Health benefits of soy isoflavones


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Health benefits of soy isoflavones

  1. 1. Publication # 18 Soy IsoflavonesHeli J. Roy, PhD,MBA, RDShanna Lundy, BSBeth Kalicki, BSPennington Biomedical Research CenterDivision of EducationPhillip Brantley, PhD, DirectorSteven Heymsfield, MD,Executive PBRC 2012
  2. 2. Introduction Soy is a low cost source of protein that has been consumed in Asian nations for many centuries Regular intake of this food is thought to be partially responsible for the lower rates of heart disease, stroke, and cancer observed in Eastern populations. PBRC 2012
  3. 3. Introduction Isoflavones are members of the large flavonoid family of plant compounds which are, in turn, members of the larger group of plant constituents known as polyphenols The principal isoflavones in soy are genistein, daidzein, and their metabolites PBRC 2012 Genistein Daidzein
  4. 4. Good sources of Soy… Edamame or Soy beans: Soy beans are the least processed form of soy protein. They are available in most grocery stores and can be purchased in fresh, frozen, or roasted forms. Tofu: Tofu, or bean curd, is made my curdling soymilk with a coagulant. Tofu can be used in a variety of recipes to partially replace either meat or dairy products. Because calcium sulfate is often used as the curdling agent, tofu is also a good source of calcium. Soymilk: Soymilk is a high-quality source of soy protein that’s available in a variety of forms, including chocolate. PBRC 2012
  5. 5. Sources… Isoflavone compounds, such as genistein and daidzein, are found in a number of plants, but soybeans and soy products like tofu and textured vegetable protein are the primary food sources. PBRC 2012
  6. 6. Food Serving Soy protein Isoflavone Kcal (g) content (mg) Soy Burger 1 patty 8 7 100 Soy nuts 1 oz 12 38 150 Soy Milk 1c 8 24 100Texturized Vegetable ¼c 14 27 50 Protein (TVP) Tofu 3 oz 9 33 45 Soy Protein Bar 1 bar 6 10-15 180Soy Breakfast Patty 2 patties 16 4 160 Soy Flour ¼c 12 33 90 Soy Beans, Boiled ½c 7 47 190 Tempeh ½c 18 36 200 Soy Nut Butter 2 Tbs. 8 0 PBRC 2012 160
  7. 7. Mechanisms of Action.. There are many proposed mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of isoflavones The mechanisms include:  binding to estrogen receptors  inhibition of production of reactive oxygen species  induction of DNA strand breakage resulting in apoptosis or cell death  inhibition of angiogenesis  inhibition of thrombin formation and platelet activation  And increased LDL receptor activity PBRC 2012
  8. 8. Health Effects of Soy PBRC 2012
  9. 9. Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Activity Relative to physiologic estrogens, isoflavones appear to be a weaker form according to both in vitro and in vivo assays Because of this, its believed that isoflavones can compete at estrogen receptor sites, blocking the stronger version naturally produced by the body from exerting its full effect Since high blood levels of estrogen are an established risk factor for breast cancer, weaker forms of estrogen may provide protection against this disease PBRC 2012
  10. 10. Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Activity The prevailing hypothesis has been that isoflavones exert antiestrogenic effects when placed in a high-estrogen environment, such as exists in premenopausal women, and estrogenic effects when in a low-estrogen environment, such as exists in postmenopausal women There has been some support to this hypothesis, however definite conclusions regarding whether soy or isoflavones are necessarily antiestrogenic in premenopausal women is still currently a topic of much debate PBRC 2012
  11. 11. Breast Cancer Interest in the relationship between soy intake and cancer risk was due, in large part, to the relatively low breast cancer mortality rates in Asian countries where soy foods are commonly consumed. In Japan, the breast cancer mortality rate is about ¼ that of the United States. PBRC 2012
  12. 12. Breast Cancer Of the multitude of studies conducted outside the US on women, most find that there are decreases in breast cancer risk with consumption of soy products in premenopausal, but not postmenopausal women The only case-controlled study conducted thus far in the United States to examine this possible relationship found that tofu consumption was protective in both premenopausal and postmenopausal Asian women The downfall of this study was that it only included one particular group of women- whether or not this would be indicative of other women remains unseen PBRC 2012
  13. 13. Breast Cancer Overall, the epidemiologic data are inconclusive There is little epidemiologic support for the notion that soy intake is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer However, there is some data suggestive of decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer with increased soy intakes PBRC 2012
  14. 14. Prostate Cancer There is speculation that the intake of soyfoods may be a factor contributing to the low prostate cancer mortality rate in Japan Although the data in support of this hypothesis is intriguing, it is also limiting Genistein has shown to inhibit the growth of both androgen- dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro PBRC 2012
  15. 15. Other MechanismsHow genistein or isoflavones could reduce prostate cancer risk ? Even though the precise role of estrogen in prostate cancer is not well defined, the potential estrogenic effects of isoflavones may be protective because estrogens have been used successfully as a form of hormone therapy for metastatic prostate cancer PBRC 2012
