No doubt you have seen these statements and images on TV, video, when surfing the web, in the newspaper. Is this really true? Is it healthy not to have any carbohydrates? We will explore that in this lesson.
What you might have heard about carbohydrates and starches is that they are bad for you. But let's take a look at carbohydrates and see how they might be important. They are needed for energy.
Glucose is the simplest carbohydrate unit. It is a monosaccharide. A simple carbohydrate is in fact glucose or blood sugar (or dextrose). It flows through the blood stream and goes to every cell of the body, where it is converted to energy. Glucose, fructose (from fruits) and galactose are monosaccharides. They are absorbed in the intestines in to the bloodstream.
Disaccharide is a molecule made up of two sugar units. Other examples of disaccharides are lactose or milk sugar and maltose. Lactose is made up of glucose and galactose. Some people lack the enzyme that digests the bond between glucose and galactose in a condition called lactose intolerance.
Complex carbohydrates are made up of many hundreds and thousands of glucose units. Some complex carbohydrates are digestible such as starch. They are slower absorbing sugars because it takes a lot longer for the digestive system to break them down. Only after breaking them down into glucose is the bloodstream able to absorb the glucose. Other complex carbohydrates are indigestible such as cellulose. Indigestible carbohydrates are called dietary fiber. The bond between the glucose units determines if it is digestible or not. There are also complex carbohydrates, starches, made up of chains of glucose molecules.
Carbohydrates main role is to provide fuel. If we have adequate carbohydrate, we prevent the breakdown of protein for energy. Carbohydrate in the diet actually helps the breakdown of fat. With adequate carbohydrate in the diet, fat is completely broken down and used for energy. Plant sources of carbohydrates are the best sources of fiber in the diet.
All starches, saccharides and mixed carbohydrates are converted to glucose during digestion and are absorbed in the bloodstream as glucose units. Glucose is the most common type of energy currency used by the cells, in addition to fatty acids, and at times, ketones are used for energy. The heart muscle can use ketones for energy.
The brain uses mainly glucose for energy. Our brains alone use about 120 grams of carbohydrate for energy. The heart muscle can use ketones for energy. The brain can also use ketones, but ketones are not the preferred fuel and can cause feeling of lethargy and headache. The muscle cells use mainly fat for energy at rest, and glucose under high aerobic conditions such as running. During aerobic sudden burst of energy, muscle uses phosphagens and then glucose for energy.
When we have adequate carbohydrate intake, we spare protein use for energy. About 15 percent of energy comes from protein when we are on a typical diet. Carbohydrates are an efficient energy source, as are fats, because there is no waste. All of the molecule can be used for energy.
If we do not have adequate carbohydrate intake: We have to break down body protein to burn it for energy. That means that we lose muscle mass on low carbohydrate diets. Body protein is used for energy and we don’t have adequate protein for maintaining cell structures. This can lead to kidney stones over time due to kidneys having to get rid of high nitrogen levels in the body
Ketone bodies are produced in the body when fat is not completely broken down. Ketone bodies are harmful compounds. They can build in the bloodstream and cause the blood to become more acidic than is healthy and can cause a person to go into coma. Ketosis can also happen in diabetes with excess insulin.
Plants are a good source of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber helps with digestion. It helps keep harmful materials from being in contact with intestinal walls. It helps speed elimination. It binds harmful molecules in the intestines. Dietary fiber can help prevent chronic diseases and can help in weight control.
Graphic from: http://1p423scienceeportfolio.wikispaces.com/Digestive+System We consume foods that are mixes of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Digestion is breaking foods down to its components After breaking food down, we absorb the small molecules. Foods that we consume (like bread, meat, and vegetables), are not in a form that the body can immediately use as nourishment. These foods and drinks that we consume must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed in the blood and carried to cells of the body. Digestion is the process that breaks foods and drinks down into their smallest parts so that the body can used them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy .
Carbohydrate digestion starts in the mouth and continues in the small intestine into glucose and other 6 carbon sugars. These are then absorbed in the bloodstream. More processed foods are digested and absorbed faster than foods that are less processed.
All the staples in our diet are really carbohydrates. We find carbohydrates in: Rice Pasta Potatoes Breads and rolls Crackers and snacks Also Vegetables (carbohydrates might not be digestible) Fruits (in some mostly simple sugars)
Carbohydrates (both simple and complex) can be found in the: Milk and dairy group . Milk and dairy have lactose. Some individuals develop lactose intolerance as they grow older. Lactose intolerance means that the milk sugar is indigestible. The person stops producing an enzyme necessary for that. This condition is not serious, and can be easily overcome by consuming milk where lactose is already split into galactose and glucose, or by taking an enzyme supplement. Vegetable group. Most vegetables have long chain carbohydrate molecules such as cellulose, starch, and dextrans. Fruit group . The fruit group contains sucrose, glucose, cellulose, starch, and dextrans. Grains group . The grain group is one of the best sources of dietary fiber, cellulose. Grains also are the best sources of digestible carbohydrate, starch. .
