Dietary fats unlocked for the teens Unit 4

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  • Fats are mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Fats are mixtures of fatty acids and glycerol. They are part of a larger group of lipids . Three fatty acids connect to each glycerol molecule to make a molecule of fat. Fatty acids can be different lengths and degrees of saturation. Whether fat is solid or liquid depends on the length of the fatty acids (how many carbon atoms it has) and the degree of saturation (how many hydrogen atoms they each have). Common fatty acids have 16 to 18 carbon atoms and they can be saturated or unsaturated.
  • Fat is made up of three fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids and glycerol combine to make a large molecule and 3 molecules of water.
  • Fat is a component of food. Low fat foods. Some foods have almost no fat, such as fruits and vegetables, grains, breads, cereals and beans. High fat foods Other foods have plenty of fat, like nuts, oils, butter, and certain meats. The name “fat” usually implies something bad, or something that we shouldn’t eat. But, in fact, fat does serve many important functions.
  • Fat is important in: Serving as a source of energy for the body. The production of cell membranes . The production of several hormone-like compounds called eicosanoids, which help regulate blood pressure, heart rate, blood vessel constriction, blood clotting , and the nervous system .
  • Fat is also important in: Carrying fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamins A, D, E, and K) from the food into the body. Helping to maintain healthy hair and skin , protecting vital organs , keeping the body insulated , and providing a sense of fullness after meals (known as satiety). Fat is needed for the body to function properly.
  • Fat is essential to a healthy diet. However, too much fat can be unhealthy. Eating a lot of high-fat foods adds excess calories to the diet and limits other nutrients. Why? Fat provides 9 kcal/gram. That is more than twice the calories provided by carbohydrates or protein (4 kcal/gram). This, in time, can cause weight gain and obesity . Obesity, in itself, is a risk factor for several diseases
  • It is also important to note that not all fats are created equal – some are much better for you than others. Eating too much of certain kinds of fats can increase blood cholesterol levels and the risk for coronary artery disease. It is important to distinguish between the healthy and unhealthy fats.
  • Healthy fats are the unsaturated fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Unhealthy fats are saturated fats and trans fats
  • Cholesterol is a wax-like substance in animal products. Dietary cholesterol is also a two edged sword. We need enough for us to make essential products, but not too much so it collects in our blood vessels. After digestion , lipoproteins carry cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a wax-like substance also made in the liver. It is linked to carrier proteins (called lipoproteins) that transport it to all parts of the body through the bloodstream. Cholesterol has an essential role in the formation of cell membranes, some hormones, and vitamin D. However, too much cholesterol in the blood can lead to serious problems, like hardening of arteries and heart disease.
  • When there is too much cholesterol in the blood, deposits of cholesterol can build up inside of the arteries. These deposits are known as plaque , and they can narrow an artery enough to slow or even stop blood flow. This narrowing process is known as atherosclerosis and it can occurs in the arteries that nourish the heart (the coronary arteries ).
  • Angina is a chest pain which can occur as a result of one or more sections of the heart muscle is not getting enough blood. It is important that the heart gets a steady flow of blood , in order for it continue functioning properly. It needs the oxygen and nutrients that are contained in the blood. Plaque deposits can also rupture from the vessel wall, causing blood clots that may lead to heart attack, stroke, or sudden death.
  • Cholesterol-carrying lipoproteins play central roles in the development of atherosclerotic plaque and cardiovascular diseases . Two types of lipoproteins work in opposite directions.
  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): These lipoproteins carry cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body . When there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, the cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the coronary arteries. This is why LDL is referred to as the “bad” cholesterol.
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL): These lipoproteins carry cholesterol from the blood back to the liver , which then processes the cholesterol, preparing it for elimination from the body. High HDL makes it less likely that excess cholesterol in the blood will be deposited in the coronary arteries, making HDL cholesterol the “good” cholesterol.
  • Today we know that dietary cholesterol isn’t quite as closely linked to blood levels of cholesterol as previously thought. Although it is still important to limit the amount of cholesterol we eat, the mix of fats ( the ratio of good versus bad fats ) in the diet influences blood cholesterol more than dietary cholesterol.
