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About vegetarian diets for teens Unit 9


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About vegetarian diets for teens Unit 9

  1. 1. Vegetarianism What you need to know Aw Pennington Biomedical Research Center eso me .2 C ent s!2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 1 Center
  2. 2. This lesson will cover: The vegetarian approach to eating What is vegetarianism? Types of vegetarian diets Becoming a vegetarian Key nutrients in vegetarian diets Significance of key nutrients Sources of nutrients2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 2 Center
  3. 3. A Healthful Approach Consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables reduces the risk for developing cancer, and reduces the risk for developing heart disease. A vegetarian diet is high in fruits, vegetables, and contains less saturated fat and cholesterol, as well as more mono and polyunsaturated fat and fiber than a non-vegetarian diet. 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 3 Center
  4. 4. Vegetarian Wha t is it? There is no single vegetarian eating pattern. A healthy vegetarian diet consists primarily of the following plant-based foods:  Dairy  Legumes  Whole grains  Vegetables  Fruits  Nuts and seeds2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 4 Center
  5. 5. Types of Vegetarian Diets Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Lacto-vegetarian Vegan2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 5 Center
  6. 6. A Closer Look Cha ra c te ris tic s o f Ea c h Die t A true vegetarian eats no meat at all, inc lud ing chicken & fish.Leas Lacto-ovo vegetarian: eats dairy products and eggs, but excludes meat, fish, and poultry o tstrict Lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy products, but not eggs or meat, fish, and poultry o o Ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs, but not dairy products or meat, fish, and poultry o Vegan: does not eat dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, & poultryMoststrict 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 6 Center
  7. 7. Vegetarian DietsNot all vegetarian diets are the same. Some: eliminate all red meat, poultry, and fish. More strict: also exclude eggs and milk products. All are mainly plant based. Protein sources in vegetarian diets are nuts, seeds, legumes, dairy and eggs (if allowed).2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 7 Center
  8. 8. Vegan DietsVegan diets are the most strict. They exclude all animal products, including gelatin and honey. Vegans eat all fruits and vegetables, lentils, nuts, seeds, and grains.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 8 Center
  9. 9. Other Types  Semi-vegetarians and eat fish and a small amount of poultry.  A pesci-vegetarian is a person who eats fish, but not poultry.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 9 Center
  10. 10. Choosing to Become a Vegetarian… For much of the world, vegetarianism is largely a matter of economics. Meat and meat products are expensive. However, in the developed countries, meat is not as expensive in relation to earnings, and people choose to be vegetarians for reasons other than economics.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 10 Center
  11. 11. Becoming a Vegetarian Co m m o n Re a s o ns Common non-economic reasons for choosing to be a vegetarian:  parental preferences,  religious beliefs,  lifestyle factors, and  health issues Also out of concern over:  animal rights or  the environment2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 11 Center
  12. 12. Are Vegetarian Diets Healthy? Ye s , the y a re  Adolescents who eat a vegetarian diet are more likely to consume less total fat and saturated fat, and eat more servings of fruits and vegetables.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 12 Center
  13. 13. Are Vegetarian Diets Healthy? Ye s , the y a re American Dietetic Association (ADA) states that “appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.”  If you are a vegetarian, or are planning to become one, you must make sure you are still getting adequate amounts of essential nutrients. 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 13 Center
  14. 14. Getting Adequate Amounts of Nutrients Co uld this be a Pro ble m ? Vegetarians need pay particular attention to the following key nutrients in their diet:  Iron  Calcium  Protein  Vitamin D  Vitamin B-12  Zinc 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 14 Center
  15. 15. Significance of these Key Nutrients I n & Zinc roIron Carries oxygen in the blood. Girls need to be particularly concerned about getting enough iron. Iron supplement may be needed by female vegetarians.Zinc Component of many enzymes, Plays a role in cell division, and in the formation of proteins. 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 15 Center
