB on the IBOC path 18
  19. 19. Benefits of Digital AudioBroadcasting High quality digital audio Reliable delivery to fixed, portable and mobile receivers for interference-free reception. Efficient use of the limited radio frequency spectrum available. Easy to use receivers. Flexibility and choice of programmes for listeners. Added-value system features such as multimedia. 19
  20. 20. Why delay in adoption? Low power FM stations are prone to interference. IBOC licensing, and service rules have not been adopted yet. Cost is high. 20
  21. 21. REFERENCES http://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/iboc-digital-radio- broadcasting-am-and-fm-radio-broadcast-stations http://transition.fcc.gov/mb/audio/includes/23- digital.htm http://www.ibiquity.com/ http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/digital.html http://www.worlddab.org/introduction_to_digital_broad casting/dab_plus_digital_radio http://www.owdjim.gen.nz/chris/radio/DRM/ 21