Publication # 57                             Exercise and the Heart       November 2009                             Physic...
How is inactivity risky?                                             Being sedentary correlates                 be counter...
The Facts About Exercise      It is advisable to wait at least        sprints and high intensity      one and a half hours...
Heart Disease PreventionPhysical activity is effective in decreasing the                                   swimming), " ke...
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Exercise and the heart newsletter

  1. 1. Publication # 57 Exercise and the Heart November 2009 Physical inactivity is a can benefit from exercise. Exercise also boosts the major risk factor for cor- immune system, but only Exercise can result in onary artery disease. Ex- if it is done at a moderate reduced body fat, and it ercise is beneficial to the intensity, such as brisk also gives the heart body in a multitude of paced walking or other muscle a workout, ways. It can help you aerobic activity. making it stronger. It is relieve stress, lose weight, noted that exercise helps The best way to reach an maintain a healthy body to improve heart health by ideal level of fitness and mass index (BMI), and making the heart muscle weight is to avoid high fat even lower your risk of stronger and larger. This foods, choosing plenty of many chronic diseases. enables it to pump more fruits and vegetables and It is recommended that blood throughout the whole grains, and by everyone get at least 30 body with each beat, and adopting a lifestyle that minutes of moderate allows it to perform at its includes physical activity. intensity exercise daily. maximum potential with Children should have 60 least effort. minutes of physical It also helps keep the activity each day. arteries elastic. This Everyone can benefit makes the blood flow from exercise. Multiple easier, and helps to studies have shown that maintain normal blood patients who have heart pressure. This reduces the problems, and even those risk of atherosclerosis and who are at high risk for heart attack. heart disease or failure, The Types of ExercisePBRC Aerobic Exercises: Anaerobic or Strength Training Exercises: Jogging Weight-lifting Cross Training Sprinting Swimming Jumping rope Bicycling Isometric exercise Walking Flexibility Exercises: Stretching Inside this issue: Special points of interest: How is inactivity risky? 2 How you can benefit from exercise Updated Physical Activity Guidelines 2 The effects of being sedentary Facts About Exercise 3 Exercise Facts About Pennington 4
  2. 2. How is inactivity risky? Being sedentary correlates be counterbalanced by weight with overweight and obesity, training regardless of age, risk factors for diabetes, heart albeit at a slower rate. attack, heart disease, stroke, With weight training, muscles high blood pressure, and will grow larger. Strength can many other health problems. increase at any age. It is advised that sedentary Men can cut their risk for stroke individuals engage in an in half if their exercise program appropriate level of physical is close to an hour of brisk Inactivity is a major risk activity to increase general walking each day, five days a factor for coronary heart conditioning before engaging week. disease. in any high intensity workouts, to avoid the risk of People who exercise often and Sedentary people have a 35 do so at a high intensity, have percent greater risk of being injury. the lowest risk for heart disease, diagnosed with hypertension Individuals who maintain an but all exercise is beneficial to when compared to athletes active lifestyle have a 45 everyone. and very active individuals. percent lower risk of Exercise improves heart health Sedentary people are at a developing heart disease, and may possibly reverse some higher risk of having type 2 when compared to sedentary risk factors associated with diabetes, as well as heart individuals. heart disease. disease. Aging related decrease in muscle mass and strength can Updated Physical Activity Guidelines The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) released updated physical activity guidelines in 2007. These guidelines are for healthy adults under age 65. Basic recommendations from ACSM and AHA: Do moderately intense cardio 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week Or Do vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week And Do 8 to 10 strength-training exercises, 8 to 12 repetitions of each exercise twice a week. Moderate-intensity physical activity means working hard enough to raise your heart rate and break a sweat, while still being able to carry on a conversation. It should be noted that to lose weight or maintain weight loss, 60 to 90 minutes of physical activity may be necessary. The 30-minute recommendation is for the average healthy adult to maintain health and reduce the risk for chronic disease.Page 2