Sugar is found naturally in many foods. It is also called simple carbohydrate . Food sources of natural sugar include fruit, vegetables, milk, and yogurt. Foods containing natural sugars are nutritious, providing many vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals (natural plant chemicals), and antioxidants. They are also good sources of fiber, as in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Examples of refined sugars are: sucrose, glucose, dextrose, maltose, and high fructose corn syrup.
Along with complex carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables also contain some simple sugars. Milk contains simple sugars, too. Sucrose, glucose, dextrose, maltose, and high fructose corn syrup are some examples of simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are naturally in many foods, and they are also added to foods during processing such as cakes, candy, cookies, and ice cream. The difference between these food sources of simple sugars (milk, fruits, and vegetables) and other food sources of simple sugars is that they are packed with nutrients, whereas cake and other refined sugar products only contain energy and very little vitamins and minerals.
Starch , also known as complex carbohydrate or polysaccharide, is present in foods such as cereals, whole grains, rice, pasta, potatoes, peas, corn, and legumes. Fiber , also a complex carbohydrate , is found in foods of plant origin.
Examples of complex carbohydrates are are amylose, amylopectin, starch, and cellulose. Complex carbohydrates are found in fruits , vegetables , and grains (like bread, rice, and pasta). Food sources of complex carbohydrates are important contributors of: vitamins, minerals, fiber, and a host of phytonutrients. When choosing grain food choices, it is important to choose whole grains often. Does anyone know why? Whole grain products retain the nutrients and the phytochemicals in the foods.
This graph shows the percent of nutrients remaining after whole wheat flour is refined into white flour. As you can see, less than 50 percent of the nutrients are retained after processing. Most grain products are enriched; that means that nutrients are added back in the grain product. Food enrichment is the process whereby nutrients (vitamins and minerals) are added to food. This normally happens during or directly after manufacturing. Grain products are enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron. Many minerals and vitamins are lsot during processing that are not replaced, such as zinc, fiber, and copper. Refined Grains are less nutrient-dense and more energy-dense than Whole Grains. Original source: USDA food composition data http://www.nal.usda/fnic
There are two main types of fiber with different effects: insoluble fiber and soluble fiber . Insoluble fiber doesn't dissolve in water, but soluble fiber does. Dietary fiber includes all parts of plant that your body can’t digest or absorb. Fiber is often classified into two categories: Those that don’t dissolve in water are called insoluble fiber. Those that do dissolve in water are called soluble fiber. Good sources of insoluble fiber are whole-wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, and many vegetables. Good sources of soluble fiber are oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley, and psyllium.
The amount of each type of fiber varies in different plant foods, so to receive the greatest health benefit, it is important to eat a wide variety of high-fiber foods. Benefits of eating a diet high in fiber include: Prevention or relief of constipation A lower risk for disorders such as hemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticular disease Lower blood cholesterol levels Slower absorption of sugar which can help to improve blood sugar levels A lower risk for the development of type 2 diabetes Weight loss as high-fiber foods tend to make a meal feel larger and linger longer so that you stay full longer
The new Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) and the MyPlate stress the importance of consuming more complex carbohydrates over simple carbohydrates. Many studies show that complex carbohydrates are beneficial in reducing the incidence or severity of chronic diseases. The new DGA (2010) says that “half our grains should be whole grains.” Many people do not consume whole grain products, however, the recommendation is to consume more whole grains. Complex carbohydrates are found in foods stressed by the 2010 DGA such as: Whole grains Fruits Vegetables Do: Provide students with Nutrition Facts Panel or boxes of foods to examine the label. Show from the label the carbohydrate content of foods. Ask the students to find the amount of fiber, simple sugars, and total carbohydrate. Discuss the list of ingredients and highlight those that list whole wheat as the first ingredient.
Sources of simple carbohydrates (like refined grains and desserts) are often referred to as “energy-dense” foods; whereas, sources of complex carbohydrates (like fruit, whole grains, and vegetables) are referred to as “nutrient-dense” foods. Whereas energy-dense foods primarily provide calories (energy) from added sugars and fats and little nutrients, nutrient-dense foods are generally low in calories (and fat) and are packed with nutrients.