  16. 16. Prostate Cancer Human data available remains limited for use in evaluating the soy-prostate cancer hypothesis Of potential relevance to the effects of isoflavones on prostate cancer risk is the finding that isoflavones appear in the prostatic fluid, and that concentrations are highest in men from soy food-consuming countries Furthermore, relative to plasma concentrations, isoflavones are concentrated several-fold in the prostatic fluid PBRC 2012
  17. 17. Soy and Bone Health Speculation about the potential benefits of isoflavones was in part fueled by the similarity in chemical structure between the soybean isoflavones and the synthetic isoflavone, 7-isopropoxyisoflavone, which was shown to increase bone mass in postmenopausal women PBRC 2012
  18. 18. Soy and Bone Health Two human studies that examined the effects of soy consumption on bone mineral loss in postmenopausal women have been reported thus far. In both studies, soy was associated with favorable effects on bone density or content; however, the results are still considered preliminary. PBRC 2012
  19. 19. Soy & Bone Health Although the effects of soy and isoflavones on bone health constitutes and exciting area of research, no firm conclusions can be reached at this time. With the large number of studies currently underway in this area; however, a better understanding should be on its way soon. PBRC 2012
  20. 20. Soy & Cardiovascular Health: An Overview Dietary soy protein has been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. Best-documented effect is on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, with reductions of ~10% in LDL cholesterol, and small increases in HDL cholesterol. Dietary soy protein improves flow-mediated arterial dilation. Soy isoflavone extract improves systemic arterial compliance, an indicator of atherosclerosis extent. PBRC 2012
  21. 21. Soy & Cardiovascular HealthPlasma lipids and lipoproteins Effects of dietary soy protein in human subjects has shown reductions in LDL cholesterol of ~13%, reductions in plasma triglycerides of ~10%, and increases in HDL cholesterol of around 2% These beneficial effects of soy protein on plasma lipoproteins culminated recently in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s approval of the health claim that:  “25 g of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease” PBRC 2012
  22. 22. Soy & Cardiovascular Health: LDL Oxidation Interest is increasing in the role of LDL particle oxidation on both atherogenesis and vascular function In healthy subjects receiving supplementation, soy treatment significantly prolonged LDL oxidation by ~20 minutes Based on the findings that estradiol fatty esters were incorporated into LDL, Helisten et al. described that because soy isoflavones are incorporated into LDL particles, it results in much greater oxidation resistance PBRC 2012
  23. 23. Soy & Cardiovascular Health: Arterial FunctionEndothelium-mediated vasodilation Two approaches are used to evaluate endothelium-mediated vasodilation:  One determines the response of arteries to the perfusion of acetylcholine.  The other is flow-mediated dilation whereby flow is restricted. When genistein was infused it resulted in increased brachial artery dilation of both men and women comparable to the effect of estradiol. PBRC 2012
  24. 24. Soy & Cardiovascular Health: Arterial FunctionArterial Compliance Systole diastole Unlike endothelial-mediated vasodilation (primarily nitric oxide dependent), arterial compliance relates to the constriction and dilation of arteries associated with systole and diastole. In humans, supplementation with soy protein or the administration of isoflavone extracts seems to improve arterial compliance. PBRC 2012
  25. 25. Soy & Cardiovascular Health: Atherosclerosis Currently, there is considerable literature establishing that substitution of animal protein (usually casein) with soy protein results in reduced amounts of atherosclerosis resulting from diets with added cholesterol. Current research is focusing primarily on identifying what components of soy protein provide this atherosclerosis protection. PBRC 2012
  26. 26. Soy & Cardiovascular Health Atherosclerosis: Conclusions Intactsoy protein provides more cardiovascular benefits than does alcohol-washed soy protein. The addition of soy isoflavone extracts to diets containing animal protein or alcohol-washed soy protein does not provide plasma lipid concentration benefits. Lastly, soy isoflavone extracts given to human subjects do not result in cardiovascular benefits except for improvements in systemic arterial compliance . PBRC 2012
  27. 27. Conclusions… Dietary soy intake seems to be promising in the areas of cardiovascular, cancer (especially prostate), and bone health. In time, soy’s roles and possibly emerging ones will be better understood. PBRC 2012
  28. 28. References… cancer/foodsthatfightcancer_soy.html? gclid=COuO9IOCmrICFcFgTAodUFsAxA smeetingsignificantscientificagreementssa/default.htm PBRC 2012
  29. 29. About Our Company…The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center. Mission:To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Clinical Obesity ResearchExperimental ObesityFunctional FoodsHealth and Performance EnhancementNutrition and Chronic DiseasesNutrition and the BrainDementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy agingDiet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of commonchronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public about researchfindings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at thePennington  Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page or call (225) 763-3000. PBRC 2012