  3. 3. The Facts About Exercise It is advisable to wait at least sprints and high intensity one and a half hours after eating strength training such as a meal before beginning an powerlifting. Other anaerobic exercise program. activities are shuttle run, pushups, sit-ups, soccer, tennis, It is recommended that we con- basketball, and sprinting. sume water before, during and after an exercise session to pre- Choose activities you enjoy, vent dehydration and reduce such as swimming, biking, or muscle fatigue. playing basketball with friends to get your daily physical activ- Exercise improves lipid levels, In 2009, a study performed at ity. If you need variety of activ- reduces inflammation in the Duke University* involving over ities to stay motivated, combine arteries, and assists in weight 2,000 men and women diagnosed a few that appeal to you. loss. with heart failure to see if Flexibility exercises or exercise intervention would For the maximum protection of stretching: Stretching exercises improve their long term health. A the heart, it is not the duration should be done every day or as group of patients received of the exercise session that often as possible to prevent standard care (control group), and matters; instead, it depends on stiffness. As we age, flexibility the other group received both the total amount of energy that exercises become more im- standard care as well as exercise is expended in exercise. portant to help us stay limber. training. The patients received The warm-up session of Flexibility exercises can help thirty-six supervised exercise exercise is used to reduce the protect our joints by reducing sessions, and they were given stress from the workout on your the risk of joint injury, they also either an exercise bike or a heart and muscles, and to slow- help us during warm up before treadmill when they were re- ly increase oxygen uptake, strenuous exercise. Flexibility leased to go home and they were heart rate, and body tempera- exercise can also help during told to exercise 120 to 200 ture. relaxation sessions to release minutes a week. After three Aerobic exercise has the most tension from the body. months, the group that received benefits for your heart. It can the exercise training felt better Flexibility exercises can be help decrease heart rate and than the group that received done on exercise mats on the blood pressure at rest, as well standard care. Over two and a floor or in the pool. as improve breathing. half years, those that continued to Some examples of exercises exercise were less likely to be Examples of aerobic exercise that involve flexibility are tai hospitalized for any cause that include: walking, jogging, chi and yoga. was related to heart failure. Exer- jumping rope, bicycling, cising also decreased the patient’s skating, and low impact aer- It is recommended that we do risk factors for dying from heart obics. Other aerobic activi- up to 15 minutes of flexibility ties include, skating, mowing exercises a day. the lawn, rollerblading, raking In addition to strengthening the leaves, and playing with the heart, regular physical exercise can children. reduce the risk of osteoporosis and delay the physiological decrease of Anaerobic, or weight training bone mineral density with aging. exercises build muscle. These Research shows that regular exercises last from a few exercise for women of practically seconds up to two minutes at all ages is well advised. high intensity. These includeP U B L I CA T I O N # 5 7 * April 8, 2009, JAMA Page 3
  4. 4. Heart Disease PreventionPhysical activity is effective in decreasing the swimming), " keep-fit " exercises, and strenuous workincidence of heart disease. A large study in Britain (e.g., digging). During the study, 11% of the men whoassessed the level of physical activity and monitored participated in vigorous physical activities developedthe incidence of cardiovascular events over a two year coronary heart disease, contrastingly, 26% of the menperiod of more than 16,000 subjects. The subjects who were in the control group developed coronarywere all male office workers aged 40 to 64 years of heart disease. Vigorous exercise protected against fa-age. Vigorous physical activity was analyzed in those tal heart attacks and other first clinical attacks of CHDlikely to reach peaks of energy output of 225 kcal in throughout middle age. This study shows a correlation30 minutes (corresponding to heavy industrial work) between vigorous exercise and the promotion ofcreating a training effect on the cardiovascular system. cardiovascular health.These activities included active recreations (e.g., About PenningtonThe Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition Pennington Nutrition Series No 57, 2009research center.Mission: AuthorsTo promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition andpreventive medicine. Beth KalickiThe Pennington Center has several research areas, including: Heli J. Roy, PhD, RD Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Division of Education Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Pennington Biomedical Research Center Nutrition and the Brain 8/10 Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenanceThe research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthyliving and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart dis-ease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific Pennington Biomedical Researchcommunity and the public about research findings, training programs and re-search areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various Centerhealth issues. 6400 Perkins Road We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the excitingresearch studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Baton Rouge, LA 70808Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page or call (225) 763-3000. (225) 763-2500