Too High an Intake of Refined Grains Has been shown to…. Say: Refined grains have been linked to Increased the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) (in adult women) and an increased the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (in younger and middle-aged women).
Before you eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl. Foods like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and lean protein foods contain the nutrients you need without too many calories. Improving what you eat and being active will help to reduce your risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, and obesity. Americans should reduce foods that are high in sodium, solid fats (major sources of saturated fats and trans fats), cholesterol, added sugars, refined grains, and for some Americans, alcohol. Replacing these foods and beverages that provide substantial amounts of nutrients, nutritious foods that are recommended for nutrient adequacy, disease prevention, and overall good health. These include vegetables; fruits; whole grains; fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products; protein foods, including seafood, lean meat and poultry, eggs, beans and peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds; and oils would improve the health of Americans.
1020 DG Policy document: Whole grains are a source of nutrients such as iron, magnesium, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber. Whole grains vary in their dietary fiber content. Moderate evidence indicates that whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and is associated with a lower body weight. Limited evidence also shows that consuming whole grains is associated with a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes. Consuming enough whole grains helps meet nutrient needs. Choosing whole grains that are higher in dietary fiber has additional health benefits. At least half of recommended total grain intake should be whole grains. Less than 5 percent of Americans consume the minimum recommended amount of whole grains, which for many is about 3 ounce-equivalents62 per day. On average, Americans eat less than 1 ounce-equivalent of whole grains per day. Americans should aim to replace many refined-grain foods with whole-grain foods that are in their nutrient-dense forms to keep total calorie intake within limits. When refined grains are eaten, they should be enriched. Individuals may choose to consume more than half of their grains as whole grains. To ensure nutrient adequacy, individuals who consume all of their grains as whole grains should include some that have been fortified with folic acid, such as some ready-to-eat whole-grain cereals. This is particularly important for women who are capable of becoming pregnant. The recommendation to consume at least half of total grains as whole grains can be met in a number of ways. The most direct way to meet the whole grain recommendation is to eat at least half of one’s grain-based foods as 100% whole-grain foods. If the only grains in the ingredients list are whole grains, the food is a 100% whole-grain food. The relative amount of grain in the food can be inferred by the placement of the grain in the ingredients list. The whole grain should be the first ingredient or the second ingredient, after water. For foods with multiple whole-grain ingredients, they should appear near the beginning of the ingredients list.
Whole grain foods are most grain products that are not processed. They include: Brown rice, Buckwheat, Bulgur (cracked wheat), Oatmeal, Popcorn, Whole wheat cereal, Muesli, Whole grain barley, Whole grain cornmeal, Whole rye, Whole wheat bread, Whole wheat crackers, Whole wheat pasta, Whole wheat sandwich buns, Whole wheat rolls, Whole wheat tortillas, and Wild rice.
How much do I need? Say: About 50 to 65 percent of calories should come from carbohydrates, about 15 percent from protein and around 30 percent from fat. How many grams that translates to depends on the total calories. How do I know how much carbohydrates foods have? You can find the information on the Nutrition Facts panel on the side of the product.
How much do I need? Say: A typical diet contains from 50 to 65 percent of energy from carbohydrates. For example, we can find out how many grams of carbohydrate that is on a 2200 Calorie diet: 2200 Cal x 50% = 1100 Cal 100 % 1100 Cal = 275 grams of carbohydrate 4 Cal/g
Fueling your body Unit 5
Aw eso me .2 Cen t s!Fueling your body What you need to know
This lesson will cover What are Chronic diseases and carbohydrates? carbohydrate intake. Functions of How much should you carbohydrates. have? Digestion and metabolism Types of carbohydrates. Dietary fiber. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 2
The South Beach Diet No Starches! ATKINS DIET pasta, pizza, cereal, rice, or potatoes! Pennington Biomedical Research Center 3
What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are simple or complex structures made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Simple carbohydrates are small molecules, mainly 5 or 6 carbon molecules. Complex structures may be hundreds or thousands of glucose molecules, together with components such as lipids, nitrogen, or protein. Heparin and mucopolysaccharides are examples of complex carbohydrates. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 4
What are carbohydrates? Glucose is the simplest carbohydrate unit. It is a monosaccharide. Glucose molecule Ring structure Open structure Pennington Biomedical Research Center 5
What are carbohydrates? Table sugar, or sucrose, is an example of a disaccaride. It is made up of two simple sugar units Sugarcane (USDA) Pennington Biomedical Research Center Raw sugar 6