  • So, what are the main food sources of these healthy and unhealthy forms of fat? And, how do dietary fats effect blood cholesterol and risk for heart disease? Ideally, you want a low amount of LDL , and a high amount of HDL in the blood.
  • Saturated Fats Dietary saturated fatty acids usually have 14 to 18 carbon atoms (myristic, palmitic and stearic acids). One of the most common saturated fatty acids is stearic acid. It has 18 carbon atoms. At room temperature, saturated fats are solid . These fats are unhealthy in that they raise LDL (bad) cholesterol. In addition, they work to raise HDL (good) cholesterol. Dietary saturated fatty acids usually have 14 to 18 carbon atoms (myristic, palmitic and stearic acids). One of the most common saturated fatty acids is stearic acid. It has 18 carbon atoms.
  • Saturated fatty acids are found in animal products such as meats and dairy. Vegetable sources of saturated fatty acids are coconut oil and palm oil. 50% of palm oil fatty acids are saturated (mainly palmitic acid), while 90% of coconut oil is saturated and majority of the fatty acids are lauric acid. The main food sources for saturated fats are: Whole milk, Butter, Cheese, Ice cream, Red meat,, Chocolate, Coconuts, Coconut milk, and Coconut oil.
  • At room temperature, monounsaturated fats are liquid, but the fat will congeal in cooler temperatures or in the refrigerator. Monounsaturated fats have double bond in the molecule. Hence “mono” and “unsaturated” These fats are important because they work to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol, while raising HDL (good) cholesterol. Monounsaturated fats are heart healthy and are part of the heart healthy Mediterranean diet.
  • The main food sources for monounsaturated fats are: Avocados Olives Olive oil Canola oil Peanut oil Cashews Almonds Peanuts Most other nuts
  • At room temperature, polyunsaturated fats are liquid . Polyunsaturated fats have more than one double bond within the molecule. Polyunsaturated fatty acids can assume a cis or trans conformation depending on the geometry of the double bond. Polyunsaturated fats are important because they work to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol, while raising HDL (good) cholesterol. They have many other important functions in the body. Their products help to improve the immune system, they reduce inflammatory reaction, they reduce the risk of several types of cancer, and they are required for normal brain development and function.
  • The main food sources for polyunsaturated fats are: Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil Cottonseed oil Fish
  • Omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and help prevent certain chronic diseases such as heart disease and arthritis. Omega 3 fatty acids are found in cold water fish. Omega 6 fatty acids are required for normal growth and development Omega 6 fatty acids are found in commonly used cooking oils, including sunflower, safflower, corn, cottonseed, and soybean oils. Normal American diet has a omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio) is healthier. Early humans had a diet with a ratio of approximately 1 between omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA), and some nutritionist today recommend that to be the ideal ratio for reducing the risk of chronic diseases
  • Similar to saturated fats, trans fats, too, raise LDL (bad) cholesterol. However, trans fats have an even greater negative impact on blood cholesterol levels than saturated fat, they lower HDL (good) cholesterol. This is the only type of fat that has the ability to lower good cholesterol. In addition to raising the bad and lowering the good cholesterol, trans fats can increase the inflammatory reaction . This can mean increased risk of: heart disease , stroke , diabetes , and other chronic conditions . It is important to limit the intake of saturated fats, and to recognize and eliminate sources of trans fat from the diet. Today it is easier to identify foods containing trans fat. It has to be listed on the food label
  • In nature, most of the fats are in the “cis” form. Hydrogenated oils are liquid oils that have been changed into a solid form of fat by adding hydrogen. What is the purpose? The process of hydrogenation allows these fats to keep longer without losing their flavor, thus increasing their shelf life. At room temperature, trans fats are either solid or semi-solid .
  • In addition to raising the bad and lowering the good cholesterol, trans fats can increase the inflammatory reaction . This can mean increased risk of: heart disease , stroke , diabetes , and other chronic conditions . It is important to limit the intake of saturated fats, and to recognize and eliminate sources of trans fat from the diet. Today it is easier to identify foods containing trans fat. It has to be listed on the food label .