  16. 16. Significance of these Key Nutrients Pro te in & Ca lc iumProtein Protein maintains healthy skin bones, muscles, and organsCalcium Essential for proper bone formation blood clotting nerve transmission muscle action 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 16 Center
  17. 17. Significance of these Key Nutrients Vita m in D & Vita m in B-1 2 Vitamin D Necessary for calcium deposition into bones to maintain proper blood calcium level normal immune functionVitamin B-12 Essential for red blood cell production and to prevent anemia maintaining healthy nerve cells making DNA 2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 17 Center
  18. 18. Increasing Intake of Iron Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o  [ Tip ] : Eat iron-containing foods with Non meat sources of iron: foods high in Vitamin C such as: citrus • Iron-fortified cereals fruits and juices, tomatoes, and broccoli for increasing iron absorption • Legumes like from non-meat sources. chickpeas, lentils, & baked beans • Soybeans and tofu • Dried fruit like raisins, prunes, and figs • Pumpkin seeds • Broccoli • Blackstrap molasses2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 18 Center
  19. 19. Increasing Intake of Zinc Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Dairy foods • Whole grains • Fortified cereals • Dried beans • Nuts • Tofu • Tempeh • Other soy products2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 19 Center
  20. 20. Increasing Intake of Protein Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Egg • Dairy products • Soy products • Meat substitutes • Legumes • Lentils • Nuts and seeds • Whole grains2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 20 Center
  21. 21. Increasing Intake of Calcium Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Milk & yogurt • Tofu • Fortified soy milk • Calcium-fortified OJ • Green leafy vegetables like spinach, turnip & collard greens, kale, and broccoli • Dried figs • Nuts and seeds2012 • Whole grains Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research Center 21
  22. 22. Increasing Intake of Vitamin D Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Milk • Sunshine • Fortified soy milk • Fortified breakfast cereals2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 22 Center
  23. 23. Increasing Intake of Vitamin B-12 Cho o s e The s e M re O fte n o • Milk • Eggs • Cheese • Fortified soy milk • Fortified breakfast cereals2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 23 Center
  24. 24. What’s Best for Me?  For growing teens, a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products and eggs (lacto-ovo) is generally the best choice.  The more restrictive the diet, the more likely it will be low in: iron, protein, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, and Vitamin B-12.  Vegan and lacto-vegetarian need to make sure they get adequate nutrients by choosing the right foods.2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 24 Center
  25. 25. References1. American Heart Association. Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 9/14/2012: http://www.heart.org2. USDA. Vegetarian Diets. Accessed 9/14/2012 : vegetarian.html3. Nemours Foundation. Becoming a Vegetarian. Available at: Office on Women’s Health. Girls’ Health. Nutrition – Vegetarian eating. Accessed 9/14/2012 : Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition. Mayo Clinic. Accessed 9/14/2012 : diet/HQ01596/METHOD=print2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 25 Center
  26. 26. Authors: Division of Education Phillip Brantley, PhD, DirectorHeli Roy, PhD, RD Pennington Biomedical Research CenterShanna Lundy, MS Steven Heymsfield, MD, Executive Director The Pennington Biomedical Research Center is a world-renowned nutrition research center.   Mission: To promote healthier lives through research and education in nutrition and preventive medicine.   The Pennington Center has several research areas, including:   Clinical Obesity Research Experimental Obesity Functional Foods Health and Performance Enhancement Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Nutrition and the Brain Dementia, Alzheimer’s and healthy aging Diet, exercise, weight loss and weight loss maintenance   The research fostered in these areas can have a profound impact on healthy living and on the prevention of common chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and osteoporosis.   The Division of Education provides education and information to the scientific community and the public aboutresearch findings, training programs and research areas, and coordinates educational events for the public on various health issues.   We invite people of all ages and backgrounds to participate in the exciting research studies being conducted at the Pennington Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you would like to take part, visit the clinical trials web page at or call (225) 763-3000. 2012   Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 26 Center
  27. 27. Images credits Microsoft clip art2012 Copyright Pennington Biomedical Research 27 Center