What are carbohydrates? Complex carbohydrates are made of many hundreds and thousands of glucose units. Fiber is indigestible carbohydrate due to the bond structure between glucose units. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 7
Functions of carbohydrates As fuel Sparing protein Helping fat breakdown Provide dietary fiber Pennington Biomedical Research Center 8
Carbohydrates as fuel All starches, saccharides, and mixed carbohydrates are converted to simplest form, glucose. Glucose is the most common type of energy currency used by the cells, in addition to fatty acids, and at times, ketones (heart). In carbohydrate excess, and when working out In energy excess Pennington Biomedical Research Center 9
Carbohydrates as fuel The brain uses mainly glucose for energy. Our brains alone use about 120 grams of carbohydrate for energy. The muscle cells use mainly fat for energy at rest, and glucose under high aerobic conditions such as running. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 10
Sparing protein Adequate carbohydrate intake. ~15 percent of energy. Efficient energy source. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 11
Sparing protein Inadequate carbohydrate intake leads to: Break down of body protein Body protein being used for energy Pennington Biomedical Research Center 12
Helping fat breakdown When a diet is low in carbohydrates, fats are not broken down completely. We produce ketone bodies. Ketone bodies can accumulate in the bloodstream and cause blood to become more acidic than normal. This can happen in diabetes as well. Severe ketosis can cause coma and death. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 13
Helping fat breakdown For complete fat breakdown and to prevent ketone bodies from building in the bloodstream, we should consume about 50 to 65 percent of calories (majority of energy) from carbohydrates. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 14
Providing dietary fiber Plants: a source of dietary fiber. Aids digestion. Insulation for intestinal wall. It helps speed elimination. It binds harmful molecules in the intestines. Dietary fiber can help prevent chronic diseases and can help in weight control. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 15
Digestion of Food Breakdown of carbohydratesFoods: Are broken down into: We consume foods that are mixes of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Digestion is breaking foods down to its components After breaking food down, we absorb the small molecules. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 16 http://1p423scienceeportfolio.wikispaces.com/Digestive+System
Digestion of Carbohydrates Starch Table sugar (sucrose) 1) Starch is first broken down (in the mouth) by an enzyme Table sugar is broken in saliva and later by pancreatic juices down into glucose and to form maltose. M M fructose by an enzyme Maltose found in the small intestine. M M M M Fructose Glucose2) Maltose (2 bound glucose molecules) issplit into glucose molecules by an enzyme m eacalled maltase in the small intestine. tr ds o Blo Milk sugar Galactose (lactose)Milk sugar is broken down into glucose and galactose byan enzyme (lactase) in the small intestine. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 17
Where are CarbohydratesFound? All the staples in our diet are really carbohydrates: Rice Pasta Potatoes Breads and rolls Crackers and snacks Also Vegetables Fruits Pennington Biomedical Research Center 18
Where are Carbohydrates Found? Carbohydrates (simple and complex) can be found in all the food groups except proteins: Milk and dairy Vegetables Fruits Grains Look for the stamp on the product Pennington Biomedical Research Center 19
Types of carbohydrates: simple Sugar is found naturally in many foods. It is also called simple carbohydrate. Food sources of natural sugar include fruit, vegetables, milk, and yogurt. Foods containing natural sugars are nutritious, providing many vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals (natural plant chemicals), and antioxidants. They are also good sources of fiber, as in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Examples of refined sugars are: sucrose, glucose, dextrose, maltose, and high fructose corn syrup. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 20
Simple Carbohydrates Sugar is also added to many foods in the form of white table sugar (sucrose), honey, corn syrup, or fructose. Foods high in added sugars are often referred to as sources of "empty calories," meaning they provide few vitamins, minerals, or fiber. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 21
Types of carbohydrates: Complex Starch, also known as complex carbohydrate or polysaccharide, is present in foods such as cereals, whole grains, rice, pasta, potatoes, peas, corn, and legumes. Complex carbohydrates are very large molecules that take some time to digest. Starch is an example of a digestible carbohydrate. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 22
Does anyone know why? Complex Carbohydrates Examples of complex carbohydrates are amylose, amylopectin, starch, and cellulose. Food sources of complex carbohydrates are important contributors of: vitamins, minerals, fiber, and a host of phytonutrients. When choosing grain food choices, it is important to choose whole grains often. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 23
Refined Grains versus Whole Refined vs. Whole Grains Grains Percent of nutrients remaining after whole wheat flour is refined into white flour. Enrichment adds the following: riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, iron. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 24Adapted from: Liu S. American College of Nutrition. 2002; 21(4): 298-306.