  • Remember that trans fats are only in processed foods. They are in all processed foods that have fats. The highest sources of trans fats are baked products, crackers, cookies, hydrogenated shortenings and fried foods. Fried foods in fast food restaurants are common sources of trans fats. The main food sources for trans fats are: Most margarines Vegetable shortening Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil Deep-fried chips Many fast foods Most commercial baked goods
  • These are some common foods that show the total, saturated, trans fats and cholesterol. Notice that trans fats are higher in highly processed foods that have fats in them.
  • Less processed foods have less trans fats in them.
  • The nutrients listed first are the ones Americans generally eat in adequate amounts, or even too much. They are identified in yellow as Limit these Nutrients. Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, like heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure. Important: Health experts recommend that you keep your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol as low as possible as part of a nutritionally balanced diet. Total Fat : the amount of fat present in one serving of a food; it includes the total of all monounsaturated , polyunsaturated , saturated , and trans fat found within one serving of the food. The label will have information on: Saturated Fat Trans Fat It may also have information on: Monounsaturated Fat Polyunsaturated Fat Upper Limit - Eat "Less than"... The nutrients that have "upper daily limits" are listed first on the footnote of larger labels and on the example above. Upper limits means it is recommended that you stay below - eat "less than" - the Daily Value nutrient amounts listed per day. For example, the DV for Saturated fat (in the
  • Choose liquid vegetable oils, or choose a soft tub margarine that contains no trans fats . Reduce intake of commercially prepared baked goods, snack foods, and processed foods (including fast foods). Choose products that list the hydrogenated oils near the end of the ingredient list (these products contain less of the oil than products listing the oil near the top ). To avoid trans fats in restaurants, one strategy is to avoid deep-fried foods (since many restaurants continue to use partially hydrogenated oils in their fryers).
  • The Dietary Guidelines For Americans 2010 edition recommends the following: Children and adolescents . Keep total fat intake between 30 to 35 percent of calories for children 2 to 3 years of age and between 25 to 35 percent of calories for children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.
  • http://www.myplate.gov is an excellent website based on the new Food Guide Pyramid. By entering your age, gender, and level of physical activity that you do in addition to your normal daily routine on most days, you can see the number of calories that is recommended for you to eat each day. For example, Kara, who is a 16 year old female who exercises 30-60 minutes each day, is recommended to eat 2,000 calories a day to maintain her current weight (according to MyPyramid). Say that Kara ate a total of 65 grams of fat for the day (including all mono and polyunsaturated, saturated, and trans fat).
  • Does the amount of fat for the day fall within the recommended 25 to 35 percent of calories from fat guideline for Kara? Here’s how you can tell: First: calculate the least amount of fat (in grams) that Kara could eat at the lower end of the recommendation (25% of calories from fat). Then, calculate the highest amount of fat (in grams) Kara could at the higher end of the recommendation (35% of calories from fat).
  • For 25% of calories coming from fat (in a 2,000 calorie diet): First, multiply 2,000 calories (or whatever your recommended calorie intake is) by 0.25 (or 25%). 2000 calories x .25 = 500 calories Next, you would divide 500 calories by 9 (since there are 9 kcal per gram of fat). 500 calories = 55.5556 g 9 calories/gram This can be rounded to 56 g. 56 grams is the least amount of fat Kara could have to be within the 25-35% recommendations for fat.
  • For 35% of calories coming from fat (in a 2,000 calorie diet): Multiply 2,000 calories (or whatever your recommended calorie intake is) by 0.35 (35% in decimal form). 2000 calories x .35 = 700 calories Next, you would divide 700 calories by 9 (since there are 9 kcal per gram of fat). 700 calories = 77.7778 grams 9 calories/gram This can be rounded to 78 g. 78 grams is the highest amount of fat that Kara could have to be within the 25-35% recommendations for fat.
