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Smoking and the heart newsletter


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Smoking and the heart newsletter

  1. 1. Smoking and The Heart PBRCPublication # 64 December 2009IntroductionThe Heart is one of the three times greater heart disease, multiplemost vital organs in the chance of developing cancers, heart attacks,human body. It regulates heart disease or having a stroke, and vascularall blood flow in the body. heart attack than non- diseases.Without it, we would not smokers. Smoking creates free rad-get adequate oxygen and Even secondhand smoke is icals in the body that cause blood to the dangerous. Studies show oxidative damage in the tissues. that people who are bloodstream and in the There are consistently exposed to organs. The oxidative multiple fac- secondhand smoke tend to damage can cause Inside this issue: tors that can have have an increased emphysema and lung effect the risk for cardiovascular cancer. performance diseases. THE FACTS ABOUT WHAT 2 Smoking causes coronary SMOKING DOES TOof the heart. One of the According to the Surgeon heart disease, the leading YOUR HEARTactions that can hinder General, smoking harms cause of death in the Unit-heart health and almost every organ in the ed States*. Cigarette THE BENEFITS OF 3performance is smoking. QUITTING SMOKING body, and reduces the smokers are 2–4 timesThe Surgeon General has overall health of smokers. more likely to develop cor-named smoking the onary heart disease than Smoking contributes to“leading preventable nonsmokers. many diseases andcause of disease and disorders. Smokingdeaths in the United increases the risk for ath- * CDCStates.” In addition, if you erosclerosis, coronarysmoke, you have a two toTop 5 Reasons Why You Should Not Smoke1. Smoking in the United States. cholesterol (HDL), which can lead help to clear out bad 3. Secondhand smoking is to lung cholesterol (LDL) in the harmful. Of the more and other bloodstream. than 4,000 chemicals cancers. that have been 5. Smoking harms nearly The more identified in every organ of the you smoke, the greater secondhand tobacco body and diminishes a the risk of disease. smoke, at least 250 person’s overall2. Smoking contributes to are known to be harm- health. the development of ful, and 50 of these Coronary Heart are known to cause Disease and Stroke, cancer. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. DHHS, PHS, the first and third CDC, NCCDPHP, Office on Smok- 4. Cigarettes lower the leading cause of death ing and Health, 2000. levels of good
  2. 2. Smoking and The Heart The Facts About What Smoking Does To Your Heart According to research, Smoking can promote promoting plaque if you smoke, have high the development of buildup in the arteries. cholesterol, and high atherosclerosis, or This will eventually blood pressure, your hardening of arteries. lead to atherosclerosis. risk of having a heart Over time, this causes Smokers have a great- attack is eight times coronary heart disease, er risk of being diag- more than that of a stroke, and artery nosed with peripheral nonsmoker. disease. vascular disease, which The toxins produced by Carbon monoxide, a causes the blood ves- cigarettes are carried product of tobacco sels in both the legs or throughout the body. smoke, tends to feet to become increase LDL cholesterol blocked. Tobacco has a major and white blood cells Smokers have an role in the developmentCarbon levels and increase of preventable cardio- increased risk for var-monoxide, a other risks for heart vascular disease. ious types of cancer,product of disease, while also such as colorectal andtobacco smoke Smoking pipes or reducing the hearts(as well as ovarian cancer. cigars increases the risk ability to carry oxygenchemical plant of death from coronary to the tissues and Many smokers feel thatsmoke and car heart disease and organs. smoking relaxes them.exhaust), tendsto boost LDL stroke, but to a lesser The feeling of relaxa- A single cigarette cancholesterol extent than that of cig- tion may be due to impair circulation forlevels, as well arette smokers. deep breathing from up to forty-five minutesas levels of inhaling. However, nic-white blood Cigarette smoking is an by constricting small otine is a stimulantcells and other important risk factor blood vessels. which increases heartrisks for heart that leads to coronary Smoking can cause rate, respiration anddisease; not to heart disease. metabolism.mention, it also abdominal aorticreduces the Cigarette smoking has aneurysms, which are Nicotine stimulates thehearts ability to been connected to all bulges in the wall of release of many chemi-carry oxygen to types of sudden the aorta near the cal messengers in thethe tissues and cardiac death in both stomach. It is the brain including acetyl-other organs. men and women. thirteenth leading choline, norepinephrine, cause of death in he epinephrine, vasopressin, Switching to low tar United States*. arginine, dopamine, au- nicotine cigarettes ra- tocrine agents, and beta- ther than normal ciga- Smokers are ten times endorphin, which are rettes, does not reduce more likely than non- responsible for nico- the risk of coronary smokers to develop tines effects. heart disease. peripheral vascular disease. The nicotine in ciga- *OConnor, RE. eMedicine, 2009 rettes promotes insulin Cigarette smokers have resistance, a pre- raised fibrinogen levels diabetic condition and platelet counts. identified by high This causes the blood to blood sugar and insulin. be more sticky, Page 2