Types of carbohydrates: Complex Some carbohydrates are indigestible. The stalk from many plants, outer skin of fruits and vegetables, and outer layer of wheat are indigestible. It is referred to as Dietary Fiber. Fiber, also a complex carbohydrate, is found in foods of plant origin. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 25
Types of Dietary FiberInsoluble fiber. Insoluble fiber doesnt dissolve in water. Mainly ‘roughage.’ Will speed up food passing though the intestinal track. Sources are whole- wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, and many vegetables.Soluble fiber. Dissolves in water. Mainly slows down digestion within the intestinal tack and slows glucose absorption. Sources are oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley, and psyllium. Dietary fiber includes all parts of plant that your body can’t digest or absorb. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 26
The Role of FiberThe amount of each type of fiber varies in different plant foods, so to receive the greatest health benefit, it is important to eat a wide variety of high-fiber foods. Fiber can prevent the development of: constipation hemorrhoids irritable bowel syndrome diverticular disease high blood cholesterol type 2 diabetes Fiber can benefit: •By slowing the absorption of sugar •In weight loss Pennington Biomedical Research Center 27
What to have? Simple or Complex? The new food guide encourages the consumption of complex carbohydrates over simple carbohydrates. It says that “half our grains should be whole grains.” Complex carbohydrates are found in foods encouraged by the 2010 DGA such as: Whole grains Fruits Vegetables Myplate.gov Pennington Biomedical Research Center 28
Simple or Complex? Foods with a lot of simple carbohydrates are also sometimes called energy- dense: they provide calories (energy) from added sugars and fats and little nutrients. Foods with complex carbohydrates are called nutrient-dense: they are lower in calories (and fat) and packed with nutrients. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 29
Too High an Intake of Refined Grains Has been shown to…. Increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) (in adult women) Increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (in younger and middle-aged women) In studies which have looked at the effects of a high intake of refined grains, the most important consideration was the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate-containing foods. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 30
The 2010 DGA indicate that Before you eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl. Foods like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and lean protein foods contain the nutrients you need without too many calories. Improving what you eat and being active will help to reduce your risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, and obesity. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 31
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans tell usto: Strive for making at least half of the grains that we eat whole grains Does anyone know the reasons why? Pennington Biomedical Research Center 32
Whole Grains Examples Whole grain barleyBrown riceBuckwheat Whole grain cornmealBulgur Whole rye (cracked wheat) Whole wheat breadOatmeal Whole wheat crackersPopcorn Whole wheat pastaWhole wheat cereal Whole wheat sandwich bunsMuesli Whole wheat rolls Whole wheat tortillas Wild rice Raise your hand if you regularly eat any one of these foods listed. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 33
Refined GrainsBagels Pitas *Biscuits PretzelsCakesCookies Corn flakesSweet rolls White breadCorn tortillas * White sandwich bunsFlour tortillas * White rollsGrits White riceNoodles *SpaghettiMacaroni Raise your hand if you eatMuffins these foods more often than the whole grain foods. * Means that most of these products are made from refined grains. Check the ingredient list for words like “whole grain” or “whole wheat” to determine if they are made from a whole grain or not. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 34
How much do I need? The recommended intake for children, adolescent, and adult males and females is at least 130 grams/day. How do I know how much foods to have? Pennington Biomedical Research Center 35
How much do I need? A typical diet contains from 50 to 65 percent of energy from carbohydrates. We can find out how many grams of carbohydrate that is on a 2200 Calorie diet using 50% intake from carbohydrates: 2200 Cal x 50% = 1100 Cal 100 % 1100 Cal = 275 grams of carbohydrate 4 Cal/g Calculate the upper limit using the same format! Pennington Biomedical Research Center 36
Summary Carbohydrates can be either simple or complex. Carbohydrates have several functions in the body. The recommendation is to have half the grains as whole grains. How much carbohydrates to have depends on the caloric intake. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 37
References Dorothy West, Janis, P. Meek. Nutrition Food and Fitness. The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. 2006. Peck Ritter, Biochemistry. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1996. Len Marquart,Joanne L. Slavin, R. Gary Fulcher. Whole grain foods in health and disease. American Association of Cereal Chemists, 2nd printing, 2005. David Kritchevsky, Charles Bonfield (Ed). Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease. Eagan Press, 1995. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 38
Authors: Division of EducationHeli Roy, PhD, RD Phillip Brantley, PhD, DirectorShanna Lundy, BS Pennington Biomedical Research CenterBeth Kalicki, BS Steven Heymsfield, MD, Executive Director The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center. Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public about research findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at www.pbrc.edu or call (225) 763-3000. Pennington Biomedical Research Center 39