  • Based on a 2,000 calorie diet, children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age should consume between 56 to 78 grams of total fat and still fall within the recommended range of 25-35% of calories from fat. Because Kara ate 65 grams of total fat for the day, she falls within the guideline. Therefore, yes – Kara did meet recommendations for fat for the day.
  • The word “fat” doesn’t have to be a negative word. Fat has many important functions in the body. Not all fats are created equal . It is important to limit your intake of saturated and trans fats . Substitute, when possible, healthier fat options for the unhealthy options. Example: Choose oven baked fries or a baked potato over those fried in vegetable shortening.
  • Also, remember that the more you exercise, the more calories you use up . So, if you increase your daily activities over a period of time, you will need to keep this in mind when figuring up your daily calorie requirements. In order to maintain your current weight, you will need to eat extra calories when exercising more . How we eat today does effect our health in the future . Even little steps can make a big difference later on down the road.
  • Choose unsaturated fats & oils more often, such as: Margarine (especially soft, light, trans free margarine) Corn, canola, olive, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils Avoid trans fat-containing products, such as: Stick margarine Avoid saturated fat-containing products, such as: Butter Solid shortening Lard Fatback
  • Dietary fats unlocked for the teens Unit 4

    1. 1. What’s this about Fats? The Good, The Bad and the UglyAw eso me .2 Cen t s!
    2. 2. This lesson will cover:• What is fat? • Trans fats• Functions of dietary fat • Example of a label• Dietary fat • Reducing trans fat intake 2012• Healthy vs. unhealthy fat • Recommendations for Copyright PBRC 2007• Cholesterol fats• Lipoproteins • Calculations• Saturated fats • General information• Monounsaturated fats • References• Polyunsaturated fats 2
    3. 3. What is Fat? • Fats are mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 2012 • Fats are mixtures of fatty acids and glycerol. They are part of a larger group of lipids. Three fatty acids Copyright PBRC 2007 connect to each glycerol molecule to make a molecule of fat. • Whether fat is solid or liquid depends on the length of the fatty acids (how many carbon atoms it has) and the degree of saturation (how many hydrogen atoms they each have). 3
    4. 4. Fat synthesis4 Copyright PBRC 2007 2012
    5. 5. Dietary fat • Fat is a component of most all foods. • Low fat foods. 2012 • High fat foods Copyright PBRC 2007 • The name “fat” usually implies something bad, or something that we shouldn’t eat. 5
    6. 6. Functions of Fat • Fat is important because it is: – A source of energy 2012 – A component of cell membranes. Copyright PBRC 2007 – Involved in regulating blood pressure, heart rate, blood vessel constriction, blood clotting, and the nervous system function 6
    7. 7. Functions of Fat • Fat is also important in: • Carrying fat-soluble vitamins - 2012 Vitamins A, D, E, and K. Copyright PBRC 2007 • Helping to maintain healthy hair and skin, protecting vital organs, keeping the body insulated, and providing a sense of fullness after meals (known as satiety). 7 Fat is needed for the body to function properly.