  3. 3. Publication # 64The Benefits of Quitting Smoking decreases the workload on lung cancer. the heart, and eventually There is a decrease in will decrease the risk of blood pressure and heart having a heart attack. rate after stopping The cessation of smoking smoking. This improves greatly reduces the risk of heart health and death or a second heart productivity. attack in adults who have A study on men smokers coronary heart disease. shows an improvement in According to American exercise tolerance andNicotine is an extremely Heart Association, increased pressure in theaddictive chemical which individuals will have extremities in the group that After one year of beingmakes it very difficult to stopsmoking. Studies show that heightened sense of smell stopped smoking compared “smoke free”, the risk of to the group that continued to coronary artery diseasenicotine activates the circuits and taste, and an improved smoke. will have decreased byin the brain that regulate digestive system afterpleasurable feelings. This is stopping smoking. There are other benefits from half!done by a chemical called stopping smoking. These are:dopamine, which is increased Stopping smoking will cause cleaner environment,by nicotine. When smokers improved well being, lung improved personal hygiene,inhale, the nicotine reaches function and immune decreased sinus problems,the brain faster than drugs system. less heartburn or acidthat enter the body indigestion, better circulation, Within two to three yearsintravenously. and increased energy! after stopping smoking, theStopping smoking is not risk of having a heart After you stop smoking *: After 15 years of abstinence,easy, but there are many attack will be the same as 1 Year After Quitting the risk isaides such as gums, patch- a person who has never Your added risk of coronary similar toes, pills and shots that re- smoked. heart disease is half that of a that forduce the desire for ciga- smoker’s. people There is a decrease in therettes. whove never risk for stroke after 5 Years After Quitting smoked.There are many benefits to smoking cessation. After 5 Your stroke risk is reduced toquitting smoking. Some of to15 years, former smokers that of a nonsmoker’s 5-15these include a reduced have the same risk of hav- years after quitting.chance of being diagnosed ing a stroke as a nonsmoker 10 Years After Quitting AHAwith diabetes, cancer, or would. Your lung cancer death rate isheart disease. about half that of a smoker’s. According to research, Your risk of cancers of theNicotine, one of thousands of after five years of not mouth, throat, esophagus,chemicals found in cigarettes, smoking, patients have a bladder, kidney, andcauses the blood vessels to 21 percent reduction in the pancreas decreases.constrict. This narrowing of risk for lung cancer, whenthe vessels increases blood 15 Years After Quitting compared with current Your risk of coronary heartpressure. smokers. Those who have disease is back to that of aWithin twenty-four hours of not smoked for 20 to 30 nonsmoker’s.stopping smoking, blood years or more, have an 87pressure and pulse rate will percent reduction in the riskdrop to normal. This of being diagnosed with * CDC Page 3
  4. 4. PBRC About Pennington The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned Pennington Biomedical Research nutrition research center. Center 6400 Perkins Road Mission: Baton Rouge, LA 70808 To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutri- (225) 763-2500 tion and preventive medicine. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on Pennington Nutrition Series No 64, 2009 healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, Authors such as heart .disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporo- sis. Heli J. Roy, PhD, RD The Division of Education provides education and information to Beth Kalicki the scientific community and the public about research findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. Division of Education We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the Pennington Biomedical Research Center exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center 12/09 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at or call (225) 763-3000