    8. 8. Dietary Fat • Dietary fat is a two edged sword. 2012 • Fat is essential to a healthy diet, however, Copyright PBRC 2007 • Eating a lot of high-fat foods adds excess calories to the diet and limits other nutrients. Why? • Fat provides 9 kcal/gram. That is more than twice the calories provided by carbohydrates or protein (4 kcal/gram). 8
    9. 9. Dietary Fat • Not all fats are created equal! Some are much better for you than others. 2012 • Unhealthy fats can increase blood cholesterol levels Copyright PBRC 2007 and the risk for coronary artery disease. 9
    10. 10. Healthy vs. Unhealthy Fats • Healthy fats are the unsaturated fats: 2012 monounsaturated and Copyright PBRC 2007 polyunsaturated fats.• Unhealthy fats are saturated fats and trans fats. 10
    11. 11. Cholesterol - a type of fatty substanceWhat is it?• Cholesterol is a wax-like substance in animal products and it is made by our liver.• Dietary cholesterol is also a two edged sword. We need enough for us to make essential products, but not too much so it collects in our 2012 blood vessels. Copyright PBRC 2007• After digestion, lipoproteins carry cholesterol in the blood. • Cholesterol has an essential role in the formation of cell membranes, some hormones, and vitamin D. • Too much cholesterol in the blood leads to hardening of arteries and heart disease. 11
    12. 12. Too much Cholesterol? • Deposits of cholesterol and 2012 other lipids can build up inside of the Copyright PBRC 2007 arteries. • These deposits are known as plaque. • This narrowing process is known as atherosclerosis. 12
    13. 13. Too much Cholesterol? • Angina is a chest pain due to lack of blood. 2012 • Heart needs a steady flow of blood. Copyright PBRC 2007 • Deposits of plaque (containing cholesterol and proteins) can rupture from the vessel wall, causing blood clots that may lead to heart attack, stroke, or sudden death. 13
    14. 14. Lipoproteins• Atherosclerotic plaque• Cardiovascular diseases 2012• Two types of lipoproteins Copyright PBRC 2007 work in opposite directions. 14
    15. 15. Lipoprotein types • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) – From the liver to the rest of the body 2012 Copyright PBRC 2007 15
    16. 16. Lipoprotein types • High-density lipoproteins (HDL) • From the blood back to the liver 2012 Copyright PBRC 2007 16
    17. 17. Dietary Cholesterol• Dietary cholesterol does influence blood cholesterol levels somewhat. 2012 Copyright PBRC 2007 Cardiovascular system• The mix of fats (the ratio of healthy versus unhealthy fats) in the diet influences blood cholesterol more than dietary cholesterol. 17
    18. 18. Back to Dietary Fats.. So, what are the main food sources of these healthy and unhealthy forms of fat? 2012 Copyright PBRC 2007 And, how do dietary fats effect blood cholesterol and risk for heart disease? Ideally, you want a low amount of LDL, and a high amount of HDL in the blood. 18
    19. 19. Saturated Fats“Unhealthy Fats”• At room temperature, saturated fats are solid.• These fats are 2012 Bad unhealthy in Cholesterol that they raise Copyright PBRC 2007 LDL (bad) cholesterol.• In addition, they work to raise HDL (good) Good cholesterol. Cholesterol 19
    20. 20. Saturated Fats“Unhealthy Fats” • The main food sources for saturated fats are: • Whole milk 2012 • Butter Copyright PBRC 2007 • Cheese • Ice cream • Red meat • Chocolate • Coconuts • Coconut milk • Coconut oil 20
    21. 21. Monounsaturated Fats“Healthy Fats”• At room temperature, monounsaturated Bad 2012 fats are liquid. Cholesterol Copyright PBRC 2007• Monounsaturated fats lower LDL (bad) cholesterol,• while raising HDL (good) cholesterol. Good Cholesterol 21
    22. 22. Monounsaturated Fats“Healthy Fats” • The main food sources for monounsaturated fats are: • Avocados • Olives 2012 • Olive oil Copyright PBRC 2007 • Canola oil • Peanut oil • Cashews • Almonds • Peanuts • Most other nuts 22
    23. 23. Polyunsaturated Fats“Healthy Fats” • At room temperature, Bad polyunsaturated Cholesterol fats are liquid. 2012 • Polyunsaturated Copyright PBRC 2007 fats lower LDL (bad) cholesterol, • while raising HDL (good) Good cholesterol. Cholesterol 23
    24. 24. Polyunsaturated Fats“Healthy Fats” • The main food sources for polyunsaturated fats are: • Corn oil 2012 • Soybean oil Copyright PBRC 2007 • Safflower oil • Sunflower oil • Cottonseed oil • Cold water fish 24
    25. 25. Polyunsaturated Fatty acids“Healthy Fats”• Omega-3 fatty acids • Omega 6 fatty acids • reduce inflammation • Required for normal growth and development • help prevent heart 2012 disease and arthritis. Copyright PBRC 2007• Omega 3 fatty acids • Omega 6 fatty acids • cold water fish. • cooking oils 25
    26. 26. Trans Fats This is the only type of fat that has the ability to lower good cholesterol.“Unhealthy Fats”Similar to saturated fats, trans fats, raise LDL (bad) cholesterol. Bad 2012 Cholesterol Copyright PBRC 2007Trans fats lower HDL (good) Good Cholesterol cholesterol. 26
    27. 27. Trans Fats“Unhealthy Fats” • In nature, most of the fats are in the “cis” form. Natural oils • When liquid oils are 2012 hydrogenated, to prevent Copyright PBRC 2007 them from spoiling, some fatty acids assume “trans” position. Hydrogenated fats 27
    28. 28. Trans Fats “Unhealthy Fats”• Trans fats can increase the inflammatory reaction • i.e. increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, & other chronic conditions.• It is recommended that we have as little trans fat as possible. 2012 Copyright PBRC 2007• Trans fats have to be listed on the food label. 28
    29. 29. Trans Fats “Unhealthy Fats”• The main food sources for trans fats are: • Most margarines 2012 • Vegetable shortening Copyright PBRC 2007 • Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil • Deep-fried chips • Many fast foods • Most commercially baked goods 29
    30. 30. Total Fat, Saturated Fat, Trans Fat & Cholesterol Content Per Serving A Look at Some Commonly Eaten Foods Product Common Total Sat. Fat (g) Trans Fat Combined Chol. (mg) Serving Size Fat (g) (g) Sat. & Trans Fat (g) 2012French Fries Medium 27 7 8 15 0 Copyright PBRC 2007(Fast Food) (147 g)Doughnut 1 18 4.5 5 9.5 25Cake, pound 1 slice 16 3.5 4.5 8 0 (80 g)Shortening 1T 13 3.5 4 7.5 0Margarine, stick 1T 11 2 3 5 0Potato Chips Small bag 11 2 3 5 0 30 (42.5 g)Candy Bar 1 10 4 3 7 <5 (40 g)
    31. 31. Total Fat, Saturated Fat, Trans Fat & Cholesterol Content Per Serving A Look at Some Commonly Eaten Foods Product Common Total Fat Sat. Fat Trans Fat Combined Chol. Serving Size (g) (g) (g) Sat. & (mg) Trans Fat 2012 (g) Copyright PBRC 2007Cookies, 3 6 1 2 3 0cream filled (30 g)Margarine, tub 1T 7 1 0.5 1.5 0Mayonnaise 1T 11 1.5 0 1.5 5Milk, whole 1 cup 7 4.5 0 4.5 35Milk, skim 1 cup 0 0 0 0 5 31Butter 1T 11 7 0 7 30
    32. 32. Example of a Label • Total Fat: the amount of fat present in one serving of a food; it includes the total of all monounsaturated, 2012 polyunsaturated, saturated, and Copyright PBRC 2007 trans fat found within one serving of the food. The label will have information on: Saturated Fat Trans Fat It may also have information on: Monounsaturated Fat 32 Polyunsaturated Fat
    33. 33. Reducing Trans Fat IntakeHelpful Tips • Choose liquid vegetable oils. • Reduce commercially prepared 2012 baked goods. Copyright PBRC 2007 • Avoid products that use hydrogenated oils. • Avoid trans fats. 33
    34. 34. Recommendations for FatsFrom the 2010 Dietary Guidelines forAmericans• Children and adolescents. Keep total fat intake between 30 to 40 percent of calories for children 2012 1 to 3 years of age and between 25 to 35 percent Copyright PBRC 2007 of calories for children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. 34
    35. 35. How do I knowIf I fall within this fat recommendation? • Excellent website for nutrition information: http://www.myplate.gov • Example: 2012 • Kara, is a 16 year old female. She exercises 30-60 minutes each day, and her caloric intake recommendation is 2,000 calories a Copyright PBRC 2007 day to maintain her current weight (according to MyPyramid). • If Kara ate a total of 65 grams of fat for the day (including all mono and polyunsaturated, saturated, and trans fat), would that be adequate, too little or too much? 35
    36. 36. How do I know?If I fall within this fat recommendation? • Does the amount of fat for the day fall within the recommended 25 to 35 percent of calories from fat guideline for Kara? 2012 Copyright PBRC 2007 • Here’s how you can tell: • First: calculate the least amount of fat (in grams) that Kara could eat at the lower end of the recommendation (25% of calories from fat). • Then, calculate the highest amount of fat (in grams) Kara could at the higher end of the recommendation (35% of calories from fat). 36
    37. 37. CalculationsFor 25% of calories coming from fat (in a 2,000 calorie diet):First, multiply 2,000 calories (or whatever yourrecommended calorie intake is) by 0.25 (or 25%). 2000 calories x .25 = 500 calories 2012 Copyright PBRC 200756 grams is the least amount of fat Kara could have to be within the 25-35% recommendations for fat. 37
    38. 38. For 35% of calories coming from fat (in a 2,000 calorie diet):Multiply 2,000 calories (or whatever your recommended calorie intake is) by 0.35 (35% in decimal form). 2000 calories x .35 = 700 calories 2012 Next, you would divide 700 calories by 9 (since there are Copyright PBRC 2007 9 kcal per gram of fat). 700 calories = 77.7778 grams 9 calories/gram This can be rounded to 78 g. 78 grams is the highest amount of fat that Kara could have to be within the 25-35% recommendations for 38 fat.
    39. 39. How do I knowIf I fall within this fat recommendation?• Based on a 2,000 calorie diet, children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age should consume between 56 to 78 2012 grams of total fat and still fall within the recommended Copyright PBRC 2007 range of 25-35% of calories from fat.• Because Kara ate 65 grams of total fat for the day, she falls within the guideline. Therefore, yes – Kara did meet recommendations for fat for the day. 39
    40. 40. Review• The word “fat” doesn’t have to be a negative word.• Fat has many functions in the body.• Not all fats are created equal. 2012 • It is important to limit your intake of saturated Copyright PBRC 2007 and trans fats. 40
    41. 41. Calorie use• Exercise uses calories.• How we eat today does effect our health in the future.• Even little steps can make a big difference later on 2012 down the road. Copyright PBRC 2007 41
    42. 42. Review • Choose unsaturated fats & oils more often, such as: • Margarine (especially soft, light, trans free margarine) • Corn, canola, olive, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils 2012 • Avoid trans fat-containing products, such as: Copyright PBRC 2007 • Stick margarine • Avoid saturated fat-containing products, such as: • Butter • Solid shortening • Lard • Fatback 42
    43. 43. References • Revealing Trans Fats. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/503_fats.html • Fats & Cholesterol- The Good, the bad and the healthy diet. Available at: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/fats.html 2012 • Dietary Fats: Know which types to choose. Available at: Copyright PBRC 2007 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fat/NU00262 • Learning About Fats. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/nutrition/food/fat.html • Figuring Out Fat and Calories. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/nutrition/general/fat_calories.html 43
    44. 44. References 2012 • Tip sheet: Fats and Oils to Choose. • Available at: Copyright PBRC 2007 http://www.nhlbisupport.com/chd1/Tipsheets/tipsheet- satfat.htm • Know Your Fats. • Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml? identifier=532 44
    45. 45. Division of EducationAuthors: Phillip Brantley, PhD, DirectorHeli Roy, PhD, RD Pennington Biomedical Research CenterShanna Lundy, BS Claude Bouchard, PhD, Executive Director VISION Our vision is to lead the world in eliminating chronic diseases. MISSION Our mission is to discover the triggers of chronic diseases through innovative research that improves human health across the lifespan. We are helping people live Well Beyond the Expected. The Pennington Center has several research areas, including: •Clinical Obesity Research 2012 •Experimental Obesity •Functional Foods •Health and Performance Enhancement Copyright PBRC 2007 •Nutrition and Chronic Diseases •Nutrition and the Brain •Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging •Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis. The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public about research findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues. We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at www.pbrc.edu or call (225) 763-3000. 45 Visit our Web Site: www.pbrc.edu

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